World War 1


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A PowerPoint presentation on WW1 by Dr. Robbins for Modern World History students at University High School.

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World War 1

  1. 1. World War I The “Great War” Dr. Robbins World History
  2. 2. MAIN Causes of WWI <ul><li>M ilitarism </li></ul><ul><li>A lliances </li></ul><ul><li>I mperialism </li></ul><ul><li>N ationalism </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cause: Militarism <ul><li>All major nations wanted a large army in response to nationalism, imperialism and the perceived threats from other armies </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cause: Alliances <ul><li>Caused many countries to join fighting once war had begun </li></ul><ul><li>Before the war: Triple Alliance and Triple Entente </li></ul><ul><li>Later: Central Powers and Allied Powers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cause: Imperialism <ul><li>Desire for increased territory and wealth led to competition over colonies </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cause: Nationalism <ul><li>Desire to prove national greatness led to rivalries between great powers </li></ul><ul><li>Highly nationalistic ethnic groups were calling for independence (e.g., Serbians, part of Slavic ethnic group) </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is a catalyst?
  8. 8. <ul><li>Ottoman Empire had declined and some Balkan countries were now independent </li></ul><ul><li>Austria took over (annexed) Bosnia and Herzegovina, part of Slavic ethnic group </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia, also Slavic, resented Austrian aggression; wanted large Slavic-controlled region </li></ul>The Catalyst: Background
  9. 9. The Catalyst <ul><li>Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serbian nationalist group, Black Hand, wanted Bosnia freed from Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19-year-old Gavrilo Princip of the Black Hand killed the Archduke on June 28, 1914 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Catalyst Leads to War <ul><ul><li>Austria wanted to punish Serbia and set demands; most agreed to, but not enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria declares war against Serbia on July 28, 1914 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. War Spreads <ul><li>July 28—Russia (also Slavic) mobilized troops to the Austrian border </li></ul><ul><li>Aug 1—Austria’s ally Germany saw this as a threat and declared war on Russia </li></ul>
  12. 12. War Continues to Spread <ul><li>Aug 3—Germany declared war on France, Russia’s ally </li></ul><ul><li>Aug 4—after Germany attacked neutral Belgium, to get to France, Britain declared war on Germany </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Schlieffen Plan <ul><li>First—attack France to the west </li></ul><ul><li>Second—attack Russia to the east </li></ul><ul><li>Worked well to start: in Paris by Sept 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to keep Germany from having to fight on two fronts at the same time </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Schlieffen Plan Count Von Schlieffen Kaiser Wilhelm II
  15. 15. Alliances Before the War <ul><li>Triple Alliance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triple Entente: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France, Russia, Britain </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Alliances Shift After War Starts <ul><li>Central Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany, Austria-Hungary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>later, Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire (wanting to regain lost territories) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Allied Powers (the Allies) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain, France, Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>soon Japan, and later Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also Serbia, Greece, Romania, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>much later, the U.S. (1917) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Europe in 1914
  19. 19. “ Short” war goes long <ul><li>German plan worked well to start: in Paris by Sept 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of the Marne— began on Sept 5, after 8 days of battle, German offensive was stopped </li></ul><ul><li>Russians soon attacking Germany in the east </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Schlieffen Plan has failed </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Stuck in the trenches </li></ul><ul><li>Example of trench warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Verdun in Feb 1916—each side lost more than 300,000 men </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Trenches on the Western Front
  22. 22. New technology of war <ul><li>Machine guns </li></ul><ul><li>Poison gas </li></ul><ul><li>Grenades </li></ul><ul><li>Armored tanks </li></ul><ul><li>Larger artillery: canons </li></ul><ul><li>Submarines </li></ul><ul><li>Airplanes armed </li></ul><ul><li>with machine guns </li></ul>
  23. 23. Western Front <ul><li>Mostly in France , near German border </li></ul><ul><li>500 miles of trenches dug in France </li></ul><ul><li>Trench warfare </li></ul><ul><li>No Man’s Land—the uninhabited land between the rows of trenches </li></ul><ul><li>STALEMATE—”stuck”, nobody makes any real progress </li></ul>
