Polarizing Events Preceding the Civil War (1820-1861)
In addition to the different economies of North and South (North based on manufacturing and South based on agriculture), historians generally agree that the following events were among the key events leading the nation toward its ultimate division:New Territories Dred Scott v. Sanford• Missouri Compromise John Brown’s Raid• Wilmot Proviso Rise of Republican• Compromise of 1850 Party and Election ofFugitive Slave Act 1860Uncle Tom’s Cabin Secession ofKansas-Nebraska Southern states/Firing Act/Bleeding Kansas on Ft. Sumter
New Territories• California and Texas• Debate over whether or not new states would allow slavery.
New Territories• As a result, an imaginary line was drawn across the southern border of Missouri at latitude 36- 30 N., and it only applied to the Louisiana Purchase.• Missouri Compromise(1820)- Proposed by Henry Clay to keep the number of free states and slave states equal.
New Territories• Wilmot Proviso- Proposed by David Wilmot to ban slavery in the West.• The House passed it in 1846, but shortly afterwards the Senate defeated it.
Admission of California as a State• In 1849, the number of free states equaled the number of slave states at 15/15.• Tempers flared with the admission of California, because the balance between free and slave states would be unequal.
Violence threatened in Senate• The issue was so heated that MS Senator Henry Foote pulled a gun on MO Senator Thomas Hart Benton while in the Senate.
Clay vs. CalhounHenry Clay John C. Calhoun • “the Great Compromiser” • Senator of South Carolina • Pleaded for an • Refused a compromise agreement between the • Demanded that fugitive or North and South runaway slaves be • Feared the nation would returned to their owners break apart • Last reported words • His plan “The 1850: “The Poor South! Compromise of 1850” God knows what will become of her now!”
Compromise of 1850Composed of FIVE parts:1. Allowed California to enter Union as free state.2. Formed territories of New Mexico and Utah and decision of slavery based on popular sovereignty3. Ended slave trade in Washington, D.C.4. Created a strict slave law5. Settled a border dispute between Texas and New Mexico
• All citizens required to report runaway slaves Fugitive Slave• Helping fugitive slaves Act could result in $1000 fine and jail• Judges given rewards for sending runaway slaves back• Antislavery advocates in north outraged, yet forced to be a part of the slavery system
Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Antislavery BestsellerAuthor: HarrietBeecher Stowe • Published in 1852 • Showed the evils of slavery and Fugitive Slave Act • Popular in North- made them see slavery as immoral • Hated in the South-said it did not give a true picture of slave life
Kansas• Many Americans hoped that the Compromise of 1850 would end the debate over slavery in the West.• However, shortly after the Compromise of 1850 proslavery and antislavery forces struggled to attain Kansas.
Kansas-Nebraska Act• Proposed by Stephen Douglas.• Established territories of Kansas and Nebraska.• Gave settlers popular sovereignty to decide on slavery issue.
Northern Outrage• Many northerners were unhappywith the Kansas-Nebraska Act,because it repealed the MissouriCompromise.
Tensions build in Kansas•Proslavery and antislavery settlers moved intothe Kansas territory.•Many farmers from neighboring states movedto the territory in hopes of gaining cheap land.
Bleeding Kansas/John Brown • Proslavery raid on the town of Lawrence.(Antislavery stronghold) • John Brown, an abolitionist, struck back by murdering five proslavery settlers. • These events led to even more violence and by 1856, more than 200 people had been killed. •
Violence in the Senate…Again!!!• Abolitionist leader Charles Sumner of Massachusetts criticized Andrew Butler of South Carolina while he was not in the chamber.• Butler’s nephew, Congressman Preston Brooks, responded a few days later by marching into the Senate chamber and beating Sumner with a cane. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/The_Caning_of_Senator_Charles_Sumner.htm
The Dred Scott Case Decision• Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri who had lived in Wisconsin and Illinois, two free states.• After Scott returned to Missouri his owner died, and he sued for his freedom.• Issue led to the Supreme Court case known as Dred Scott v. Sanford.
Dred Scott• Scott’s lawyers argued that he had lived in a free territory, so he was a free man.• Court ruled that Scott could not file a lawsuit because he was not a citizen.• Chief Justice Taney’s decision said that slaves were considered to be property.• The Supreme Court also ruled that Congress could not outlaw slavery, which made the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional.
The Republican Party• Formed to give a voice against slavery.• Supporters of the new party fed up with Whigs and Democrats.• Main goal was to keep slavery out of western territories.
Lincoln v. Douglas for Senate in 1858Lincoln’s views Douglas’s views• Slavery was morally • Western territories should wrong. decide slavery issue by• Wanted to prevent the popular sovereignty. spread of slavery. • Personally disliked slavery.• Douglas won the election by a slim margin.
John Brown’s Raid• He led a raid on the Federal Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA, hoping slaves would revolt.• Brown’s plans failed. He was captured and hanged for treason.• Brown was viewed as either a martyr or a crazy man for his actions.
Election of 1860• Democratic party slit in two:• Southern democrats -supported slavery in the territories. Represented by John Breckinridge.• Northern democrats- refused to support slavery in the territories. Represented by Stephen Douglas.
Election of 1860• Constitutional Union party- established to try and heal the split between the North and South. Represented by John Bell of Tennessee.• Republican party- Represented by Abraham Lincoln.• Abraham Lincoln won the northern states which sealed the election.• However, Lincoln’s name was not even on the ballot in 10 southern states.
Southern Reaction• Abraham Lincoln’s election left the South believing they had no representation in the federal government.• As a result, South Carolina seceded on December 20, 1860, followed closely by Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas.
The Confederacy• Eleven states thought they could legally secede because The Declaration said people could abolish government.• Confederate States of America was formed and Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was the first president.
The Civil War Begins• Lincoln stated that there would be no war unless South started it.• Confederate forces began taking over forts in the South.
Fort Sumter• Located in South Carolina• Important to the Confederacy because it guarded Charleston Harbor
Fort Sumter• Confederate forces demanded the fort to surrender, but the commander refused.• As a result, Confederate forces fired on the fort until it surrendered.• This event marked the start of the Civil War.