Pre Civil War 2008


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Pre Civil War 2008

  1. 1. California Gold Rush, 1849
  2. 2. GOLD ! At Sutter’s Mill, 1848 John A. Sutter
  3. 5. Routes to the Gold
  4. 6. California Gold! <ul><li>In 1848 James Marshall noticed small flakes at Sutter’s Mill. </li></ul><ul><li>Most miners were young, unmarried, and unsuccessful. </li></ul><ul><li>Most never got rich in California. </li></ul><ul><li>A more reliable way to earn money was to supply miners. </li></ul>
  5. 7. GOLD
  6. 8. COMPROMISE OF 1850 <ul><li>One of the most intense debates in U.S. History—specifically over slavery </li></ul><ul><li>John C. Calhoun </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. should have two Presidents--North and South </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel Webster </li></ul><ul><li>Secession is impractical & impossible </li></ul><ul><li>How would we split the land? military? </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise at all cost </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Clay </li></ul><ul><li>with John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Stephen Douglas. </li></ul>
  7. 9. STEPHEN DOUGLAS Senator from Illinois Three major points 1. California Free State 2. Utah and New Mexico Popular Sovereignty 3. Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
  8. 11. <ul><li>ABOLITIONISTS RESPOND </li></ul><ul><li>Denounced by Abolitionists </li></ul><ul><li>Abolitionists refuse to enforce the law </li></ul><ul><li>Underground Railroad becomes more active </li></ul>FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW
  9. 12. America in the 1850s Neither was to obtain exclusive control over any canal across the Central American Isthmus All such communications by canal or railway were to be neutral The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty USA and Great Britain, 1850
  10. 13. End of the Whigs In its 26-year existence, the Whigs elected two of its candidates to the presidency—Harrison and Taylor—both died in office. Four months after succeeding Harrison, President John Tyler was expelled from the Party Millard Fillmore, Taylor's VP, was the last Whig to hold the office.
  11. 14. The Opening of Japan <ul><li>For over 200 years, no foreigner was allowed to enter Japan at all. </li></ul><ul><li>Even shipwrecked sailors were forced to remain in Japan so that no information could leak out. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Japan adhered to a strict feudal system </li></ul><ul><li>In 1853, Perry arrived at Edo Bay (Tokyo), demanding that Japan open its borders to foreign commerce </li></ul>The Opening of Japan
  13. 16. Ostend Manifesto1854, Belgium <ul><li>Document urging the US to take Cuba by force if Spain refused to sell </li></ul><ul><li>South feared that Cuba might become an independent black republic </li></ul><ul><li>Vigorously denounced by opponents as a plot to extend slavery </li></ul>
  14. 18. Gadsden Purchase —1853
  15. 21. <ul><ul><li>Stephen Douglas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest in a Transcontinental Railroad </li></ul></ul>KANSAS AND NEBRASKA ACT
  16. 22. South Opposes <ul><ul><li>Proposed Kansas/Nebraska areas be open to slavery in return for North RR </li></ul></ul>KANSAS AND NEBRASKA ACT
  17. 24. Popular Sovereignty People in a territory vote on whether they want slavery to exist or not in their state.