  24. 24. Eastern Front <ul><li>Along Russia’s borders with Germany and Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer trenches, more mobile and more brutal than western front </li></ul><ul><li>Russians always short of supplies </li></ul>
  25. 25. Russia’s Role <ul><li>Russia’s huge population provided plenty of soldiers to send to the front </li></ul><ul><li>Russia kept Germany from winning the war by occupying them in the east, dividing forces </li></ul>
  26. 26. Gallipolli, 1915
  27. 27. “ Global” war <ul><li>Every continent throughout the GLOBE </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting over colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Also colonial subjects served their European masters </li></ul>
  28. 28. Who’s Fighting? <ul><li>Middle East (Arab nationalists helped Britain) </li></ul><ul><li>Asia (Japan took German colonies; India fought for Britain) </li></ul><ul><li>Africa (English & French wanted German land) </li></ul><ul><li>Americas: Brazil, Canada and later, U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Australia (fighting for British) </li></ul>
  29. 29. “ Total” War <ul><li>Every country involved devoted its TOTAL resources to the war effort </li></ul><ul><li>Governments took over factories, etc. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Life on the Home Front <ul><li>Rationing in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting the amount of daily supplies that people could buy (gasoline, sugar, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On a volunteer basis in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Propaganda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuading the population to support the war </li></ul></ul>
  31. 35. <ul><ul><li>Women worked in factories & on farms replacing men who had gone to fight </li></ul></ul>
  32. 36. U.S. Enters the War <ul><li>U.S. policy of isolationism had kept it out of the war, though they helped Allies </li></ul><ul><li>Unrestricted submarine warfare by Germans sank British and U.S. ships, including passenger ships (Lusitania) </li></ul>
  33. 37. U.S. Enters the War cont. <ul><li>Zimmerman Note—US learned of German telegram offering Mexico US territory if it joined Germany </li></ul><ul><li>US entered war on April 2, 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Took a year to get 2 million US soldiers over </li></ul>
  34. 38. Russia’s Problems <ul><li>WWI had contributed to problems in Russia and helped cause revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Revolution of March, 1917 led to fall of Czar Nicholas II </li></ul><ul><li>New provisionary government does not leave war, this led to resentment and… </li></ul>
  35. 39. Russia Leaves the War <ul><li>Bolshevik Revolution of Nov, 1917 led to Communist takeover of Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Bolshevik leader Lenin signed peace treaty with Germany in November, 1917 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Brest-Litovsk </li></ul></ul>
  36. 40. The Final Act <ul><li>With Russia out, Germany could focus on Western Front </li></ul><ul><li>BUT…arrival of US troops and exhaustion of German army and supplies led to defeat of Germany </li></ul>
  37. 41. Fighting Ends <ul><li>Central Powers signed the Armistice (end to fighting)—Nov 11, 1918 </li></ul>
  38. 42. Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Allied Powers met to create a post-war treaty at the Palace of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>Started on Jan 18, 1919 & signed on June 28, 1919 (5 years after assassination) </li></ul><ul><li>Big 4: US, France, Britain, Italy (Japan virtually shut out) </li></ul>
  39. 43. The Fourteen-Point Plan <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson’s proposal for peace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End to secret treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of seas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce national armies and navies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-determination for colonial peoples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ just” peace (no harsh punishment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>League of Nations </li></ul></ul>
  40. 44. In the End… <ul><li>Britain & France agreed to League of Nations but not the rest of Wilson’s plan </li></ul>
  41. 45. <ul><li>Germany was punished: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ War guilt” clause, Germany to pay $33 billion over 30 years to Allies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>($407 billion in 2008 money) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost lots of territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictions on German military </li></ul></ul>
  42. 46. The Result <ul><li>4 Empires Ended: Russian, German, Ottoman, Austrian-Hungarian </li></ul><ul><li>Ex-colonies administered by League; colonies angry at treatment by Europe </li></ul>
  43. 47. More Results <ul><li>Japan and Italy angry—gained little </li></ul><ul><li>Germany left virtually destroyed, broke, in debt, embittered…ready for Hitler 20 years later </li></ul>
  44. 48. Total Costs <ul><li>8.5 million soldiers died </li></ul><ul><li>21 million soldiers wounded </li></ul><ul><li>1918 flu epidemic killed as many as 50 million </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made worse by wartime conditions </li></ul></ul>
  45. 49. Total Costs cont. <ul><li>A generation “lost” </li></ul><ul><li>Farmland, homes, & villages destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Total cost in 1918 dollars: $338 billion (about $4 trillion in today’s money) </li></ul>