Survey Research(Special emphasis on Questionnaire) