Pageant 13th Ch 20 plus


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Dr. Robbins' Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 20 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

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Pageant 13th Ch 20 plus

  1. 1. Girding for War: The North & the South 1861-1865 Guiding Questions & Lecture Notes Chapter 20 The American Pageant, 13th edition
  2. 2. Key Topics <ul><li>War Begins at Fort Sumter </li></ul><ul><li>Border States </li></ul><ul><li>Southern & Northern Advantages & Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agriculture, industry, trade, transportation, population, military strength, geography, politics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europe’s reaction to America’s conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>limiting liberties & stepping around the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal strengths </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Other significant topics <ul><li>Native Americans on both sides </li></ul><ul><li>The problem with states’ rights in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Conscription in the North and South </li></ul><ul><li>The Union’s National Banking System </li></ul><ul><li>Northern prosperity during the war </li></ul>
  4. 4. War Begins <ul><li>Why did Lincoln declare that secession was “wholly impractical”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Physically speaking we cannot separate.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why was Lincoln so determined to keep the Union united? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Above all, to prove the efficacy of popular government (“of the people…”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To prove that a minority group cannot break up a govt “whenever they choose” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Fort Sumter <ul><li>How did the war begin at Fort Sumter? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of two remaining federal forts in South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln decided to provision not reinforce fort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South saw this as a reinforcement; attacked first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Located in Charleston, SC, the heart of rebellion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How did this particular beginning affect the outcome of the war? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seen as a southern attack by most; kept critical border states on Union side </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Border States Stay with the Union <ul><li>Why were the border states so important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White population there numbered more than half of the entire Confederacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced manufacturing capacity of South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigable Ohio River and two of its tributaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. South’s Major Advantages <ul><li>Could fight defensively </li></ul><ul><li>Did not have to win, just stop northern invaders </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting for their own soil, boosted morale </li></ul><ul><li>Most talented military officers </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners bred to fight </li></ul>
  8. 8. North’s major advantages <ul><li>Economic strength & diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture & manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled the seas, had superior navy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established effective blockade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larger population, greater manpower </li></ul>
  9. 9. Respective weaknesses? <ul><li>South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively little manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less diverse agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal transportation system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men ill-prepared for military life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weaker military commanders </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Europe’s Reaction <ul><li>Why did Britain ultimately favor the North during the Civil War? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common people’s support for abolition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton surpluses at beginning of war supplemented by Union cotton seizures, some Southern cotton getting thru, Indian and Egyptian sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War industries an economic boon to England England more dependent on northern corn and wheat, than cotton (good US weather + new reaper vs. poor British crops) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. A Different View <ul><li>How did the European aristocracy differ from the common people in their views toward the Civil War? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hated the dangerous example of US democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to South’s semi-feudal, aristocratic society </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. British Commerce-Traders <ul><li>What was the affect of British commerce-traders (and what were they anyway)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commerce-traders were British-built ships, armed for war after leaving Britain for Confederate use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused much damage to Yankee ships & trade (most damaging, the Alabama ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain finally opened its eyes & closed its loopholes </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Mexico Affected <ul><li>How & why did the US intervene in Mexico? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor Napoleon III had set up a puppet ruler, Austrian Archduke Maximilian, as emperor of Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon III hoped that Union would be too distracted and if it lost the war, too weak to enforce Monroe Doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the war and Union victory, the threat of US action led to French departure </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. President Jefferson Davis <ul><li>What were Davis’s greatest challenges as president of the Confederacy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States’ rights supporters undermined his plans for a tightly-knit central govt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Davis never very popular; an imperious micromanager </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. President Abraham Lincoln <ul><li>What were Lincoln’s strengths as a leader? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had advantage of well-established government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proved to be a better leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal qualities: tactful, patient, firm, quiet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great orator, inspirational politician </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Constitutional Questions <ul><li>How and why did Lincoln step around the Constitution during the war? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proclaimed blockade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased size of army (only Congress could) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced $2 million to 2 private citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspended Habeus Corpus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Supervised” voting in border states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspended certain newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress not in session when war started </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Fighting It Out <ul><li>How did each side supply itself with soldiers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North: first by volunteers, then first nationwide, federal conscription; rich could hire substitutes for $300; some riots in reaction; “bounty boys” from Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South also first by volunteers, but much sooner had to require conscription; wider age range (17 to 50); substitute system as in the North; also large slaveowners were exempt </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>What role did Native Americans play? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of 5 Civilized Tribes side with Confederacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confederacy took over federal payments and invited them to Congress; many Indians joined confederate army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One group of the Cherokee and most of the Plains Indians sided with the Union (forced onto reservations after war) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. A Poor Man’s Fight <ul><li>What did this mean: “A rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On both sides, the rich were given advantages and loopholes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the South, especially, the poor man was often fighting for the rich man’s right to own slaves </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Economics in the North & South <ul><li>How did the North benefit economically? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New factories built for war effort and bolstered by stronger tariff protections (Morrill Tariff Act) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First income tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New inventions: reaper, sewing machines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who benefited the most? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation-bred price increases benefited business (while hurting workers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First millionaire class, especially in the North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scam artists of all sorts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New petroleum industry </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. More Economics <ul><li>Why did the Union re-establish a national banking system? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To stimulate the sale of govt bonds to raise money for war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also to set up standard bank-note currency (fluctuating “rag money” was destabilizing) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Southern Economy Flounders <ul><li>What happened to the Southern economy during the war? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockade cut off duties; bonds sold, taxes raised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runaway inflation from excess paper money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced trade and war destruction, broken down transportation system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The South faced great economic decline at war’s end (from 30% to 12% of national wealth) </li></ul></ul>