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Chapter 14<br />The Nation Divided<br />
Section 1<br />Growing Tensions Over Slavery<br />
Slavery & the Mexican-American War<br />1820-1848<br />4 Slaveholding & 4 free states were admitted to the Union<br />Main...
The Wilmot Proviso<br />1846 <br />Rep. David Wilmot of PA proposed ban on slavery in all territory that might become part...
An Antislavery Party<br />Democrats & Whigs did not take firm stand on slavery issue<br />Senator Lewis Cass<br />Democrat...
A Bitter Debate<br />California<br />Gold discovered<br />Enough people to become state<br />Free vs. Slave State<br />Wou...
Other Issues<br />Northerners wanted slave trade abolished in Washington, D.C.<br />Southerners wanted northerners to catc...
Section2<br />Compromises Fail<br />
The Compromise of 1850<br />September 1850<br />Congress passed 5 bills based on Clay’s proposals<br />Series of laws know...
To Please the North<br />California admitted as a free state<br />Compromise banned slave trade in nation’s capital<br />C...
To Please the South<br />Popular sovereignty used to decide question of slavery in rest of Mexican Cession<br />People in ...
Outrage in the North<br />Fugitive Slave Law<br />Very controversial<br />Many Northerners swore to resist the law<br />Ha...
Uncle Tom’s Cabin<br />Harriet Beecher Stowe<br />Daughter of an abolitionist minister<br />Wrote “something that will mak...
The Kansas-Nebraska Act<br />Senator Stephen Douglas<br />Wanted to develop lands west of Illinois<br />Wanted a railroad ...
Bleeding Kansas<br />Citizens left to decide free or slave in Nebraska & Kansas<br />Pro & anti slavery settlers flooded i...
Growing violence<br />2 gov’t in Kansas now<br />Each wanted to impose their gov’t on territory<br />Violence soon broke o...
Bloodshed in the Senate<br />Senate<br />C harles Sumner of Massachusetts<br />Abolitionist senator<br />Denounced proslav...
Section 3<br />The Crisis Deepens<br />
A New Antislavery Party<br />1854<br />Whig party split apart<br />Northern Whigs joined the newly formed Republican Party...
The Dred Scott decision<br />March 1857<br />U.S. Supreme Court delivered a shattering blow to antislavery forces in Dred ...
reaction<br />Slavery supporters: rejoiced; slavery was legal in all territories<br />Northerners: stunned; condemned the ...
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates<br />Lincoln<br />Brief career in politics<br />Elected to Congress as a Whig<br />Voted for W...
A House Divided<br />1858<br />Lincoln chose by Republicans to run for Senate against Douglas<br />Did not state he wanted...
John Brown’s Raid<br />John Brown<br />Driven out of Kansas after the Pottawatomie Massacre<br />Developed a plot to raise...
Section 4<br />The Coming of the Civil War<br />
The Nation Divides<br />Election of 1860<br />Republicans: chose Abraham Lincoln as candidate<br />Criticisms of slavery m...
Douglas was sure Lincoln would win the election<br />Believed Democrats must try to save the Union<br />Pleaded with south...
Southern States Secede<br />Shock waves across South after Lincoln election<br />South no longer had voice in national gov...
Confederate States of America<br />6 more states followed S. Carolina<br />Texas & Tennessee still supported the Union<br ...
The Civil War Begins<br />March 4, 1861<br />Lincoln became president<br />Assured seceded states he mean them no war<br /...
Fort Sumter<br />Fort Sumter<br />Commander of troops within the fort refused to leave<br />S. Carolina’s authorities deci...
Was War Avoidable?<br />Fort Sumter attack marked beginning of Civil War<br />Debate continues today over if civil war cou...
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  1. 1. Chapter 14<br />The Nation Divided<br />
  2. 2. Section 1<br />Growing Tensions Over Slavery<br />
  3. 3. Slavery & the Mexican-American War<br />1820-1848<br />4 Slaveholding & 4 free states were admitted to the Union<br />Maintained balance of 15 each, but territory gained in M-A war could ruin balance<br />
  4. 4. The Wilmot Proviso<br />1846 <br />Rep. David Wilmot of PA proposed ban on slavery in all territory that might become part of U.S. as a result of M-A War (Wilmot Proviso)<br />Proposal passed in House of Reps., but failed in the Senate<br />Did not become law, but raised concerns in the South<br />Viewed as an attack on slavery by the North<br />
  5. 5. An Antislavery Party<br />Democrats & Whigs did not take firm stand on slavery issue<br />Senator Lewis Cass<br />Democratic candidate for President 1848<br />Suggested popular sovereignty: people in the territory or state would vote directly on issues, rather than having their elected reps. decide<br />1848<br />Antislavery Whigs & Democrats formed Free-Soil Party<br />Territory gained in M-A War was “free soil”, where slavery should be banned<br />Chose Democrat Martin Van Buren as their candidate<br />Did poorly in election, but took enough votes away from Cass<br />General Zachery Taylor was elected president<br />
  6. 6. A Bitter Debate<br />California<br />Gold discovered<br />Enough people to become state<br />Free vs. Slave State<br />Would upset the balance<br />Northerners<br />Free state because most of territory lay north of the Missouri Compromise line<br />Southerners<br />Feared North would gain control of Senate, would not be able to block antislavery attacks<br />Began to threaten to secede (withdraw) from the Union<br />
  7. 7. Other Issues<br />Northerners wanted slave trade abolished in Washington, D.C.<br />Southerners wanted northerners to catch people who had escaped from slavery<br />Wanted laws to force the return of fugitive slaves<br />1850<br />Senator Henry Clay<br />Made proposals to resolve the issues dividing the North & South<br />John C. Calhoun<br />Against Clay’s compromise<br />Very ill at the time, his speech was read<br />Admission of California as free state would expose the South to continued attacks on slavery; only two ways to preserve South’s way of life<br />Constitutional amendment to protect states’ rights<br />Sucession<br />
  8. 8. Section2<br />Compromises Fail<br />
  9. 9. The Compromise of 1850<br />September 1850<br />Congress passed 5 bills based on Clay’s proposals<br />Series of laws known as Compromise of 1850<br />Opposed by President Taylor, but he died in 1850 & new president Millard Fillmore supported Compromise & signed it into law<br />
  10. 10. To Please the North<br />California admitted as a free state<br />Compromise banned slave trade in nation’s capital<br />Congress declared no power to regulate slave trade between slave states<br />
  11. 11. To Please the South<br />Popular sovereignty used to decide question of slavery in rest of Mexican Cession<br />People in territory would vote to be free or slave<br />Given new fugitive slave law<br />Allowed gov’t officials to arrest any person accused of being a runaway slave<br />No right to trial to prove they were falsely accused<br />Slave owner or white witness only had to swear that the suspect was a slave<br />Northern citizens were required by law to help capture runaway slaves<br />
  12. 12. Outrage in the North<br />Fugitive Slave Law<br />Very controversial<br />Many Northerners swore to resist the law<br />Hated seeing people deprived of their freedom<br />Thousands of African Americans fled to Canada<br />Many who were never slaves<br />Northern cities began to ban together to resist slave law<br />People threatened slave catchers with their lives<br />John C. Calhoun hope slave law would open the eyes of northerners to the rights of southerners to their property, but instead it convinced more northerners that slavery was evil<br />
  13. 13. Uncle Tom’s Cabin<br />Harriet Beecher Stowe<br />Daughter of an abolitionist minister<br />Wrote “something that will make this whole nation feel what an accursed thing slavery is”<br />1852<br />Published Uncle Tom’s Cabin<br />about an enslaved man, Uncle Tom, who is abused by cruel Simon Legree<br />Was a best seller in the North<br />Shocked many people & people began to see slavery not just as a political conflict, but as a human one.<br />Southerners were outraged<br />Considered propaganda: false or misleading information that is spread to further a cause<br />Did not give an accurate picture of the lives of slaves<br />
