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Civil War (Good One!!)


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  • Great work, but the guy on page 13 can't be Stonewall Jackson, he's a Union general. He looks a lot like Oliver O. Howard, another Bible thumper.
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Civil War (Good One!!)

  1. 1. The Civil War 1861-1865 Luis Nudel
  2. 2. The United States Civil War was the bloodiest conflict in American History, claiming more lives than The American Revolutionary War, World War I, World War II, The War against Switzerland, The War of 1812, and the Vietnam War combined. From the time the Civil War started in 1841, to the time it ended in 1845, over 620,000 soldiers died.
  3. 3. Causes of the War While slavery did have an important part what lead up to the Civil War, there were other causes that fed the fight between North and South that finally erupted into secession and Civil War. Here are the top 3. 1. Economic and social differences between the North and the South. With Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin in 1793, cotton became very profitable. This machine was able to reduce the time it took to separate seeds from the cotton. However, at the same time the increase in the number of plantations willing to move from other crops to cotton meant the greater need for a large amount of cheap labor (slaves). Thus, the southern economy became a one crop economy, depending on cotton and therefore on slavery. On the other hand, the northern economy was based more on industry than agriculture. In fact, the northern industries were purchasing the raw cotton and turning it into finished goods. This disparity between the two set up a major difference in economic attitudes. The South was based on the plantation system while the North was focused on city life. This change in the North meant that society evolved as people of different cultures and classes had to work together. On the other hand, the South continued to hold onto an antiquated social order. The Cotton Gin
  4. 4. Causes of the War 2. Growth of the Abolition Movement. Increasingly, the northerners became more against slavery. Sympathies began to grow for abolitionists and against slavery and slaveholders. This occurred especially after some major events including: the publishing of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, the Dred Scott Case, John Brown’s Raid, and the passage of the fugitive slave act that held individuals responsible for harboring fugitive slaves even if they were located in non-slave states. 3. The election of Abraham Lincoln. Even though things were already coming to a head, when Lincoln was elected in 1860, South Carolina issued its “Declaration of the Causes of Secession.” They believed that Lincoln was anti-slavery and in favor of Northern interests.
  5. 5. Abraham Lincoln's Election Leads to Secession By 1860 the conflict between northern and southern interests had grown so strong that when Abraham Lincoln was elected president South Carolina became the first state to break off from the Union and form its own country. Ten more states would follow with secession: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina. On February 9, 1861, the Confederate States of America was formed with Jefferson Davis as its president. Jefferson Davis
  6. 6. The Civil War Begins Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as president in March, 1861. On April 12, Confederate forces led by General P.T. Beauregard opened fire on Fort Sumter which was a federally held fort in South Carolina. This began the American Civil War.
  7. 7. Date of War: April 12, 1861 – April 9, 1865 (last shot ended June, 1865) General Facts Location: Mostly in the Southern United States Belligerents: United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Total Number of Battles: About 10,000 Commanders: Union: Confederacy: Abraham Lincoln Jefferson Davis Winfield Scott Robert E. Lee George B. McClellan T.J. “Stonewall” Jackson William T. Sherman James Longstreet Ulysses S. Grant Joseph E. Johnston Winfield Scott Hancock James Wadell Admiral David Farragut
  8. 8. Battle of Fort Donelson Major Battles Location: Stewart County, Tennessee. February 13-16 1862 Confederate Commander: John B. Floyd Union Commander: Ulysses S. Grant Confederate Forces: 17,000 Union Forces: 20,057 Victor: Union Casualties Union: 2,832 Confederate: 16,623 Total: 19,455 The Battle of Fort Donelson was a very important victory for the North. The fall of this heavily fortified fort on the Tennessee River was deep in the heart of the confederacy. It ensured that Kentucky would stay with the Union. It was also here that U.S. Grant earned his nickname “Unconditional Surrender” and his promotion to Major General. When Confederate commander Buckner asked for surrender terms and Grant responded that, “No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted.”
  9. 9. Major Battles This battle could have been a huge victory for the Confederacy. Battle of Shiloh However, with its loss and the immense loss of human life on both sides, leaders began to realize that the Civil War would not quickly Location: Shiloh, Tennessee end. April 6-7 1862 Confederate Commander: Albert Sidney Johnston Union Commander: Ulysses S. Grant Confederate Forces: 44,968 Union Forces: 65,085 Victor: Union Casualties Union: 13,047 Confederate: 10,694 Total: 23,741
  10. 10. Second Battle of Bull Run Major Battles Location: Manassas, Virginia August 29-30 1862 Confederate Commander: John Pope Union Commander: Robert E. Lee Confederate Forces: 48,527 Union Forces: 79,862 Victor: Confederacy Casualties Union: 16,054 Confederate: 9,197 Total: 25,251 The Second Battle of Bull Run was a very important victory for the South. In fact, it was the most decisive battle in the Northern Virginia campaign for the Confederates.
  11. 11. Battle of Antietam Major Battles Location: Sharpsburg, Maryland September 17 1862 Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee The Battle of Antietam forced the Confederate Army to retreat back across the Potomac River. President Lincoln saw the Union Commander: George B. McClellan significance of this and issued the famous Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862. This threatened to free all Confederate Forces: 65,000 the slaves in the states in rebellion if those states did not return to the Union by January 1, 1863 Union Forces: 82,654 Victor: Inconclusive Casualties Union: 12,410 Confederate: 10,724 Total: 23,134
  12. 12. Battle of Stones River Major Battles Location: Stones River, Tennessee December 31 1862 Confederate Commander: Braxton Bragg Union Commander: William Rosecrans Confederate Forces: 44,330 Union Forces: 54,448 Victor: Union Casualties Union: 12,906 Confederate: 11,739 Total: 24,645
  13. 13. Major Battles Battle of Chancellorsville Location: Chancellorsville, Virginia May 1-4 1863 Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee Union Commander: Joseph Hooker Confederate Forces: 60, 892 Union Forces: 133,868 Victor: Confederacy Casualties Union: 17,278 Confederate: 12,821 Total: 30,099 This battle was considered by many historians to be Lee’s greatest victory. At the same time, the South lost one of its greatest strategic minds with the death of Stonewall Jackson. T.J. “Stonewall” Jackson
  14. 14. Battle of Gettysburg Major Battles Location: Gettysburg Pennsylvania July 1-3 1863 Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee Union Commander: George Meade Confederate Forces: 71,699 Union Forces: 94,589 Victor: Union Casualties Union: 23,049 Confederate: 28,063 Total: 51,112 The Battle of Gettysburg was the costliest battle of the American Civil War based on number of casualties. Spanning over three days, from July 1-3, 1863, the Battle resulted in approximately 51,000 being killed, wounded, missing, or captured. Despite the fact that the South continued to fight for two more years, it was a decisive victory for the Union. The South's retreat and terrible losses were a turning point in the war. From that point on, the South had to abandon its attempt to take the war North.
  15. 15. The Gettysburg Address The Gettysburg Address is a speech by Abraham Lincoln and is one of the most well known speeches in United States history. It was delivered by Lincoln at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, during the Civil War. It was only four and a half months after the Union defeated the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg.
  16. 16. Battle of Chickamauga Major Battles Location: Chickamauga, Georgia September 19-20 1863 Confederate Commander: Braxton Bragg Union Commander: William Rosecrans Confederate Forces: 75,357 Union Forces: 61,753 Victor: Confederacy Casualties Union: 16,170 Confederate: 18,454 Total: 34,624 Even though the Confederates won the battle, they did not press their advantage. The Union army had retreated to Chattanooga. Instead of focusing their attacks there, Longstreet was sent to attack Knoxville. Lincoln had time to replace Rosecrans with General Ulysses Grant who brought in reinforcements.
  17. 17. Battle of Spotsylvania Court House Major Battles Location: Spotsylvania County, Virginia May 8-21 1864 Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee Union Commander: Ulysses S. Grant Confederate Forces: 52,000 Union Forces: 100,000 Victor: Union Casualties Union: 18,399 Confederate: 12,000 Total: 30,399 Grant decided to disengage and continue his overland campaign towards Richmond. However, each of the successive battles that Grant met on this advance resulted in huge casualties earning Grant the nickname ‘Butcher Grant’.
