The Stalemated Seventies 1968-1980Guiding Questions & Lecture Chapter 39The American Pageant, 13th edition
Economic Stagnation How did the US economy change during the 1970s? What were some of the factors leading to economic stagnation?
Limited Growth + High Inflation The post-WWII economic boom ended in 1970s; productivity slowed and inflation increased Main causes of slow-down and stagnation: Increased numbers of lower-skilled, lower- paid women and teens in the work force Business faced costs of new machinery and compliance with new government regulations Shift from manufacturing to services (harder to measure)
More Causes Vietnam drained tax dollars and manpower. Inflation caused by high oil prices, & by war and social program spending (which increased money flow) without increased taxes—too many dollars + too few goods to buy. Other countries increased productivity and therefore competition.
Nixon and Vietnam What was Nixon’s policy of Vietnamization? How was Nixon’s reaction to US concerns divisive? What increased widespread US disgust with the Vietnam War? Why did Nixon attack Cambodia, and what was the result? Why did anti-Communist Nixon seek détente with China and the USSR?
“Vietnamization”: withdrawal of US troops from Vietnam over time continued provision of US money, weapons, training & advice to South Vietnam SV to fight their own war The Nixon Doctrine: the US would honor standing commitments in Asia, but in future, no US troops would fight on the ground Reacting to 1969 Vietnam Moratorium, Nixon went on TV to speak to the “silent majority” in favor of the war increased divisions in US population Concerns over draft inequities, soldiers’ disaffection, My Lai Massacre, etc.
Nixon ordered US soldiers into Cambodia to root out Vietcong…without consulting Congress. Reactions: National protests: Kent State (4 dead), Mississippi (2 dead) Congress repealed Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 26th Amendment: voting age to 18 Pentagon Papers (Daniel Ellsberg of NYT): revealed the full story on Vietnam to national disgust
In 1972, anti-communist Nixon sought détente with China, then with USSR. Led to: Renewal of nuclear arms control talks: ABM, SALT At same time, renewal of missile defense race De-iced the Cold War Soviets and Chinese later stand by when bombing in Vietnam increases in 1973
Nixon at Home How did the Supreme Court express liberal social ideas? How did Nixon try to conservatize the Court? How did Nixon expand government social services and help the environment? Why did Nixon take the U.S. of the gold standard?
Liberal Court Liberal court under Chief Justice Earl Warren: Since 1953 Griswold v. Connecticut—right of privacy (birth control) Gideon v. Wainwright—right of criminal defendants to legal counsel Escobedo and Miranda—right to remain silent, etc. New York Times v. Sullivan—libel suits only if malice Engel v. Vitale, etc.—against required prayers in public schools
Nixon at Home Sought to conservatize the Supreme Court. Warren Burger named chief justice, not as conservative as Nixon expected Expansion of social services AFDC (Aid to families with dependent children) SSI (Supplemental Security Income—old, disabled) Expanded affirmative action (Philadelphia Plan), perhaps unintentionally EPA (influence from Rachel Carson), OSHA
More Nixon at Home Took US off the gold standard and devalued the dollar in reaction to inflation With promise of peace in Vietnam, won with landslide in 1972 Peace with honor was a farce Heavy bombing of NV brought them back to table Cease-fire: US to withdraw troops, get POWs, SV would get some US support; election planned; NV could keep some troops in SV
Crisis After Crisis What was the truth behind the lies on Cambodia? Why did Congress pass the War Powers Act, and what did it achieve? What caused the Arab Oil Embargo, and what were the results for the U.S.? How did Watergate lead to Nixon’s downfall?