  14. 14. The Kansas-Nebraska Act<br />Senator Stephen Douglas<br />Wanted to develop lands west of Illinois<br />Wanted a railroad from Illinois through Nebraska Territory to the Pacific Coast<br />1853<br />Douglas want 2 new territories formed: Nebraska & Kansas<br />Southerners objected because territories lay in area closed to slavery<br />Douglas proposed slavery be decided by popular sovereignty<br />This undid the Missouri Compromise<br />Southerners: satisfied hoping slave owners in Missouri would move to Kansas, allowing Kansas to enter Union as a slave state<br />Northerners: outraged; Douglas betrayed them by reopening issue of slavery<br />Southern support allowed act to pass both houses of Congress<br />President Franklin Pierce signed bill into law<br />Douglas predicted issue of slavery was now forever banished from the halls of Congress<br />
  15. 15. Bleeding Kansas<br />Citizens left to decide free or slave in Nebraska & Kansas<br />Pro & anti slavery settlers flooded into Kansas<br />Each wanted to hold the majority<br />March 1855<br />Thousands of Missourians illegally voted<br />Kansas: only 3,000 voters but 8,000 votes were cast<br />39 legislators elected (all but 3 supported slavery)<br />Antislavery settlers refused results & held 2nd election<br />
  16. 16. Growing violence<br />2 gov’t in Kansas now<br />Each wanted to impose their gov’t on territory<br />Violence soon broke out<br />Proslavery sheriff shot in Lawrence, Kansas while trying to arrest antislavery settlers<br />Returned one month later with 800 men & attacked the town<br />John Brown (antislavery settler) 3 days later led 7 men to the proslavery settlement of Pottawatomie Creek<br />Murdered 5 proslavery men & boys<br />Incidences set of widespread fighting across Kansas<br />Proslavery & antislavery fighters roamed the countryside killing those that did not support their views<br />
  17. 17. Bloodshed in the Senate<br />Senate<br />C harles Sumner of Massachusetts<br />Abolitionist senator<br />Denounced proslavery legislature in Kansas<br />Singled out Andrew Butler of South Carolina who was not present at the time<br />Few days later Butler’s nephew Congressman Preston Brooks marched into the Senate chamber and beat Sumner with a heavy cane until he fell to the floor<br />Sumner never recovered from his injuries<br />Southerners felt Sumner got what he deserved<br />Hundreds sent canes to Sumner to show their support<br />Northerners: viewed act as another sign of brutality & inhumanity of slavery<br />
  18. 18. Section 3<br />The Crisis Deepens<br />
  19. 19. A New Antislavery Party<br />1854<br />Whig party split apart<br />Northern Whigs joined the newly formed Republican Party<br />Goal: to stop the spread of slavery into western territories<br />Northern Democrats & Free Soil Party members attracted to Republican Party<br />Republican Party became powerful quickly<br />1854 elections: 105 of 245 U.S. House of Reps. were Republicans<br />Republican gained control of all but 2 northern state legislatures<br />1856<br />John C. Fremont (Republican) ran for president<br />Strong antislavery campaign<br />Lost election to Democrat James Buchanan, but won in 11 of nation’s 16 free states<br />
  20. 20. The Dred Scott decision<br />March 1857<br />U.S. Supreme Court delivered a shattering blow to antislavery forces in Dred Scott v. Sandford<br />Dred Scott an enslaved person who had once been owned by a U.S. Army doctor<br />Lived in Illinois were slavery was illegal, but after leaving the army settled in Missouri<br />Scott sued for his freedom; argued he was free because he had lived where slavery was illegal<br />The Court Decides<br />Chief Justice Roger B. Taney<br />Scott was not a free man for 2 reasons<br />Scott had no right to sue in federal court because African Americans were not citizens<br />Living in free territory did not make an enslaved person free; slaves were property & property rights are protected by the Constitution<br />Taney also declared Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in any territory<br />
  21. 21. reaction<br />Slavery supporters: rejoiced; slavery was legal in all territories<br />Northerners: stunned; condemned the ruling; slavery could spread throughout the West<br />Abraham Lincoln spoke against decision<br />Illinois lawyer<br />The idea that African Americans could not be citizens was based on a false view of American history<br />He became a central figure in the fight against slavery<br />
  22. 22. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates<br />Lincoln<br />Brief career in politics<br />Elected to Congress as a Whig<br />Voted for Wilmot Proviso<br />After one term returned to Illinois to practice law<br />Opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act (brought him back into politics)<br />Embraced the Republican cause<br />Rival of Stephen Douglas (author of K-N Act)<br />Both political & personal (both men courted Mary Todd, who Lincoln married)<br />
