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A level-based approach to public
transport network planning
Andrew	
  Nash	
  
GreenCityStreets.com	
  
	
  
San	
  Francisco	
  SPUR	
  
January	
  7,	
  2015	
  
ETH	
  Zurich:	
  InsHtute	
  for	
  Transport	
  Planning	
  and	
  Systems	
  
	
  
Reference:	
  
	
  Hermann	
  Orth,	
  Andrew	
  Nash	
  and	
  Ulrich	
  Weidmann	
  	
  
	
  A	
  Level-­‐based	
  Approach	
  to	
  Public	
  Transport	
  Network	
  Planning	
  
	
  Presented	
  at:	
  US	
  TransportaHon	
  Research	
  Board	
  2015	
  Annual	
  MeeHng	
  (15-­‐1171)	
  
The	
  Idea	
  
	
  
	
  
Robert	
  Cervero	
  
The	
  Transit	
  Metropolis	
  –	
  A	
  Global	
  Inquiry	
  
(1998)	
  
	
  
Cervero	
  describes	
  Zurich’s	
  approach	
  of	
  
(1)	
  making	
  surface	
  public	
  transport	
  faster	
  
and	
  (2)	
  building	
  closely	
  spaced	
  regional	
  
rail	
  sta>ons	
  in	
  the	
  centre	
  city	
  as	
  a	
  solu>on	
  
that	
  eliminates	
  the	
  need	
  for	
  a	
  rapid	
  rail	
  
system.	
  
So,	
  what’s	
  a	
  level?	
  
Level	
  =	
  f	
  (mode,	
  market	
  characterisHcs)	
  
Characteris*cs	
  
Transport	
  Mode	
  
•  Speed	
  
•  Capacity	
  
•  Capital	
  cost	
  
•  OperaHng	
  cost	
  
•  Flexibility	
  
•  Reliability	
  
Travel	
  Market	
  
•  Distance	
  (Hme)	
  
•  Cost	
  
•  Demographics	
  
•  Comfort	
  
•  Reliability	
  
Characteris*cs	
  
Transport	
  Mode	
  
•  Speed	
  
•  Capacity	
  
•  Capital	
  cost	
  
•  Opera*ng	
  cost	
  
•  Flexibility	
  
•  Reliability	
  
Travel	
  Market	
  
•  Distance	
  (*me)	
  
•  Cost	
  
•  Demographics	
  
•  Comfort	
  
•  Reliability	
  
Speed	
  influences	
  all	
  
other	
  characterisCcs.	
  
Speed	
  =	
  Trip	
  length	
  served	
  “effecHvely”	
  
	
  
…	
  for	
  passengers	
  and	
  operators.	
  
Speed	
  =	
  f	
  (right-­‐of-­‐way)	
  
	
  
Exclusive	
  =	
  fast	
  
Shared	
  =	
  slow	
  
Level	
   Cost	
   Speed	
  
Stop	
  
Spacing	
  
Network	
  
Density	
  
Frequency	
   Capacity	
  
Surface	
  (Bus	
  &	
  Tram)	
   +	
   -­‐	
   +	
   +	
   o	
   -­‐	
  
Rapid	
  Transit	
  	
   -­‐	
   o	
   o	
   o	
   +	
   +	
  
Regional	
  Rail	
   o	
   +	
   -­‐	
   -­‐	
   -­‐	
   +	
  
TradiHonal	
  Approach	
  	
  
3-­‐level	
  System	
  
But,	
  vehicle,	
  infrastructure	
  and	
  
services	
  can	
  be	
  adjusted	
  to	
  serve	
  
“non	
  tradiConal”	
  markets.	
  
region
region
area
budge
transit
area
budge
surfac
area
budge
region
Three-Level Public Transport Network
rapid t
rapid t
Infrastructure	
  +	
  Market	
  Areas	
  
3-­‐level	
  System	
  
Regional	
  Rail	
  
Rapid	
  Transit	
  
Surface	
  Transit	
  
Two-Level Public Transport Network
regio
regio
area
budg
trans
area
budg
surfa
area
budg
regio
rapid
rapid
area
budg
publi
limited additional benefit of a
three-level network
Faster	
  surface	
  
public	
  transit.	
  
More	
  regional	
  rail	
  
staHons	
  in	
  center.	
  
Limited	
  added	
  benefit	
  of	
  3-­‐level	
  network	
  
Infrastructure	
  +	
  Market	
  Areas	
  
2-­‐level	
  System	
  
A level-based approach to public transport network planning
A level-based approach to public transport network planning
Other	
  approaches	
  
Tram-­‐Trains:	
  Trams	
  on	
  regional	
  
rail	
  tracks	
  (Karlsruhe	
  approach)	
  
Bus	
  Rapid	
  Transit:	
  Provide	
  level	
  2	
  service	
  with	
  
level	
  1	
  infrastructure	
  (CuriHba	
  approach)	
  
Move	
  level	
  1	
  underground	
  
Build	
  level	
  2	
  and	
  eliminate	
  level	
  1	
  
(German	
  1970s	
  approach)	
  	
  	
  
surface public transport
Non-motorized
regional rail
rapid transit
level 3
level 1
„level 0"
trip length served attractively
level 2
Non-motorized
rapid transit
level 3
level 1
„level 0"
trip length served attractively
level 2
surface public transport
regional rail
Func*onal	
  Coverage	
  Diagram:	
  3-­‐	
  vs.	
  2-­‐level	
  PT	
  System	
  
Mode/Level Speed	
  	
  [km/h] Separate	
  ROW
Vienna
Bus 1 17 Limited
Tram 1 15 Par*al
Rapid	
  Transit 2 32 Full
Regional	
  Rail 3 45 Full
Boston
Bus 1 18 Limited
Light	
  Rail 1 20 Par*al
Rapid	
  Transit 2 25 Full
Regional	
  Rail 3 50 Full	
  (GC)
Zurich
Bus H 18 Limited
Tram H 15-­‐20 Par*al
Regional	
  Rail H 50 Full
San	
  Francisco
Bus 1 14 No
Tram	
  (Muni	
  Metro) H 15-­‐27 Par*al
Rapid	
  Transit	
  (BART) H 56 Full
Regional	
  (Caltrain) 3 65 Full	
  (GC)
Speed	
  Comparison:	
  3-­‐	
  vs	
  2-­‐level	
  PT	
  System	
  
Measures	
  of	
  Success:	
  Zurich	
  
Passenger	
  
•  Good	
  coverage	
  
•  Rela*vely	
  high	
  speeds	
  
•  High	
  frequency	
  
Operator	
  
•  High	
  farebox	
  recovery	
  
•  Growing	
  market	
  share	
  
80%	
  
100%	
  
120%	
  
140%	
  
160%	
  
180%	
  
200%	
  
220%	
  
240%	
  
260%	
  
280%	
  
1990	
   1995	
   2000	
   2005	
   2010	
  
Growth,	
  indexed	
  against	
  1990	
  
Year	
  
Regional	
  Rail	
  Passengers	
   Metropolitan	
  Area	
  Popula*on	
  
City	
  Popula*on	
   Bus/Tram	
  Passengers	
  
Passenger	
  demand	
  vs	
  populaHon	
  in	
  Zurich	
  
But	
  now	
  …	
  too	
  many	
  passengers!	
  
	
  
	
  
Zurich’s	
  system	
  is	
  operaHng	
  above	
  its	
  effecHve	
  capacity.	
  
	
  
•  High	
  regional	
  rail	
  use	
  for	
  very	
  short	
  center	
  city	
  trips;	
  
•  Extreme	
  crowding	
  on	
  regional	
  rail	
  within	
  city;	
  
•  High	
  crowding	
  on	
  city	
  buses	
  and	
  trams.	
  
trip length served attractively
Bus
Walking
Cycling
S-Bahn
loss in service speed due increased traffic
and crowding as capacity cannot keep up
loss in service speed due to crowding and
longer passenger exchange times
gap
level 3
level 1
„level 0"
regional rail rolling stock not suited
for short trips when crowded
Tram
Func*onal	
  Coverage	
  Diagram:	
  
Impact	
  of	
  capacity	
  problems	
  on	
  Zurich	
  system	
  
Over	
  Capacity	
  =	
  Reduced	
  Speed	
  =	
  Reduced	
  EffecHveness	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Without	
  a	
  dedicated	
  medium-­‐distance	
  
medium-­‐speed	
  service	
  (rapid	
  transit),	
  
capacity	
  constraints	
  on	
  surface	
  and	
  
regional	
  rail	
  levels	
  become	
  acute.	
  
TradiHonal	
  approaches	
  for	
  
solving	
  capacity	
  problems	
  
Larger	
  vehicles	
  with	
  more	
  doors	
  
(so	
  large	
  it	
  doesn’t	
  fit	
  on	
  the	
  slide!)	
  
