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Apps for Behaviour Change
Andrew	
  Nash	
  
GreenCityStreets.com	
  
	
  
TIDE	
  and	
  SUCCEED	
  Conference	
  
Leipzig	
  
May	
  28,	
  2015	
  
	
  
Outline	
  
•  Gamifica(on	
  –	
  a	
  technique	
  
•  Behaviour	
  change	
  
•  Passive	
  behaviour	
  change:	
  use	
  
•  Ac(ve	
  behaviour	
  change:	
  supply	
  
•  Par(cipa(on:	
  supplying	
  sustainable	
  transport	
  
GamificaKon	
  
•  Gamifica(on	
  applies	
  the	
  fun	
  and	
  addic)ng	
  elements	
  
in	
  games	
  to	
  real-­‐world	
  ac(vi(es.	
  	
  
•  It	
  focuses	
  on	
  the	
  human	
  in	
  the	
  system,	
  as	
  opposed	
  to	
  
pure	
  efficiency	
  of	
  the	
  system.	
  
•  When	
  it	
  comes	
  to	
  playing	
  games,	
  kids	
  have	
  amazing	
  
work	
  ethics.	
  (Yu-­‐Kai	
  Chou)	
  
•  "gamifica(on	
  is	
  exci(ng	
  because	
  it	
  promises	
  to	
  make	
  
the	
  hard	
  stuff	
  in	
  life	
  fun”	
  (Google).	
  
Game	
  QualiKes:	
  to	
  improve	
  society	
  
1.  Urgent	
  op(mism	
  (challenging	
  but	
  possible	
  tasks);	
  	
  
2.  Social	
  fabric	
  (people	
  tend	
  to	
  like	
  people	
  beVer	
  aWer	
  
playing	
  games	
  with	
  them);	
  	
  
3.  Working	
  on	
  challenging	
  tasks	
  (people	
  are	
  happier	
  
when	
  working	
  hard);	
  	
  
4.  Games	
  provide	
  epic	
  meaning	
  (akin	
  to	
  purpose	
  in	
  the	
  
real	
  world).	
  
Source:	
  Jane	
  McGonigal	
  
Core	
  Drives:	
  Yu-­‐Kai	
  Chou	
  -­‐	
  Octalysis	
  
1.  Meaning	
  (Wikipedia)	
  
2.  Challenges	
  (points,	
  badges,	
  leaderboards);	
  
3.  Crea(vity	
  and	
  feedback	
  (Lego);	
  
4.  Ownership	
  (virtual	
  goods,	
  stamp	
  collec(ng)	
  
5.  Social	
  connec(on	
  (compe((on,	
  coopera(on,	
  etc.);	
  
6.  Unpredictability	
  &	
  Curiosity	
  
7.  Scarcity	
  
8.  Loss	
  avoidance	
  
GamificaKon	
  
•  Not	
  just	
  for	
  games:	
  Game	
  designers	
  were	
  first	
  
to	
  iden(fy	
  and	
  use	
  the	
  techniques;	
  
•  Gamifica(on	
  is	
  extremely	
  powerful;	
  
•  But,	
  gamifica(on	
  is	
  also	
  very	
  complex:	
  it’s	
  
much	
  more	
  than	
  just	
  adding	
  points,	
  badges	
  
and	
  leaderboards	
  to	
  websites;	
  
•  Get	
  professional	
  advice!	
  
Behaviour	
  Change	
  
Four	
  stages	
  of	
  behaviour	
  change:	
  
1.  Pre-­‐contempla(ve	
  stage	
  
2.  Contempla(ve	
  stage	
  	
  
3.  Prepara(on/ac(on	
  stage	
  
4.  Maintenance	
  stage	
  
	
  
Source:	
  MAX-­‐SEM	
  from	
  EPOMM	
  website	
  
Stages	
  of	
  behaviour	
  change:	
  Example	
  
1.  Pre-­‐contempla(ve:	
  People	
  with	
  no	
  inten(on	
  to	
  
reduce	
  their	
  car	
  use.	
  
2.  Contempla(ve:	
  People	
  thinking	
  about	
  reducing	
  
their	
  car	
  use.	
  
