Pageant 13th Ch 39 lecture


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Dr. Robbins’ Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 39 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

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Pageant 13th Ch 39 lecture

  1. 1. The Stalemated Seventies 1968-1980Guiding Questions & Lecture Chapter 39The American Pageant, 13th edition
  2. 2. Economic Stagnation How did the US economy change during the 1970s? What were some of the factors leading to economic stagnation?
  3. 3. Limited Growth + High Inflation The post-WWII economic boom ended in 1970s; productivity slowed and inflation increased Main causes of slow-down and stagnation:  Increased numbers of lower-skilled, lower- paid women and teens in the work force  Business faced costs of new machinery and compliance with new government regulations  Shift from manufacturing to services (harder to measure)
  4. 4. More Causes  Vietnam drained tax dollars and manpower.  Inflation caused by high oil prices, & by war and social program spending (which increased money flow) without increased taxes—too many dollars + too few goods to buy.  Other countries increased productivity and therefore competition.
  5. 5. Nixon and Vietnam What was Nixon’s policy of Vietnamization? How was Nixon’s reaction to US concerns divisive? What increased widespread US disgust with the Vietnam War? Why did Nixon attack Cambodia, and what was the result? Why did anti-Communist Nixon seek détente with China and the USSR?
  6. 6.  “Vietnamization”: withdrawal of US troops from Vietnam over time  continued provision of US money, weapons, training & advice to South Vietnam  SV to fight their own war The Nixon Doctrine: the US would honor standing commitments in Asia, but in future, no US troops would fight on the ground Reacting to 1969 Vietnam Moratorium, Nixon went on TV to speak to the “silent majority” in favor of the war  increased divisions in US population Concerns over draft inequities, soldiers’ disaffection, My Lai Massacre, etc.
  7. 7.  Nixon ordered US soldiers into Cambodia to root out Vietcong…without consulting Congress. Reactions:  National protests: Kent State (4 dead), Mississippi (2 dead)  Congress repealed Gulf of Tonkin Resolution  26th Amendment: voting age to 18 Pentagon Papers (Daniel Ellsberg of NYT): revealed the full story on Vietnam to national disgust
  8. 8. Kent State University, Ohio, 1970
  9. 9. Napalm Attack, South Vietnam, 1972
  10. 10.  In 1972, anti-communist Nixon sought détente with China, then with USSR. Led to:  Renewal of nuclear arms control talks: ABM, SALT  At same time, renewal of missile defense race  De-iced the Cold War  Soviets and Chinese later stand by when bombing in Vietnam increases in 1973
  11. 11. Nixon at Home How did the Supreme Court express liberal social ideas? How did Nixon try to conservatize the Court? How did Nixon expand government social services and help the environment? Why did Nixon take the U.S. of the gold standard?
  12. 12. Liberal Court Liberal court under Chief Justice Earl Warren:  Since 1953  Griswold v. Connecticut—right of privacy (birth control)  Gideon v. Wainwright—right of criminal defendants to legal counsel  Escobedo and Miranda—right to remain silent, etc.  New York Times v. Sullivan—libel suits only if malice  Engel v. Vitale, etc.—against required prayers in public schools
  13. 13. Nixon at Home Sought to conservatize the Supreme Court.  Warren Burger named chief justice, not as conservative as Nixon expected Expansion of social services  AFDC (Aid to families with dependent children)  SSI (Supplemental Security Income—old, disabled)  Expanded affirmative action (Philadelphia Plan), perhaps unintentionally  EPA (influence from Rachel Carson), OSHA
  14. 14. More Nixon at Home Took US off the gold standard and devalued the dollar in reaction to inflation With promise of peace in Vietnam, won with landslide in 1972 Peace with honor was a farce  Heavy bombing of NV brought them back to table  Cease-fire: US to withdraw troops, get POWs, SV would get some US support; election planned; NV could keep some troops in SV
  15. 15. Crisis After Crisis What was the truth behind the lies on Cambodia? Why did Congress pass the War Powers Act, and what did it achieve? What caused the Arab Oil Embargo, and what were the results for the U.S.? How did Watergate lead to Nixon’s downfall?