 	
  	
  Speed-­‐up	
  boarding	
  
A level-based approach to public transport network planning
Off-­‐board	
  HckeHng	
  and	
  
Proof-­‐of-­‐payment	
  
Level-­‐based	
  approaches	
  for	
  
solving	
  capacity	
  problems	
  
Solving	
  capacity	
  problems	
  in	
  Zurich’s	
  2-­‐level	
  system	
  
Surface	
  
•  Longer	
  stop	
  spacing	
  
•  More	
  priority	
  
•  “Metrotram”	
  (LRT)	
  
Regional	
  Rail	
  
•  DifferenHated	
  service	
  
–  Inner	
  
–  Outer	
  
trip length served attractively
Bus
Walking
Cycling
attractiveness increases
Metrotram: Faster service
and higher capacity units
gap closed
level 3
level 1
„level 0"
inner S-Bahn: high frequency and high capacity rolling
stockoptimized for short passenger exchange times
outer S-Bahn: faster service on regional rail
rolling stock increases area served attractively
S-Bahn
Tram
Larger stop spacings
Metrotram	
  –	
  larger	
  vehicles	
  &	
  tunnels	
  
 
Shi]	
  demand	
  to	
  level	
  “0”	
  –	
  ac*ve	
  transport	
  
Ship	
  short	
  trips	
  from	
  public	
  transit	
  to	
  
Level	
  “0”	
  –	
  Biking	
  and	
  Walking	
  
PrioriHze	
  the	
  limited	
  space	
  
available	
  for	
  transport	
  in	
  ciHes	
  
Slow	
  Transit	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Designed	
  specifically	
  to	
  serve	
  short	
  trips.	
  
	
  
Example:	
  Line	
  100	
  –	
  Circle	
  Line	
  Woensel 	
  Source:	
  Muzus	
  Design	
  
Municipality	
  of	
  Eindhoven 	
  Ar*st:	
  Tristan	
  Ozero	
  
Bus	
  route	
  designed	
  by	
  and	
  for	
  seniors 	
  hdp://www.muzus.nl/	
  
Conclusions	
  
•  Public	
  transport	
  vehicle,	
  infrastructure	
  and	
  services	
  can	
  be	
  
adjusted	
  to	
  serve	
  “non	
  tradiHonal”	
  markets.	
  
•  2-­‐level	
  systems	
  can	
  be	
  a	
  flexible	
  and	
  very	
  cost	
  effecHve	
  way	
  to	
  
provide	
  public	
  transport	
  service	
  (no	
  rapid	
  transit	
  system).	
  
•  2-­‐level	
  systems	
  could	
  be	
  especially	
  atracHve	
  for	
  medium-­‐to-­‐
low	
  density	
  metropolitan	
  areas	
  (e.g.,	
  USA).	
  
•  Capacity	
  is	
  the	
  Achilles	
  Heel	
  of	
  2-­‐level	
  systems,	
  but	
  there	
  
are	
  many	
  design	
  strategies	
  to	
  overcome	
  this	
  limitaHon.	
  
•  Since	
  2-­‐level	
  systems	
  use	
  streets	
  for	
  bus	
  and	
  tram	
  operaHons,	
  
they	
  require	
  clear	
  priority	
  seung	
  for	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  street	
  space.	
  
•  High	
  quality	
  pedestrian	
  and	
  bicycle	
  systems	
  reduce	
  the	
  
demand	
  for	
  capacity	
  on	
  public	
  transport	
  and	
  are	
  increasingly	
  
being	
  considered	
  as	
  alternaHves	
  to	
  PT	
  expansion	
  projects.	
  
Andrew	
  Nash	
  helps	
  clients	
  design	
  and	
  manage	
  
innova*ve	
  public	
  transport,	
  railway,	
  urban	
  
planning	
  and	
  ac*ve	
  transport	
  projects.	
  Current	
  
work	
  includes	
  greencitystreets.com	
  (using	
  
informa*on	
  technology	
  for	
  beder	
  public	
  
par*cipa*on),	
  open	
  source	
  railway	
  dispatching	
  
applica*ons,	
  public	
  transport	
  planning	
  and	
  
ac*ve	
  transport	
  projects.	
  See	
  andynash.com	
  
for	
  details	
  and	
  contact	
  informa*on.	
  
	
  
	
  
All	
  photos	
  without	
  credits	
  by	
  Andrew	
  Nash.	
  

