Pageant 13th ch18 lecture


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Dr. Robbins' Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 18 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

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Pageant 13th ch18 lecture

  1. 1. Renewing the Sectional Struggle 1848-1854 Lecture Chapter 18 The American Pageant, 13th edition
  2. 2. Sectional Balance and Politics <ul><li>Both the Whigs & Democrats tried to ignore the issue of slavery during the election of 1848 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrat Cass had favored “popular sovereignty” which left decision to residents of new territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whig candidate General Zachary Taylor ignored issue </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Free Soil Party <ul><li>New Free Soil Party against slavery in territories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In favor of Wilmot Proviso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Added internal improvements & free homesteads to platform to broaden appeal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Odd assortment of groups in Free Soil Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Racist settlers who did not want to live alongside blacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abolitionist Whigs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Against slavery because it created too much competition for white settlers seeking upward mobility on new lands </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Gold in California <ul><li>Discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill in 1848 transformed the state and the country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tens of thousands of people poured into California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many newcomers lawless men & “virtueless” women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State constitution drafted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intended to bypass territorial phase & popular sovereignty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excluded slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>revived the issue of slavery on national stage </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Southern Grievances <ul><li>Balance in Senate threatened by California’s move to enter union as a free state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Mexico & Utah also want to enter as free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear that other Mexican cession areas would be free states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abolitionists wanted to end slavery in nation’s capital, Washington DC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Would establish a free soil zone in the midst of the South (D.C. between MD & VA) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Underground Railroad <ul><li>Many runaway slaves made it north to Canada and freedom with help of Underground Railroad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White & black abolitionists (“conductors”) led runaway slaves (“passengers”) along a chain of antislavery homes (“stations”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runaway slave Harriet Tubman became most famous of conductors, helped free over 300 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stoked southern fears & anger over runaways </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Compromise of 1850 <ul><li>Three great senators spoke for a compromise that would maintain the Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Clay, John Calhoun, and Daniel Webster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feared the break up of the still young country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk of secession was growing louder in the South </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Despite denouncements by opposition, Compromise passed by Congress & was signed into law by new president Millard Fillmore (VP who took over after Pres. Taylor’s death) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Compromise of 1850--North <ul><li>California admitted as a free state </li></ul><ul><li>New Mexico gets territory from Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition of slave trade (but not slavery) in Washington DC </li></ul>
  9. 9. Compromise of 1850--South <ul><li>Rest of Mexican Cession area made new territories of New Mexico and Utah, slavery to be decided by popular sovereignty. </li></ul><ul><li>Texas gets $10 million for NM territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Fugitive Slave Law reinforced </li></ul>
  10. 10. Compromise of 1850—Impact <ul><li>Most controversial was Fugitive Slave Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northerners hated it & often ignored it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turned many into abolitionists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners angered by Northern refusal to protect & return their “property” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased tension between two sections </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Compromise postponed war by 10 years which gave the North time to gain in wealth & population, & increased sentiment against slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South might have won a war begin in 1850 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay gave advantage to North by 1860 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Death of the Whigs <ul><li>Whig party was deeply divided along sectional lines during election of 1852 </li></ul><ul><li>Free Soil Party lured many northern Whigs away from party </li></ul><ul><li>With rise of more sectional parties, the national party of the Whigs was doomed </li></ul>
  13. 13. Manifest Destiny <ul><li>Southern states supported expanding US territory into Central American and Cuba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to control Panamanian isthmus for future canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likely areas for expansion of slavery, would maintain sectional balance if added as slave states. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, 1850 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither U.S. nor Britain could seek exclusive control over a future isthmian canal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ostend Manifesto, 1854 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposal to purchase Cuba for $120 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Spain refused, its continued ownership of Cuba would be taken as a threat to US, & US would then have right to take Cuba from Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Came to nothing, but inflamed northern anger </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Treaties with Asia <ul><li>Treaty of Wanghia, 1844 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secured trading rights & privileges, including “most favored nation” status for US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected Americans accused of crimes in China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to increased trade; also arrival of American missionaries to convert Chinese </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Kanagawa, 1854 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up consular relations between US & Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected US sailors & coaling rights, basis for future trade </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Gadsden Purchase <ul><li>Purchase of land from Mexico to build southern railroad route </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase from Santa Anna arranged by US Minister to Mexico, James Gadsden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to connect with new territories in Oregon & California gave impetus to railroad building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best southern route required new territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy terrain & passed thru organized N.M. territory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Kansas-Nebraska Act <ul><li>Divided Nebraska Territory into two territories, Kansas & Nebraska, each to decide on slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular sovereignty= state population votes on slave status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected that Kansas would be slave & Nebraska free (Kansas next to slave state Missouri) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed for continued expansion while maintaining sectional balance in Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required repeal of Missouri Compromise (slavery would be above southern border of Missouri) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Stephen Douglas was the champion of the Kansas-Nebraska Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to build northern railroad route thru this region with Chicago as main railroad terminus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was himself heavily invested in railroad stock & Chicago real estate </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Impact of Kansas-Nebraska Act <ul><li>Kansas-Nebraska Act infuriated Northerners & further reduced enforcement of Fugitive Slave Law </li></ul><ul><li>Increased tensions between North & South </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired a new Republican Party united against slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought together diverse groups in unified block </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sectional divide is widened…closer to war </li></ul>