  18. 25. Bleeding Kansas <ul><li>North and South mobilize to influence elections </li></ul><ul><li>Two govt’s form in Topeka and Shawnee </li></ul><ul><li>Both are fraudulent </li></ul>
  19. 27. <ul><li>Election for delegates to territorial convention:1400 eligible voters/ 6000 votes cast </li></ul><ul><li>Over </li></ul><ul><li>200 </li></ul><ul><li>killed </li></ul>
  20. 28. John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr? Mural in the Kansas Capitol building
  21. 29. <ul><li>Violent abolitionist </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in the Bleeding Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>Murdered 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>Would later try to lead a slave revolt throughout the South by raising an army of freed slaves and destroying the South. </li></ul>JOHN BROWN
  22. 30. Lecompton Constitution 1857 <ul><li>Pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution in KN Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed for slaves already in Kansas to remain there </li></ul><ul><li>Bill ultimately failed </li></ul><ul><li>Vote boycotted by free-soilers </li></ul><ul><li>Kansas later admitted as free state </li></ul>
  23. 31. <ul><li>An aggressive abolitionist, Charles Sumner attacked slavery, denounced the Kan/Neb Act and verbally attacked a Senator from South Carolina, who was absent. </li></ul><ul><li>Two days later he was attacked in the Senate by Preston Brooks--Butler's nephew </li></ul><ul><li>It took Sumner more than three years to recover </li></ul>“ The Crime Against Kansas” 1856
  24. 32. Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852
  25. 33. Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852 <ul><li>Sold 300,000 copies in the first year </li></ul><ul><li>2 million in a decade </li></ul>
  26. 34. DRED SCOTT DECISION <ul><li>Slave from Missouri traveled with his owner to Illinois and Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>His master died and Scott wanted to move back to Missouri--Missouri still recognized him as a slave </li></ul><ul><li>He sued for his freedom since he had lived in a free state for a period of time </li></ul>
  27. 35. <ul><li>Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision </li></ul>DRED SCOTT DECISION <ul><li>Slaves cannot sue for their freedom; they are property </li></ul><ul><li>They have no legal right under the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court legalized slavery in effect by saying that Congress could not stop a slave owner from moving his slaves to a new territory </li></ul><ul><li>Missouri Compromise and other compromises were unconstitutional </li></ul>
  28. 36. Panic of 1857
  29. 37. <ul><li>British remove funds from US banks </li></ul><ul><li>Fall of grain prices spread misery </li></ul><ul><li>RR failures; US system overbuilt </li></ul><ul><li>Land speculation collapsed with RR’s </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence fell when 30k lbs of gold was lost in shipment from CA to east </li></ul><ul><li>Govt ability to back its paper with specie questioned; slow recovery in US </li></ul><ul><li>South hurt less than the other regions; many concluded that the superiority of their economic system was vindicated </li></ul>Panic of 1857
  30. 38. All but one of NY' s 58 banks suspended activity until Dec US economy had accelerated inflation following CA gold discoveries Panic put nearly half of Wall Street's brokers out of business
  31. 39. REPUBLICAN PARTY Formed to stop the expansion of slavery Free Soil Party against the expansion of slavery Democrats opposed the expansion of slavery Abolitionists Know Nothing Party against immigration
  32. 40. Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Lincoln along with Steven Douglas became the leading spokespersons for the presidential election in 1860. LINCOLN--DOUGLAS DEBATES
  33. 42. LINCOLN--DOUGLAS DEBATES <ul><li>US Senate race in Illinois </li></ul><ul><li>Debates followed because both were interested in running for President in 1860. </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery was the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln stated: </li></ul><ul><li>A house divided against itself cannot stand. </li></ul><ul><li>Against the expansion of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas believed in pop. sovereignty </li></ul>
  34. 43. Freeport Doctrine <ul><li>Lincoln was not so much anti-slavery as he was for not extending or expanding slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>The most famous of these seven debates was in Freeport, Ill </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas stated slavery could be barred from territories if their legislatures refused to enact regulations necessary to make slavery work. </li></ul>
  35. 44. <ul><li>Attacked a U.S. Ammunition depot in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in Oct. of 1859 to capture weapons and begin a slave revolt. </li></ul>JOHN BROWN
  36. 45. <ul><li>Unsuccessful and captured by military under the leadership of Robert E. Lee </li></ul><ul><li>Put on trial for treason. </li></ul>JOHN BROWN
  37. 46. <ul><li>Sentenced to Death </li></ul><ul><li>North thought of John Brown as an abolitionist martyr. </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners were terrified of Brown; feared others would be willing to die to end slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>South’s outcome: To leave the US and start their own country. </li></ul>JOHN BROWN
  38. 47. 1860 Election: A Nation Coming Apart
  39. 48. ELECTION OF 1860
  40. 50. <ul><li>Once Lincoln is elected as president, South Carolina secedes from the U.S. along with several other Southern States </li></ul><ul><li>They will form the Confederate States of America--CSA </li></ul>
  41. 51. <ul><li>The war begins: </li></ul>
  42. 53. Sumter one of two remaining federal strongholds in South Day after inauguration, Lincoln was notified fort supplies would soon run out; forced to surrender. Notified S. Carolina of an expedition to provision the garrison Ship carrying supplies sailed from NY; seen by SC as an act of aggression
  43. 54. April 12: Fort Sumter bombarded by more than 70 Confederate canons. No loss of life during bombardment; fort heavily damaged
  44. 58. &quot; My paramount object is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery... If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that .&quot; Abraham Lincoln 1862