The North Takes Charge

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Brief presentation on the end of the Civil War and major battles involved. For use with the Americans, Section 11.4.

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The North Takes Charge

  1. 1. Section 11.4
  2. 2.  April 30-May 6 1863  Confederate army pushes back Union forces despite Northern advantage  After losing his arm, Stonewall Jackson will succumb to injuries from friendly fire  The Confederacy gained a victory against top Union commanders  The Confederacy lost the very talented Stonewall Jackson
  3. 3. 1. What did the Confederacy win at Chancellorsville What did it lose?  The Confederacy gained a victory against top Union commanders  The Confederacy lost the very talented Stonewall Jackson
  4. 4. First day of Gettysburg  Confederate soldiers headed to Gettysburg because they were barefoot and hear they could find footwear there and General Lee  on the way Union soldiers engaged them, both sides send in reinforcements  http://www.history.com/topics/battle-of- gettysburg/videos#battle-at-chancellorsville
  5. 5. Second day of Gettysburg  Confederate Lee ordered an attack on Cemetery Ridge  Confederate forces overran Little Round Top (area that overlooked the southern portion of the battlefield) but Union forces were quick to defend it
  6. 6. Third day of Gettysburg  Both armies fired on each other for two hours  when the artillery went silent Confederate Lee ordered his troops to press forward through the middle  as they did the North started with artillery fire again and Lee had to retreat
  7. 7. Result  Considered the turning point in the war and southern forces hurt to the point they would not be able to invade a northern state  Lee retreated and gave up hope taking the North  Great losses – 23,000 Union losses; 28,000 Confederate losses  http://video.pbs.org/video/1832543409/
  8. 8. 2. Why is Gettysburg considered to be a turning point in the war?  It crippled the South so badly that it would never recover from the loss;  shattered Southern morale
  9. 9.  Spring 1863, Grant sent soldiers to destroy rail lines in central Mississippi to distract Confederate army so he could land in the port city of Vicksburg  Two initial assaults failed on Vicksburg so Grant settled in for a siege that lasted several days on shelling the city where residents ran out of food and had to eat dogs and mules  Confederate army surrendered on July 4  This defeat cut the Confederacy into two parts
  10. 10.  Attack was timed to coincide with Grant’s attack at Vicksburg  After initial failure, General Banks laid siege to Port Hudson for 48 days  Upon hearing of the fall of Vicksburg, the Confederates surrender at Port Hudson
  11. 11. 3. What did the Union accomplish by capturing Vicksburg and Port Hudson?  The Confederacy was cut in two  Union secures control of the Mississippi River
  12. 12.  Lincoln’s famous two-minute speech to dedicate the first national cemetery in Gettysburg  Talked of the founding principles of the country and the start of a new human equality  gave the North a united purpose in the war – to preserve the Union, a single nation, not just a collection of states (#4)
  13. 13.  Gettysburg and Vicksburg limited the South’s fighting power  the South hoped to call for an armistice rather than a surrender but Lincoln had two generals that would fight (Grant and Sherman)
  14. 14. Confederate morale was low  resolutions that aimed at producing more food for soldiers and less cash crops  letters from home talked about the lack of food and shortage of hands for farming  soldiers deserted to the Union  discord in the Confederacy government where members of congress did not get along, states did not get along  peace movements were going on in several states
  15. 15.  Lincoln placed Grant as the Commander of all Union forces  Grant appointed William Tecumseh Sherman in charge of the military in Mississippi; he and Sherman both agreed there needed to be a total war  Grant moved rapidly to immobilize Lee’s army in Virginia loosing many men but knowing he could replace them and Lee could not; it earned him the nickname the “butcher”  “War of Attrition”
  16. 16. What was Grant’s overall strategy for defeating Lee’s army? What tactics did he use?  Strategy: to destroy Lee’s army in Virginia while Sherman raided Georgia  Tactics: attack constantly; engage in total war (against civilians, as well as the military)
  17. 17.  Sherman raided Georgia burning rail lines, fields, animals as he marched north to help Grant with Lee  as he marched North he continued burning land/houses until he reached North Carolina
  18. 18. 6. What was Sherman’s goal in his march to the sea? What tactics did he use to accomplish that goal?  Goal: to destroy the will of Southerners to fight  Tactics: engage in total war; destroy civilian property; live off the land
  19. 19.  Democrats nominated George McClellan as they wanted an armistice  Republicans nominated Lincoln who wanted to readmit Confederate states back into the union and changed their party name to the National Union Party to try and attract Democrats  Radical Republicans splintered and named John C. Fremont as their candidate with a harsher proposal than readmittance
  20. 20.  It did not look like Lincoln would win the election but the union forces would take Atlanta and Fremont would drop from the race  Lincoln would win the race as victories helped the North and absentee ballots cast by Union soldiers helped him
  21. 21.  Lee and Grant met on April 9, 1865 in a Virginia village called Appomattox Court House where Lincoln’s terms were generous 7. What were the North’s terms of surrender? Why were they so generous to the South?  Terms: Lee’s soldiers paroled and sent home with their personal possessions, horses, and food rations; officers permitted to keep their sidearms  Reason: Lincoln didn’t want a vindictive peace.

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