3.  Prepara(on/ac(on:	
  People	
  who	
  have	
  a	
  strategy	
  
and/or	
  have	
  tried	
  a	
  strategy	
  for	
  reducing	
  their	
  car	
  
use	
  (e.g.	
  cycling	
  to	
  work).	
  
4.  Maintenance:	
  People	
  who	
  have	
  adopted	
  the	
  new	
  
behaviour	
  and	
  formed	
  a	
  new	
  habit.	
  
	
  
Source:	
  MAX-­‐SEM	
  from	
  EPOMM	
  website	
  
Passive	
  behaviour	
  change:	
  
Use	
  sustainable	
  transport.	
  
	
  
	
  
AcKve	
  behaviour	
  change:	
  
Provide	
  sustainable	
  transport.	
  
	
  
Passive:	
  use	
  sustainable	
  transport	
  
•  Mobility	
  management!	
  
•  Apps	
  and	
  gamifica(on	
  can	
  help	
  by:	
  
– Providing	
  informa(on	
  (how)	
  
– Encouraging	
  behaviour	
  change	
  (why)	
  
– Maintaining	
  new	
  behaviour	
  (support)	
  
•  Develop	
  and	
  apply	
  apps,	
  social	
  networks	
  and	
  
gamifica(on	
  to	
  mobility	
  management.	
  
AcKve:	
  provide	
  sustainable	
  transport	
  
•  Informa(on	
  technology	
  has	
  vastly	
  increased	
  
the	
  ability	
  of	
  people	
  to	
  par(cipate;	
  
•  This	
  increased	
  ability	
  to	
  par(cipate	
  is	
  
revolu,onising	
  society.	
  
•  Here	
  are	
  some	
  cu0ng	
  edge	
  solu,ons	
  …	
  
How	
  do	
  people	
  provide	
  sustainable	
  transport?	
  
A.  Provide	
  informaKon	
  &	
  ideas	
  
B.  Analyze	
  data	
  
C.  Decide	
  (people	
  collaborate)	
  
D.  Act	
  
InformaKon	
   Analyze	
   Decide	
   Act	
  
Support	
  
A.	
   	
  Input:	
  simple	
  and	
  ubiquitous	
  
•  Social	
  media	
  
•  ReporKng	
  applicaKons	
  
•  Sensor	
  data	
  
Chicago	
  Transit	
  Authority	
  –	
  TwiZer	
  Feed	
  
Zurich	
  Public	
  Transport	
  Authority	
  –	
  Facebook	
  Page	
  
SeeClickFix	
  page	
  for	
  San	
  Francisco	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  hVp://seeclickfix.com	
  	
  
 Traffic	
  Check	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  hVp://www.trafficcheck.at/	
  
	
  
User	
  friendly	
  features	
  needed	
  for	
  mobile	
  phone	
  reporKng:	
  
•  automaKc	
  geo	
  locaKon,	
  
•  logical	
  informaKon	
  flow,	
  	
  
•  check	
  boxes	
  for	
  data	
  entry.	
  	
  
Meine	
  Radspur,	
  Vienna	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  hVp://www.meineradspur.at/	
  	
  
Street	
  Bump,	
  Boston	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  hVp://streetbump.org/	
  
•  City	
  data	
  –	
  open	
  data	
  or	
  scraped.	
  
•  CiKzen	
  data	
  –	
  cheap	
  sensors.	
  
B.	
  	
  Data:	
  you	
  can’t	
  hide	
  
CiKzen	
  developed	
  applicaKons	
  and	
  visualizaKons	
  from	
  open	
  data.	
  
Stumble	
  Safely,	
  Washington	
  D.C.	
  
WayCount	
  vehicle	
  counter	
  and	
  sobware	
  	
  	
  	
  www.waycount.com	
  	
  
Smart	
  CiKzen	
  sensor	
  and	
  sobware	
  	
  hVp://www.smartci(zen.me/	
  	
  
•  EducaKon	
  –	
  transport	
  is	
  complex	
  
•  BeZer	
  processes	
  –	
  mee(ng	
  management	
  
•  Increased	
  engagement	
  –	
  more	
  is	
  beVer	
  
C.	
  	