  23. 23. A House Divided<br />1858<br />Lincoln chose by Republicans to run for Senate against Douglas<br />Did not state he wanted to ban slavery<br />Southerners were convinced he was an abolitionist<br />Debating Slavery<br />Lincoln challenged Douglas in a series of public debates<br />Douglas: defended popular sovereignty; painted Lincoln as a dangerous abolitionist<br />Lincoln: stood against slavery; slavery would die on its own; obligation of Americans to keep it out of western territories; believed African Americans were not to be entitled to all the rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence (life, liberty, & pursuit of happiness<br />Douglas won Senate election<br />Lincoln became known throughout the country<br />2 years later both men would face off for the presidency<br />
  24. 24. John Brown’s Raid<br />John Brown<br />Driven out of Kansas after the Pottawatomie Massacre<br />Developed a plot to raise an army & free people in the South who were enslaved<br />1859<br />Brown & supporters attacked Harpers Ferry, Virginia<br />Wanted to seize guns stored by the U.S. army<br />Believed African Americans would support him & he would supply them with weapons & lead a revolt<br />Brown gained control of arms, but Colonel Robert E. Lee led troops that surrounds Brown’s forces<br />10 were killed; Brown was wounded & captured<br />Brown was found guilty of murder and treason<br />Stated Bible instructed him to care for the poor and enslaved in his defense<br />However, he was sentenced to death<br />December 2, 1859<br />Brown was hung in Virginia<br />Church bells across the North tolled to mourn the man who many considered a hero<br />Southerners were shocked that the North was praising a man who had tried to lead a revolt; convinced the North was out to destroy their way to life<br />
  25. 25. Section 4<br />The Coming of the Civil War<br />
  26. 26. The Nation Divides<br />Election of 1860<br />Republicans: chose Abraham Lincoln as candidate<br />Criticisms of slavery made him popular in the North<br />Democrats: wanted slavery to be supported in territories; northern democrats refused, party became split; Northern Democrats chose Stephen Douglas & Southern Democrats chose Vice President John Breckinridge<br />Some southerners hoping to heal the split created the Constitutional Union Party & nominated John Bell<br />Bell promised to protect slavery & keep the nation together<br />
  27. 27. Douglas was sure Lincoln would win the election<br />Believed Democrats must try to save the Union<br />Pleaded with southern voters to stay with Union no matter who was elected<br />When he campaigned in the South hostile southerners often threw eggs & rotten fruit at him<br />Election of 1860 showed how fragmented the nation had become<br />Lincoln won every free state<br />Breckinridge won all slave holding states except four<br />Bell won Kentucky, Tennessee, & Virginia<br />Douglas won Missouri<br />Lincoln received on 40% of the popular votes, but received enough electoral votes to win the election<br />
  28. 28. Southern States Secede<br />Shock waves across South after Lincoln election<br />South no longer had voice in national gov’t<br />President & Congress set against slavery<br />South Carolina<br />1st state to secede from the Union<br />Dec. 20, 1860 special convention of S. Carolina’s legislature<br />Declared no longer part of Union<br />
  29. 29. Confederate States of America<br />6 more states followed S. Carolina<br />Texas & Tennessee still supported the Union<br />Feb. 1860<br />Leaders from 7 seceding states met in Montgomery, Alabama<br />Formed new nation: Confederate States of America<br />Written a constitution & named a president (Jefferson Davis) by the time Lincoln took office in March<br />
  30. 30. The Civil War Begins<br />March 4, 1861<br />Lincoln became president<br />Assured seceded states he mean them no war<br />Did warn them about continuing on the course they had chosen<br />Friendship gesture rejected <br />Post offices, forts, & other federal property within southern seceding states were taken over<br />
  31. 31. Fort Sumter<br />Fort Sumter<br />Commander of troops within the fort refused to leave<br />S. Carolina’s authorities decided to starve the fort<br />Cut from supplies since December<br />Lincoln did not want to give up the fort, but did not want other states to secede by sending troops in<br />Declared he would send ships with food to the fort, no troops<br />Confederate troops attacked the fort of April 12 & within 34 hours the U.S. troops surrendered<br />
  32. 32. Was War Avoidable?<br />Fort Sumter attack marked beginning of Civil War<br />Debate continues today over if civil war could be avoided<br />

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