  18. 18. Battle of Appomattox Court House End of Civil War Location: Appomattox County, Virginia April 9 1865 Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee Union Commander: Ulysses S. Grant Confederate Forces: 28,000 Union Forces: 70,000 Victor: Union Casualties Union: 168 Confederate: 705 Total: 873 Early on April 9, the remnants of John Broun Gordon’s corps and Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry formed line of battle at Appomattox Court House. Gen. Robert E. Lee was determined to make one last attempt to escape the closing Union pincers and reach his supplies at Lynchburg. At dawn the Confederates advanced, initially gaining ground against Sheridan’s cavalry. The arrival of Union infantry, however, stopped the advance in its tracks. Lee’s army was now surrounded on three sides. Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9. This was the final major engagement of the Civil War. General Lee surrendered to General Grant and the American Civil War came to an end.
  19. 19. Lee Surrenders The peace treaty of the Civil War was signed at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, on April 9, 1865, by General Robert E. Lee and General Ulysses S. Grant.
  20. 20. President Lincoln Assasination Abraham Lincoln and his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln attended a play at Ford's Theatre on April 14, 1865. They were to be accompanied by General Ulysses S. Grant and his wife Julia Dent Grant. However, Grant and his wife changed their plans and did not attend the play. They attended the play with Clara Harris and Henry Rathbone. During the play, actor John Wilkes Booth entered Lincoln's State Box undetected and shot him in the back of the head. He also stabbed Henry Rathbone in the arm. After shooting the President, Booth jumped out of the box onto the stage, broke his left leg and yelled something that some eyewitnesses reported as, "Sic Semper Tyrannus" (As always to tyrants). Stump the teacher question: What was the name of the play that President Lincoln and his family were watching the night he was shot?
  21. 21. Civil War Recunstruction In the South plantations and homes were burned during the war. The fields were left unattended. The Confederate money was worthless. The Southerners felt very beaten. Because of this Lincoln wanted to make it easy for the Southern states to rejoin the Union. Many Northerners were angry over this. Lincoln asked only four things of the Southerners. 1. To free the slaves 2. Confederate government disband 3. New state governments for each Southern state be formed 4. No former leaders of the Confederate or high ranking officers could be a part of the new government Many Northerners thought Lincoln was being too easy on the South. Lincoln was killed at Ford's Theater in Washington by John Wilkes Booth. The Vice President Andrew Johnson became President. He tried to go ahead with Lincoln's Plans in Congress. The 13th Amendment was passed in December 1865. It said that slavery was unconstitutional. The Ku Klux Klan was formed. This was a group which burned, whipped, and murdered Blacks and carpetbaggers. Slave states made laws called the Black Codes. These were to keep Black people from voting, serving on juries, getting jobs, owning land, or going to school. The federal government set up the Freedmen's Bureaus to work against the Black Codes. They gave food, clothing, medical care, and set up schools for the Blacks. The 14th Amendment was passed. It said all Black were citizens of the United States and all laws against Blacks were unconstitutional. Congress also divided the South into five military districts. Each of these had a general in charge of the region. The general sent troops out into the district to make sure the Blacks were given fair rights. The 15th Amendment was passed. It gave Blacks over the age of 21 the right to vote.
  22. 22. Jews in the Civil War During the American Civil War, approximately 3,000 Jews fought on the Confederate side and 7,000 fought on the Union side. Jews also played leadership roles on both sides, with nine Jewish generals and 21 Jewish colonels participating in the War. Judah P. Benjamin, a non-observant Jew, served as Secretary of State and acting Secretary of War of the Confederacy. Judah P. Benjamin
  23. 23. The End
  24. 24. Bibliography Internet Sources: Book Sources: McPherson, M. James Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era Oxford University Press, 2003 Garrison, Webb Civil War Trivia and Fact Book Los Angeles: 2009. Geoffrey C. Ward, Ken Burns, Ric Burns, Ken C. Burns, Ric C. Burns The Civil War: An Illustrated History. New York: 1992.