  Decide:	
  collaborate	
  efficiently	
  
BusMeister	
  …	
  public	
  transport	
  learning	
  	
  	
  	
  hVp://greencitystreets.com	
  
Improve	
  Public	
  Transport	
  wiki	
  …	
  crowd-­‐sourced	
  informaKon	
  
about	
  public	
  transport.	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  hVp://greencitystreets.com	
  
VisualizaKon	
  ...	
  Par(cipatory	
  Chinatown	
  Boston	
  
	
  
	
  
Using	
  virtual	
  reality	
  to	
  help	
  understand	
  city	
  planning.	
  
hVp://www.par(cipatorychinatown.org/	
  	
  
VisualisaKon	
  of	
  street	
  cross	
  secKons...	
  streetmix	
  
	
  
hVp://streetmix.net	
  
San	
  Francisco	
  Mind	
  Mixer	
  website	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  www.improveSF.com	
  	
  
Shareabouts	
  –	
  geo	
  collaboraKon	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  openplans.org/work/shareabouts/	
  
GreenCityStreets.com	
  …	
  Facebook-­‐based	
  collaboraKon	
  
Loomio	
  –	
  public	
  infrastructure	
  for	
  collaboraKve	
  decision	
  making	
  
www.loomio.org	
  -­‐	
  please	
  support	
  their	
  crowd	
  funding	
  effort!	
  
Ring	
  Ride	
  –	
  Game	
  to	
  encourage	
  par,cipa,on	
  
www.ringstrasse150.com	
  
Grr-­‐Grr-­‐Bike	
  –	
  Game	
  for	
  educaKon	
  +	
  engagement.	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
www.grr-­‐grr-­‐bike.com	
  	
  
D.	
  	
  Act:	
  disrup,ve	
  change	
  
•  InformaKon	
  –	
  TwiVer	
  real	
  (me	
  transport	
  
•  Civic	
  organisaKon	
  –	
  596	
  Acres,	
  Casserole	
  
•  Sharing	
  society	
  –	
  P2P	
  ridesharing	
  
•  Crowd-­‐sourced	
  civic	
  works	
  –	
  Kickstarter	
  
•  DisrupKve	
  businesses	
  –	
  Uber,	
  Bridj	
  
InformaKon	
  exchange	
  and	
  organisaKon	
  …	
  596	
  Acres	
  
Using	
  games	
  to	
  influence	
  behaviour	
  …	
  Chromaroma	
  (London)	
  
Crowdfunding	
  for	
  civic	
  improvements	
  …	
  Kickstarter	
  
App-­‐based	
  public	
  transport	
  
Designing	
  passionate,	
  people-­‐powered	
  public	
  
services	
  
	
  
Casserole	
  is	
  an	
  example	
  of	
  how	
  understanding	
  ci,zens	
  as	
  producers	
  
as	
  well	
  as	
  consumers	
  leads	
  to	
  services	
  that	
  help	
  communi(es	
  turn	
  
the	
  issues	
  they’re	
  passionate	
  about	
  into	
  ways	
  to	
  be	
  more	
  self-­‐
sufficient	
  and	
  less	
  invested	
  in	
  expensive	
  public	
  services.	
  	
  
Summary	
  
1.  Gamifica(on	
  is	
  a	
  powerful	
  tool	
  for	
  behaviour	
  change.	
  
2.  Informa(on	
  technology	
  has	
  fundamentally	
  changed	
  
the	
  role	
  of	
  government.	
  
3.  IT	
  applica(ons	
  enable	
  ac(ve	
  par(cipa(on	
  –	
  
government	
  must	
  embrace	
  this	
  development.	
  
4.  Recognise	
  that	
  if	
  you	
  don’t	
  do	
  it	
  –	
  someone	
  else	
  will.	
  
Andrew	
  Nash	
  develops	
  engaging	
  public	
  
par(cipa(on	
  applica(ons	
  and	
  games	
  designed	
  
to	
  improve	
  city	
  livability	
  and	
  transport.	
  
