Pageant 13th Chapter 8 lecture


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Dr. Robbins' Abbreviated PowerPoint lecture on Chapter 8

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Pageant 13th Chapter 8 lecture

  1. 1. The American Pageant Chapter 8America Secedes from the Empire 1775-1783 13th edition
  2. 2. Congress Drafts George Washington Minutemen arrive in Boston 2nd Continental Congress meets beginning on May 10, 1775  Still no call for independence  Washington selected as leader of army  From Virginia  Great moral leader (not military)
  3. 3. Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings American inconsistency till July 1776 Bunker Hill—British win after hard fight Olive Branch Petition (July 1775) rejected after Bunker Hill George III hires Hessians, shocks Americans
  4. 4. The Abortive Conquest of Canada Americans almost conquer Canada Clearly an offensive move Boston evacuated & Norfolk burned
  5. 5. Thomas Paine Preaches CommonSense Ingrained sense of loyalty to Britain gives way to rebellion Paine’s Common Sense sold 120,000 Why should small Britain control huge colonies?
  6. 6. Paine & the Idea of Republicanism Paine called for new or renewed form of democracy, a REPUBLIC Colonies primed for a republic:  Self-government, no hereditary aristocracy, relative equality of landowners Public good more important than private rights according to Paine
  7. 7. Jefferson’s “Explanation” ofIndependence Richard Henry Lee of VA calls for independence on June 7, 1776 Jefferson writes Declaration  Invokes “natural rights” of all mankind (Locke)  If king denies rights, people justified in severing connection  List of grievances against king & his acts Declaration was a uniting force
  8. 8. Patriots and Loyalists Revolution a minority movement Patriots=Rebels=Whigs Loyalists=Tories  Conservative, wealthy, older  NYC, Charleston, Pennsylvania, NJ
  9. 9. The Loyalist Exodus Many loyalists badly treated 80,000 left America
  10. 10. General Washington at Bay Huge British fleet surrounds Washington and troops in NYC Washington barely escapes to NJ Surprise American attack on Hessian mercenaries the day after Christmas
  11. 11. Burgoyne’s Blundering Invasion British slowed down on approach from Canada by Benedict Arnold Washington almost beaten by Howe; overwinters in Valley Forge Burgoyne and British make it down from Canada but are beaten at Saratoga
  12. 12. Strange French Bedfellows French want to get even with British After Saratoga, British offer Americans everything they wanted…except independence—it’s too late! French offer Alliance to Americans in 1778 Colonials hesitant to join with royalists, but take the help
  13. 13. Colonial War Becomes a World War Holland and Spain join France and America against the British Armed Neutrality group stood by Americans held off the British till 1778 Foreign allies probably made the difference in securing victory
  14. 14. Blow and Counterblow French start arriving Benedict Arnold turns traitor British turn to fighting in southern colonies where there’s more loyalist support
  15. 15. The Land Frontier & the Sea Frontier Some Iroquois joined with British, some with Americans Clark captured British forts on Ohio River Legalized American pirates helped with threat to British navy and merchants British merchants pushed government to seek peace
  16. 16. Yorktown and the Final Curtain Just as things were getting desperate for Americans… British General Cornwallis surrenders when surrounded on three sides by Washington and French allies at Yorktown Turning point, but fighting continued for another year
  17. 17. Peace at Paris George III wants to keep fighting Whigs take over British government and call for peace American negotiators to consult w/French  Franklin, John Adams, John Jay John Jay suspects French intentions and makes a deal with Britain
  18. 18. Peace continued Treaty gives America:  Independence  Generous boundaries to Mississippi-Great Lakes-Florida America had to:  Leave Loyalists alone, not block payment on British debts, etc.
  19. 19. A New Nation Legitimized Britain wanted to  Weaken French/US alliance  Reopen trade channels  Avoid future territorial wars French were  Not happy with peace treaty but approved  Glad fighting was over  Allowed them to avoid commitments to Spain U.S begins with “good fortune”