Crisis After Crisis Outright lies on Cambodia revealed at the same time as tapes War Powers Act of 1973 Arab Oil Embargo of 1974—reaction to US’s Israel policy Oil pipeline, 55 speed limit, alternative sources, nuclear power, fuel efficiency
Watergate CREEP—Republican re-election committee engaged in dirty-tricks campaigning caught burgling the Democratic headquarters at Watergate VP Spiro Agnew removed for kickbacks Congress replaces him with Gerald Ford Cover-up and intimidation followed at the highest levels (Nixon’s aides, FBI, CIA) 1973-1974 hearings—John Dean reveals all including Nixon’s prior knowledge which he had denied corroborated by tapes from Oval Office
After Nixon Why was Gerald Ford the first unelected president? How did the Vietnam War finally end? How were women’s rights supported in the 1970’s? What happened to school integration and affirmative-action in the courts?
An Unelected President Ford selected, never elected When Nixon’s VP Agnew was forced to resign for bribe-taking, Congress selected Congressman Gerald Ford to replace him When Nixon himself resigned during Watergate scandal, Ford became president Ford quickly pardoned Nixon of all crimes
Foreign Affairs Helsinki Accords of July 1975 Ford continued policy of détente w/Soviet Union US & 34 other nations confirmed Soviet-dictated boundaries in Eastern Europe and officially ended WW2 USSR soon ignored human rights promises made as part of deal & Cold War resumed
More foreign affairs Vietnam Collapses Ford’s attempts to maintain weapons shipments to SV rejected by Congress South Vietnam quickly fell to Vietcong Remaining Americans & 140,000 South Vietnamese were dramatically airlifted out of Saigon, April 29, 1975 Costs to U.S. $118 billion; 56,000 dead & 300,000 wounded Dealt severe blow to American standing in the world & weakened U.S. economy
The Women’s Movement Title IX of Education Amendments passed by Congress in 1972 Outlawed sex discrimination in any federally assisted education program, including sports Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) passed by Congress but died after 10 year fight, failed to gain state support necessary for constitutional amendment fought by anti-feminists such as Phyllis Schlafly, the Catholic Church & the religious right
Court Cases Anti-discrimination cases favoring women Reed v. Reed (1971) Frontiero v. Richardson (1973) Abortion Rights Roe v. Wade (1973): woman’s decision to end a pregnancy protected by the constitutional right of privacy
Racial Issues Limits on forced busing for desegregation Millikin v. Bradley (1974) Desegregation plans could not require movement of students across school district lines Controversies over “affirmative action” Regents of U.C. v. Bakke (1978): suit brought by white student rejected by U.C. Davis Admissions preferences could not be given on basis of race alone, tho’ race could play a role in creating a diverse student body
Carter’s Presidency What was accomplished at the Camp David Accords in 1978? What contributed to high inflation during Carter’s presidency? How did Carter respond to the oil crisis? Describe Soviet-U.S. relations under Carter. How was the U.S. involved with events in Iran, and what was the result?
Jimmy Carter Democrat elected as an outsider to “clean up” Washington D.C. after Watergate Born-again Baptist & former governor of Georgia Remained an outsider & had trouble with a Democratic Congress
Carter’s Successes Camp David Accords (1978) Carter brokered a successful agreement between Israel’s Begin and Egypt’s Sadat Israel to withdraw territory won in 1967 & Egypt to respect Israel’s borders Diplomatic relations with China resumed Treaties to turn over Panama Canal to Panama Set up Department of Energy; cut taxes
Carter’s Challenges Soviets & Cubans supporting revolutionary groups in Africa Arms control deals stalled U.S. inflation above 13% by 1979 Increasing reliance on imported oil Shrinking dollar hurt those on fixed incomes Growing budget deficits High interest rates (“prime rate” went to 20%!!)
Carter’s Crises Iranian revolution disrupts oil supplies OPEC raises oil prices: long gas lines & inflation Carter’s “program” during Oil Crisis Criticized Americans and “cleaned out” his Cabinet SALT II fails without Senate’s support Iranian hostage crisis American Embassy staff taken hostage & held for 444 days; demands for Shah’s return; failed rescue attempt Soviets invade Afghanistan US embargo of USSR & boycott of Moscow Olympics