	
  
•  GreenCityStreets.com	
  
•  Ringstrasse150.com/wp/	
  
•  AndyNash.com	
  

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Apps for Transport Behaviour Change

  • 1. Apps for Behaviour Change Andrew  Nash   GreenCityStreets.com     TIDE  and  SUCCEED  Conference   Leipzig   May  28,  2015    
  • 2. Outline   •  Gamifica(on  –  a  technique   •  Behaviour  change   •  Passive  behaviour  change:  use   •  Ac(ve  behaviour  change:  supply   •  Par(cipa(on:  supplying  sustainable  transport  
  • 3. GamificaKon   •  Gamifica(on  applies  the  fun  and  addic)ng  elements   in  games  to  real-­‐world  ac(vi(es.     •  It  focuses  on  the  human  in  the  system,  as  opposed  to   pure  efficiency  of  the  system.   •  When  it  comes  to  playing  games,  kids  have  amazing   work  ethics.  (Yu-­‐Kai  Chou)   •  "gamifica(on  is  exci(ng  because  it  promises  to  make   the  hard  stuff  in  life  fun”  (Google).  
  • 4. Game  QualiKes:  to  improve  society   1.  Urgent  op(mism  (challenging  but  possible  tasks);     2.  Social  fabric  (people  tend  to  like  people  beVer  aWer   playing  games  with  them);     3.  Working  on  challenging  tasks  (people  are  happier   when  working  hard);     4.  Games  provide  epic  meaning  (akin  to  purpose  in  the   real  world).   Source:  Jane  McGonigal  
  • 5. Core  Drives:  Yu-­‐Kai  Chou  -­‐  Octalysis   1.  Meaning  (Wikipedia)   2.  Challenges  (points,  badges,  leaderboards);   3.  Crea(vity  and  feedback  (Lego);   4.  Ownership  (virtual  goods,  stamp  collec(ng)   5.  Social  connec(on  (compe((on,  coopera(on,  etc.);   6.  Unpredictability  &  Curiosity   7.  Scarcity   8.  Loss  avoidance  
  • 6. GamificaKon   •  Not  just  for  games:  Game  designers  were  first   to  iden(fy  and  use  the  techniques;   •  Gamifica(on  is  extremely  powerful;   •  But,  gamifica(on  is  also  very  complex:  it’s   much  more  than  just  adding  points,  badges   and  leaderboards  to  websites;   •  Get  professional  advice!  
  • 7. Behaviour  Change   Four  stages  of  behaviour  change:   1.  Pre-­‐contempla(ve  stage   2.  Contempla(ve  stage     3.  Prepara(on/ac(on  stage   4.  Maintenance  stage     Source:  MAX-­‐SEM  from  EPOMM  website  
  • 8. Stages  of  behaviour  change:  Example   1.  Pre-­‐contempla(ve:  People  with  no  inten(on  to   reduce  their  car  use.   2.  Contempla(ve:  People  thinking  about  reducing   their  car  use.   3.  Prepara(on/ac(on:  People  who  have  a  strategy   and/or  have  tried  a  strategy  for  reducing  their  car   use  (e.g.  cycling  to  work).   4.  Maintenance:  People  who  have  adopted  the  new   behaviour  and  formed  a  new  habit.     Source:  MAX-­‐SEM  from  EPOMM  website  
  • 9. Passive  behaviour  change:   Use  sustainable  transport.       AcKve  behaviour  change:   Provide  sustainable  transport.    
  • 10. Passive:  use  sustainable  transport   •  Mobility  management!   •  Apps  and  gamifica(on  can  help  by:   – Providing  informa(on  (how)   – Encouraging  behaviour  change  (why)   – Maintaining  new  behaviour  (support)   •  Develop  and  apply  apps,  social  networks  and   gamifica(on  to  mobility  management.  
  • 11. AcKve:  provide  sustainable  transport   •  Informa(on  technology  has  vastly  increased   the  ability  of  people  to  par(cipate;   •  This  increased  ability  to  par(cipate  is   revolu,onising  society.   •  Here  are  some  cu0ng  edge  solu,ons  …  
  • 12. How  do  people  provide  sustainable  transport?   A.  Provide  informaKon  &  ideas   B.  Analyze  data   C.  Decide  (people  collaborate)   D.  Act   InformaKon   Analyze   Decide   Act   Support  