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A level-based approach to public transport network planning

  • 1. A level-based approach to public transport network planning Andrew  Nash   GreenCityStreets.com     San  Francisco  SPUR   January  7,  2015  
  • 2. ETH  Zurich:  InsHtute  for  Transport  Planning  and  Systems     Reference:    Hermann  Orth,  Andrew  Nash  and  Ulrich  Weidmann      A  Level-­‐based  Approach  to  Public  Transport  Network  Planning    Presented  at:  US  TransportaHon  Research  Board  2015  Annual  MeeHng  (15-­‐1171)  
  • 3. The  Idea       Robert  Cervero   The  Transit  Metropolis  –  A  Global  Inquiry   (1998)     Cervero  describes  Zurich’s  approach  of   (1)  making  surface  public  transport  faster   and  (2)  building  closely  spaced  regional   rail  sta>ons  in  the  centre  city  as  a  solu>on   that  eliminates  the  need  for  a  rapid  rail   system.  
  • 4. So,  what’s  a  level?  
  • 5. Level  =  f  (mode,  market  characterisHcs)  
  • 6. Characteris*cs   Transport  Mode   •  Speed   •  Capacity   •  Capital  cost   •  OperaHng  cost   •  Flexibility   •  Reliability   Travel  Market   •  Distance  (Hme)   •  Cost   •  Demographics   •  Comfort   •  Reliability  
  • 7. Characteris*cs   Transport  Mode   •  Speed   •  Capacity   •  Capital  cost   •  Opera*ng  cost   •  Flexibility   •  Reliability   Travel  Market   •  Distance  (*me)   •  Cost   •  Demographics   •  Comfort   •  Reliability   Speed  influences  all   other  characterisCcs.  
  • 8. Speed  =  Trip  length  served  “effecHvely”     …  for  passengers  and  operators.  
  • 9. Speed  =  f  (right-­‐of-­‐way)     Exclusive  =  fast   Shared  =  slow  
  • 10. Level   Cost   Speed   Stop   Spacing   Network   Density   Frequency   Capacity   Surface  (Bus  &  Tram)   +   -­‐   +   +   o   -­‐   Rapid  Transit     -­‐   o   o   o   +   +   Regional  Rail   o   +   -­‐   -­‐   -­‐   +   TradiHonal  Approach     3-­‐level  System   But,  vehicle,  infrastructure  and   services  can  be  adjusted  to  serve   “non  tradiConal”  markets.  
  • 11. region region area budge transit area budge surfac area budge region Three-Level Public Transport Network rapid t rapid t Infrastructure  +  Market  Areas   3-­‐level  System   Regional  Rail   Rapid  Transit   Surface  Transit  
  • 12. Two-Level Public Transport Network regio regio area budg trans area budg surfa area budg regio rapid rapid area budg publi limited additional benefit of a three-level network Faster  surface   public  transit.   More  regional  rail   staHons  in  center.   Limited  added  benefit  of  3-­‐level  network   Infrastructure  +  Market  Areas   2-­‐level  System  
  • 16. Tram-­‐Trains:  Trams  on  regional   rail  tracks  (Karlsruhe  approach)  
  • 17. Bus  Rapid  Transit:  Provide  level  2  service  with   level  1  infrastructure  (CuriHba  approach)  
  • 18. Move  level  1  underground  
  • 19. Build  level  2  and  eliminate  level  1   (German  1970s  approach)      
  • 20. surface public transport Non-motorized regional rail rapid transit level 3 level 1 „level 0" trip length served attractively level 2 Non-motorized rapid transit level 3 level 1 „level 0" trip length served attractively level 2 surface public transport regional rail Func*onal  Coverage  Diagram:  3-­‐  vs.  2-­‐level  PT  System  
  • 21. Mode/Level Speed    [km/h] Separate  ROW Vienna Bus 1 17 Limited Tram 1 15 Par*al Rapid  Transit 2 32 Full Regional  Rail 3 45 Full Boston Bus 1 18 Limited Light  Rail 1 20 Par*al Rapid  Transit 2 25 Full Regional  Rail 3 50 Full  (GC) Zurich Bus H 18 Limited Tram H 15-­‐20 Par*al Regional  Rail H 50 Full San  Francisco Bus 1 14 No Tram  (Muni  Metro) H 15-­‐27 Par*al Rapid  Transit  (BART) H 56 Full Regional  (Caltrain) 3 65 Full  (GC) Speed  Comparison:  3-­‐  vs  2-­‐level  PT  System  
  • 22. Measures  of  Success:  Zurich   Passenger   •  Good  coverage   •  Rela*vely  high  speeds   •  High  frequency   Operator   •  High  farebox  recovery   •  Growing  market  share  