  16. 16. Crisis After Crisis Outright lies on Cambodia revealed at the same time as tapes  War Powers Act of 1973 Arab Oil Embargo of 1974—reaction to US’s Israel policy  Oil pipeline, 55 speed limit, alternative sources, nuclear power, fuel efficiency
  17. 17. Watergate CREEP—Republican re-election committee  engaged in dirty-tricks campaigning  caught burgling the Democratic headquarters at Watergate VP Spiro Agnew removed for kickbacks  Congress replaces him with Gerald Ford Cover-up and intimidation followed at the highest levels (Nixon’s aides, FBI, CIA) 1973-1974 hearings—John Dean reveals all  including Nixon’s prior knowledge which he had denied  corroborated by tapes from Oval Office
  18. 18. After Nixon Why was Gerald Ford the first unelected president? How did the Vietnam War finally end? How were women’s rights supported in the 1970’s? What happened to school integration and affirmative-action in the courts?
  19. 19. An Unelected President Ford selected, never elected  When Nixon’s VP Agnew was forced to resign for bribe-taking, Congress selected Congressman Gerald Ford to replace him  When Nixon himself resigned during Watergate scandal, Ford became president Ford quickly pardoned Nixon of all crimes
  20. 20. Foreign Affairs Helsinki Accords of July 1975  Ford continued policy of détente w/Soviet Union  US & 34 other nations confirmed Soviet-dictated boundaries in Eastern Europe and officially ended WW2  USSR soon ignored human rights promises made as part of deal & Cold War resumed
  21. 21. More foreign affairs Vietnam Collapses  Ford’s attempts to maintain weapons shipments to SV rejected by Congress  South Vietnam quickly fell to Vietcong  Remaining Americans & 140,000 South Vietnamese were dramatically airlifted out of Saigon, April 29, 1975 Costs to U.S.  $118 billion; 56,000 dead & 300,000 wounded  Dealt severe blow to American standing in the world & weakened U.S. economy
  22. 22. The Women’s Movement Title IX of Education Amendments passed by Congress in 1972  Outlawed sex discrimination in any federally assisted education program, including sports Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)  passed by Congress but died after 10 year fight,  failed to gain state support necessary for constitutional amendment  fought by anti-feminists such as Phyllis Schlafly, the Catholic Church & the religious right
  23. 23. Court Cases Anti-discrimination cases favoring women  Reed v. Reed (1971)  Frontiero v. Richardson (1973) Abortion Rights  Roe v. Wade (1973): woman’s decision to end a pregnancy protected by the constitutional right of privacy
  24. 24. Racial Issues Limits on forced busing for desegregation  Millikin v. Bradley (1974)  Desegregation plans could not require movement of students across school district lines Controversies over “affirmative action”  Regents of U.C. v. Bakke (1978): suit brought by white student rejected by U.C. Davis  Admissions preferences could not be given on basis of race alone, tho’ race could play a role in creating a diverse student body
  25. 25. Carter’s Presidency What was accomplished at the Camp David Accords in 1978? What contributed to high inflation during Carter’s presidency? How did Carter respond to the oil crisis? Describe Soviet-U.S. relations under Carter. How was the U.S. involved with events in Iran, and what was the result?
  26. 26. Jimmy Carter Democrat elected as an outsider to “clean up” Washington D.C. after Watergate  Born-again Baptist & former governor of Georgia  Remained an outsider & had trouble with a Democratic Congress
  27. 27. Carter’s Successes Camp David Accords (1978)  Carter brokered a successful agreement between Israel’s Begin and Egypt’s Sadat  Israel to withdraw territory won in 1967 & Egypt to respect Israel’s borders Diplomatic relations with China resumed Treaties to turn over Panama Canal to Panama Set up Department of Energy; cut taxes
  28. 28. Carter’s Challenges Soviets & Cubans supporting revolutionary groups in Africa Arms control deals stalled U.S. inflation above 13% by 1979  Increasing reliance on imported oil  Shrinking dollar hurt those on fixed incomes  Growing budget deficits  High interest rates (“prime rate” went to 20%!!)
  29. 29. Carter’s Crises Iranian revolution disrupts oil supplies OPEC raises oil prices: long gas lines & inflation Carter’s “program” during Oil Crisis  Criticized Americans and “cleaned out” his Cabinet SALT II fails without Senate’s support Iranian hostage crisis  American Embassy staff taken hostage & held for 444 days; demands for Shah’s return; failed rescue attempt Soviets invade Afghanistan  US embargo of USSR & boycott of Moscow Olympics