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  2. 2. MORPHOLOGY INTRODUCTION • Properties of Language PHONETICS AND PHONOLGY • Sounds of Language MORPHOLOGY • Words in Language • Morphemes • Word Formation Process 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 2
  4. 4. WORD FORMATION PROCESS Coinage Borrowing Compounding Clipping Backformation Conversion Acronyms Derivation 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 4
  5. 5. COINAGE Also called Invention The invention of a totally new term is called coinage. ◦ Example : nylon Can be intentionally or accidently The most typical sources are invented trade names for commercial products that become general terms Examples: 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 5
  6. 6. COINAGE Other sources include name of a person or a place. They are the eponyms or antonomasia. ◦ sandwich (from the 18th century Earl of Sandwich who first insisted on having bread and meat together while gambling ◦ hoover (from the Hoover Suction Sweeper Company which produced the first vacuum cleaner) 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 6 hoover sandwich
  7. 7. COINAGE More examples: ◦FOMO ◦Photobomb ◦Bromance 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 7
  8. 8. BORROWING Borrowing is one of the most common sources of new words in English. The words formed by borrowing of words from other languages are called loanwords. Over 80% of the English words are loanwords - from over 120 languages. 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 8
  9. 9. BORROWING 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 9 ketchup gweilo cha chaan teng laisee dim sum Chinese balcony opera violin spaghetti macaroni Italian kindergarten pretzel hamburger iceberg German karaoke tsunami sushi origami tycoon karate soy Japanese croissant macaroon resume mayonnaise coup d’etat French yoga shampoo Indian yogurt kebab Turkish
  10. 10. BORROWING A special type of borrowing is loan-translation. Examples: ◦ red packet (Chinese) – loan-translation aka calque Bahasa Malaysia was once considered the fastest growing language as it borrows a lot from other languages ◦ Bagasi (baggage) ◦ Others English also borrowed from Bahasa Melayu 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 10
  11. 11. COMPOUNDING Compounding is the joining of two separate words to produce a single word. Examples: ◦ brainwash ◦ bookworm ◦ busybody ◦ Facebook ◦ fingerprint ◦ loanword ◦ seasick 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 11
  12. 12. CALQUING Calquing is the word formation process in which a borrowed word or phrase is translated from one language to another. For example, the following common English words are calqued from foreign languages: ◦ beer garden – German – Biergarten ◦ blue-blood – Spanish – sangre azul ◦ commonplace – Latin – locus commūnis ◦ flea market – French – marché aux puces ◦ free verse – French – vers libre ◦ loanword – German – Lehnwort ◦ long time no see – Chinese – hǎo jiǔ bu jiàn ◦ pineapple – Dutch – pijnappel ◦ scapegoat – Hebrew – ez ozel ◦ wisdom tooth – Latin – dēns sapientiae Calques are also referred to as root-for-root or word-for-word translations 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 12
  13. 13. CLIPPING When a word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form, the process is called clipping. Examples: ◦ advertisement → ad ◦ telephone → phone ◦ influenza → flu ◦ congratulations – congrats (not congrate hokay!) 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 13
  14. 14. BACKFORMATION Backformation is the process of shortening a long word by cutting off an affix to form a new word. The new word has a different part of speech from the original word. Examples: televise ← television donate ← donation babysit ← babysitter backform ← backformation 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 14
  15. 15. BLENDING Blending is typically accomplished by combining the initial part of one word and the last part of another word. Examples: ◦ brunch (breakfast + lunch) ◦ kidult (kid + adult) ◦ edutainment (education + entertainment) ◦ emoticon (emotion + icon) 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 15
  16. 16. CONVERSION Conversion refers to the process of changing or converting the class of a word without changing its form. Assigns an existing word to a different word class (part of speech) or syntactic category The word email, for instance, can be used as a verb in Modern English though it was only a noun in the past. ◦ butter (N) - V to butter the bread ◦ permit (V) - N an entry permit ◦ empty (A) - V to empty the litter-bin ◦ must (V) - N doing the homework is a must ◦ Microwave (N) - V microwave the curry 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 16
  17. 17. CONVERSION 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 17 CONVERSION EXAMPLE Noun to Verb bottle – The wine was bottled in Napa Valley Verb to Noun hit – He scored a hit in his first shot cheat – He used some cheats in the computer game to make him win easy must – It is a must for you to take the test Adjective to Noun regular – I am of the regulars at the restaurant in Tsim Sha Tsui final – It is obvious that my team will enter the finals. crazy – Stop shouting like a crazy Adjective to Verb empty – Can you empty the trash for me?
  18. 18. ACRONYMS Acronyms is a type of abbreviation, which are new words formed from the initial letters of a set of words. They are pronounced as new single words. Examples: ◦ NATO (The North Atlantic Treaty Organization) ◦ UNICEF (The United Nations Children’s Fund) ◦ SCUBA ◦ CD 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 18
  19. 19. DERIVATION Derivation is also known as affixation. New words are created by adding affixes to an existing word. The most common word formation process. Affixes Examples: ◦ happy - unhappy, happiness ◦ arrange - rearrange prefixes vs. suffixes infixes inside the word Tell them I’ve gone to Singabloodypore! 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 19
  20. 20. DERIVATIONS Root and Affixes Affixation is the most common word formation process in English. Words are formed by adding affixes to roots. Roots can be free or bound morphemes. They cannot be further analyzed into smaller parts. They form the base forms of the words. Free roots are free morphemes. They can stand alone to function as words.Examples: recollect, bilingual, uneasy, mislead, hardly, attractive 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 20
  21. 21. DERIVATIONS Bound roots are bound morphemes. They cannot stand alone to function as words because they are no longer used in Modern English.Examples: receive, reduce Affixes are bound morphemes. They can be classified into prefixes and suffixes in English. A prefix is an affix added to the beginning of other morphemes to form a word.Examples: dislike, deactivate, inadequate, immobile, misleading, unaccountable endurable, underachieve, overdeveloped, prerequisite, postgraduate, recy cle 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 21
  22. 22. ECHOISM/SYMBOLISM/ ONOMOTOPOEIA Echoism means the formation of words by imitating sounds. Examples: ◦ splash ◦ meow ◦ roar ◦ quack ◦ ouch ◦ cuckoo 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 22
  23. 23. FOLK ETYMOLOGY Folk Etymology refers to the changing of a word or a phrase over time which results from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one. Example: “Bryd-guman” from Old English was changed to bridegroom as the Old English word guma (man) was obsolete. In OE, the word for “island” was iegland or igand which ordinarily would have become iland in modern English. But then the word isle came into English from Old French which got it from Latin insula. 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 23
  24. 24. REDUPLICATION Reduplication is the formation of a new word by doubling a word: either with change of initial consonants ◦teenie-weenie, walkie-talkie with change of vowel ◦(chit-chat, zig-zag) or without change (night-night, so-so and win-win). 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 24
  27. 27. THE END 4/24/2017 TSL426 MORPHOLOGY 27