  • 13. A.    Input:  simple  and  ubiquitous   •  Social  media   •  ReporKng  applicaKons   •  Sensor  data  
  • 14. Chicago  Transit  Authority  –  TwiZer  Feed  
  • 15. Zurich  Public  Transport  Authority  –  Facebook  Page  
  • 16. SeeClickFix  page  for  San  Francisco                  hVp://seeclickfix.com    
  • 17.
  • 18.  Traffic  Check                                  hVp://www.trafficcheck.at/     User  friendly  features  needed  for  mobile  phone  reporKng:   •  automaKc  geo  locaKon,   •  logical  informaKon  flow,     •  check  boxes  for  data  entry.    
  • 19. Meine  Radspur,  Vienna          hVp://www.meineradspur.at/    
  • 20. Street  Bump,  Boston                        hVp://streetbump.org/  
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23. •  City  data  –  open  data  or  scraped.   •  CiKzen  data  –  cheap  sensors.   B.    Data:  you  can’t  hide  
  • 24. CiKzen  developed  applicaKons  and  visualizaKons  from  open  data.   Stumble  Safely,  Washington  D.C.  
  • 25. WayCount  vehicle  counter  and  sobware        www.waycount.com    
  • 26. Smart  CiKzen  sensor  and  sobware    hVp://www.smartci(zen.me/    
  • 27.
  • 28. •  EducaKon  –  transport  is  complex   •  BeZer  processes  –  mee(ng  management   •  Increased  engagement  –  more  is  beVer   C.    Decide:  collaborate  efficiently  
  • 29. BusMeister  …  public  transport  learning        hVp://greencitystreets.com  
  • 30. Improve  Public  Transport  wiki  …  crowd-­‐sourced  informaKon   about  public  transport.              hVp://greencitystreets.com  
  • 31. VisualizaKon  ...  Par(cipatory  Chinatown  Boston       Using  virtual  reality  to  help  understand  city  planning.   hVp://www.par(cipatorychinatown.org/    
  • 32. VisualisaKon  of  street  cross  secKons...  streetmix     hVp://streetmix.net  
  • 33. San  Francisco  Mind  Mixer  website                www.improveSF.com    
  • 34. Shareabouts  –  geo  collaboraKon                  openplans.org/work/shareabouts/  
  • 36. Loomio  –  public  infrastructure  for  collaboraKve  decision  making   www.loomio.org  -­‐  please  support  their  crowd  funding  effort!  
  • 37. Ring  Ride  –  Game  to  encourage  par,cipa,on   www.ringstrasse150.com  
  • 38. Grr-­‐Grr-­‐Bike  –  Game  for  educaKon  +  engagement.               www.grr-­‐grr-­‐bike.com    
  • 39. D.    Act:  disrup,ve  change   •  InformaKon  –  TwiVer  real  (me  transport   •  Civic  organisaKon  –  596  Acres,  Casserole   •  Sharing  society  –  P2P  ridesharing   •  Crowd-­‐sourced  civic  works  –  Kickstarter   •  DisrupKve  businesses  –  Uber,  Bridj  
  • 40. InformaKon  exchange  and  organisaKon  …  596  Acres  
  • 41. Using  games  to  influence  behaviour  …  Chromaroma  (London)  
  • 42. Crowdfunding  for  civic  improvements  …  Kickstarter  
  • 43.
  • 45. Designing  passionate,  people-­‐powered  public   services     Casserole  is  an  example  of  how  understanding  ci,zens  as  producers   as  well  as  consumers  leads  to  services  that  help  communi(es  turn   the  issues  they’re  passionate  about  into  ways  to  be  more  self-­‐ sufficient  and  less  invested  in  expensive  public  services.    
  • 46. Summary   1.  Gamifica(on  is  a  powerful  tool  for  behaviour  change.   2.  Informa(on  technology  has  fundamentally  changed   the  role  of  government.   3.  IT  applica(ons  enable  ac(ve  par(cipa(on  –   government  must  embrace  this  development.   4.  Recognise  that  if  you  don’t  do  it  –  someone  else  will.  
  • 47. Andrew  Nash  develops  engaging  public   par(cipa(on  applica(ons  and  games  designed   to  improve  city  livability  and  transport.     •  GreenCityStreets.com   •  Ringstrasse150.com/wp/   •  AndyNash.com