  • 23. 80%   100%   120%   140%   160%   180%   200%   220%   240%   260%   280%   1990   1995   2000   2005   2010   Growth,  indexed  against  1990   Year   Regional  Rail  Passengers   Metropolitan  Area  Popula*on   City  Popula*on   Bus/Tram  Passengers   Passenger  demand  vs  populaHon  in  Zurich  
  • 24. But  now  …  too  many  passengers!       Zurich’s  system  is  operaHng  above  its  effecHve  capacity.     •  High  regional  rail  use  for  very  short  center  city  trips;   •  Extreme  crowding  on  regional  rail  within  city;   •  High  crowding  on  city  buses  and  trams.  
  • 25. trip length served attractively Bus Walking Cycling S-Bahn loss in service speed due increased traffic and crowding as capacity cannot keep up loss in service speed due to crowding and longer passenger exchange times gap level 3 level 1 „level 0" regional rail rolling stock not suited for short trips when crowded Tram Func*onal  Coverage  Diagram:   Impact  of  capacity  problems  on  Zurich  system  
  • 26. Over  Capacity  =  Reduced  Speed  =  Reduced  EffecHveness         Without  a  dedicated  medium-­‐distance   medium-­‐speed  service  (rapid  transit),   capacity  constraints  on  surface  and   regional  rail  levels  become  acute.  
  • 27. TradiHonal  approaches  for   solving  capacity  problems  
  • 28. Larger  vehicles  with  more  doors   (so  large  it  doesn’t  fit  on  the  slide!)  
  • 29.      Speed-­‐up  boarding  
  • 31. Off-­‐board  HckeHng  and   Proof-­‐of-­‐payment  
  • 32. Level-­‐based  approaches  for   solving  capacity  problems  
  • 33. Solving  capacity  problems  in  Zurich’s  2-­‐level  system   Surface   •  Longer  stop  spacing   •  More  priority   •  “Metrotram”  (LRT)   Regional  Rail   •  DifferenHated  service   –  Inner   –  Outer   trip length served attractively Bus Walking Cycling attractiveness increases Metrotram: Faster service and higher capacity units gap closed level 3 level 1 „level 0" inner S-Bahn: high frequency and high capacity rolling stockoptimized for short passenger exchange times outer S-Bahn: faster service on regional rail rolling stock increases area served attractively S-Bahn Tram Larger stop spacings
  • 34. Metrotram  –  larger  vehicles  &  tunnels  
  • 35.   Shi]  demand  to  level  “0”  –  ac*ve  transport   Ship  short  trips  from  public  transit  to   Level  “0”  –  Biking  and  Walking  
  • 36. PrioriHze  the  limited  space   available  for  transport  in  ciHes  
  • 37. Slow  Transit                               Designed  specifically  to  serve  short  trips.     Example:  Line  100  –  Circle  Line  Woensel  Source:  Muzus  Design   Municipality  of  Eindhoven  Ar*st:  Tristan  Ozero   Bus  route  designed  by  and  for  seniors  hdp://www.muzus.nl/  
  • 38. Conclusions   •  Public  transport  vehicle,  infrastructure  and  services  can  be   adjusted  to  serve  “non  tradiHonal”  markets.   •  2-­‐level  systems  can  be  a  flexible  and  very  cost  effecHve  way  to   provide  public  transport  service  (no  rapid  transit  system).   •  2-­‐level  systems  could  be  especially  atracHve  for  medium-­‐to-­‐ low  density  metropolitan  areas  (e.g.,  USA).   •  Capacity  is  the  Achilles  Heel  of  2-­‐level  systems,  but  there   are  many  design  strategies  to  overcome  this  limitaHon.   •  Since  2-­‐level  systems  use  streets  for  bus  and  tram  operaHons,   they  require  clear  priority  seung  for  the  use  of  street  space.   •  High  quality  pedestrian  and  bicycle  systems  reduce  the   demand  for  capacity  on  public  transport  and  are  increasingly   being  considered  as  alternaHves  to  PT  expansion  projects.  
  • 39. Andrew  Nash  helps  clients  design  and  manage   innova*ve  public  transport,  railway,  urban   planning  and  ac*ve  transport  projects.  Current   work  includes  greencitystreets.com  (using   informa*on  technology  for  beder  public   par*cipa*on),  open  source  railway  dispatching   applica*ons,  public  transport  planning  and   ac*ve  transport  projects.  See  andynash.com   for  details  and  contact  informa*on.       All  photos  without  credits  by  Andrew  Nash.