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Pageant 13th ch19 lecture pp


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Dr. Robbins' Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 19 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

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Pageant 13th ch19 lecture pp

  1. 1. Drifting Toward Disunion 1854-1861 Guiding Questions & Lecture Chapter 19 The American Pageant, 13 th edition
  2. 2. Quickwrite <ul><li>Doc. 102: How does the Chicago Tribune view the Supreme Court’s decision on Dred Scott v . Sanford , and what does it suggest that citizens do? </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Doc. 103: How does Stephen Douglas say that slavery will be enforced in a territory or state? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Topics <ul><li>Uncle Tom’s Cabin </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bleeding Kansas” </li></ul><ul><li>Dred Scott Case </li></ul><ul><li>Panic of 1857 </li></ul><ul><li>John Brown’s Harpers Ferry Raid </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s Election </li></ul><ul><li>Secession Begins </li></ul>
  4. 4. Other Significant Topics <ul><li>Pottawatomie Massacre </li></ul><ul><li>Lecompton Constitution of Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln-Douglas Debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Douglas’s Freeport Doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congressman Brooks attacks Senator Sumner </li></ul><ul><li>Crittenden Compromise </li></ul>
  5. 5. Notable People <ul><li>Harriet Beecher Stowe </li></ul><ul><li>John Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Douglas </li></ul><ul><li>James Buchanan </li></ul><ul><li>Dred Scott </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>James Henry Crittenden </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson Davis </li></ul>
  6. 6. Uncle Tom’s Cabin <ul><li>Who was Harriet Beecher Stowe? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln called her “the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspired by her evangelical reform roots and her reaction to Fugitive Slave Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of kindly older slave, Tom; angelic girl Eva; villainous Simon Legree </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. US Reactions to Uncle Tom’s Cabin <ul><li>What were the northern and southern reactions to Uncle Tom’s Cabin ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led many northerners to ignore Fugitive Slave law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspired many young men to fight for the Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners called it an “unfair indictment”; Stowe had seen little of slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another wedge between North and South </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. European reactions to Uncle Tom <ul><li>What was the European reaction to Uncle Tom’s Cabin and how did this influence the outcome of the Civil War? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very popular abroad, especially in France and Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the war started, British and French governments chose not to help the South as their own common people were strongly opposed to slavery (as inspired by Uncle Tom) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. “ Bleeding Kansas” <ul><li>What was the original status of the Kansas Territory? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following the Kansas-Nebraska Act, it became open to settlement with popular sovereignty re: slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1820 Missouri Compromise had been repealed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected that Kansas would become slave and Nebraska free </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. “ Bleeding Kansas” continued <ul><li>Who settled in the Kansas Territory? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Westward-moving farming settlers (generally anti-slavery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern abolitionists with “Beecher’s Bibles” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armed southern slave owners </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. “ Bleeding Kansas” continued <ul><li>What happened during the Kansas territorial legislature election of 1855? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ border ruffians” from slave state Missouri came and voted in Kansas, electing a fraudulent legislation; set up in Shawnee Mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angry free-soilers set up their own illegal legislature in Topeka </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>What was the result of the first territorial legislature election in Kansas? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-soil town of Lawrence burned by proslavery raiders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolitionist John Brown and followers hacked up 5 men (presumed proslaveryites) at Pottawatamie Creek; led to reprisals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting spreads, 200+ killed </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Lecompton Constitution <ul><li>To apply for statehood, Kansans had to vote for Lecompton Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residents were to vote for one of two versions, one with and one without slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BUT if the no-slavery version won, existing slaves would be preserved & slave-owners protected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-soilers were furious, boycotted election & constitution was approved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Douglas pushes Congress to require entire Constitution to be voted on, for or against </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It lost, & Kansas remained territory till 1861 </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Brooks and Sumner <ul><li>Why did Brooks attack Sumner? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senator Sumner of Massachusetts was a prominent abolitionist, widely disliked for his cold arrogance. Gave virulent anti-slavery speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SC Senator Brooks responded to the verbal attacks on his state and colleague by viciously beating Sumner; led to serious injuries </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Sumner and Brooks <ul><li>How did the North and South respond, respectively? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the North, Sumner’s speech became a bestseller and Brooks was called “uncouth” and “cowardly” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The South reelected Brooks after his forced resignation; sent 100s of canes to Brooks in support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “first blows of the Civil War”; divide deepens </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Dred Scott Case <ul><li>What was the basis of Dred Scott’s Case before the Supreme Court? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having lived with his master for 5 years in free territories , black slave Scott sued for his freedom </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Dred Scott loses <ul><li>How did the Supreme Court rule on the Dred Scott Case? Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled that Scott was a slave and not a citizen , therefore he could not sue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since a slave was private property, he or she would remain a slave no matter where (5 th Amd.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denied constitutionality of Missouri Compromise, and Congress’s right to ban slavery anywhere; also a blow to popular sovereignty </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Reactions to Dred Scott <ul><li>How did the North and South respond? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northerners were furious; many suggested that the Supreme Court ruling was simply an “opinion”, called court a “southern debating society” (majority of justices were Southern) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners were thrilled with ruling, and appalled at Northern disrespect for Supreme Court; questioned viability of the Union and constitution </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Panic of 1857 <ul><li>What caused the Panic (or Crash) of 1857? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currency inflated by Calif gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surplus grain (Crimean War) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speculation on land and railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which sectors of the country were most affected? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North most affected (grain growers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5000 businesses failed </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Results of the Panic <ul><li>What two proposals came out of the Panic of 1857? Was either successful? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homestead Act—to make 160 acre farms available for 25 cents/acre; successfully vetoed by Southern leaning President Buchanan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariff of 1857—reduced duties to 20%; Northern industry blamed their woes on reduced protection and govt surplus disappeared </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Panic in the Long Term <ul><li>What was the long-term impact of the Panic of 1857? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-homestead and pro-tariff Republicans pushed their agenda in 1860 election (Lincoln) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners entered the Civil War with unrealistic confidence as they had fared well during panic; “cotton was king” </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Lincoln-Douglas Debates <ul><li>Why was Lincoln called “Honest Abe”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refused cases he could not defend in good conscience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How did Lincoln put Douglas on the spot at the Freeport debate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Suppose the people of a territory should vote slavery down?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In light of Dred Scott judicial opposition was of real concern </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Douglas’s Freeport Doctrine <ul><li>What was the essence of Douglas’s Freeport Doctrine? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regardless of the Supreme Court, slavery would stay out if the people voted it out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery-protecting laws would not be passed by territorial legislatures without popular support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery would ultimately die out if the people did not support it </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Debate Helps Lincoln in the End <ul><li>How did Douglas’s success in 1858 help Lincoln win the presidency in 1860? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Though in the context of a series of local debates the Lincoln-Douglas debate brought Lincoln into the national limelight thru newspaper coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Douglas’s positions led to a split between northern and southern Democrats, and two Democratic opponents for Republican Lincoln </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Harpers Ferry <ul><li>What was John Brown’s intention at the raid on Harpers Ferry? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To lead a slave uprising against the South and establish a free state for blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seized the federal arsenal there, killing 7 innocents and injuring at least ten more; quickly captured by the Marines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why did he fail? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black slaves did not rise up with him; very few even knew about his plan </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Impact of Harpers Ferry <ul><li>How did the Harpers Ferry Raid further antagonize North/South relations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For many northerners—often ignorant of his previous violence—Brown became a hero of the Abolition Movt. Brown’s calm at his execution enhanced this image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To the South the glorification of Brown was incomprehensible; many believed that most northerners shared Brown’s extreme views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sectional wedge driven deeper </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Lincoln’s Election <ul><li>Why did the Democrats fail to win the 1860 election? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Democratic party was split into two sectional factions after the southern wing of Democrats “seceded” from the party convention at Charleston </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Douglas elected at 2 nd convention at Baltimore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Democrats set up a rival convention and elected Breckinridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional Union party further splits the vote </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Lincoln’s Election continued <ul><li>What was the Republican platform in 1860? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonextension of slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective tariff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrant rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federally-supported internal improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free homesteads </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Secession Begins <ul><li>Why did South Carolina secede from the Union after Lincoln’s election, and what was Buchanan’s reaction? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SC had vowed that if “sectional” Lincoln won that they would secede; SC saw Lincoln’s victory as a signal that the southern cause was at risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ever since Calhoun, SC had used secession as a threat; finally fulfilling its “destiny” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buchanan did little to stop secession; in fact there was little he could do </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Crittendon Compromise <ul><li>What was the Crittenden Compromise? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery to be prohibited in territories north of 36 30’, but protected in territories south of it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future states could come in free or slave, as they chose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why did Lincoln reject Crittenden Compromise? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln committed to his opposition to extension of slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could lead to larger problems with new territories (Cuba…) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Secession Proceeds <ul><li>Which six southern states first followed South Carolina’s example? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas (most southern) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In February 1861 the Confederate States of America were formed, selected ex-Senator Jefferson Davis as their president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soon four more would join secession (Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Inspiration for Rebellion <ul><li>How did events in Europe influence the South’s decision on secession? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The successful nationalist movements in Europe inspired the South to establish its own nation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US history also set an example: as the 13 colonies left England, so the southern states would leave the Union </li></ul>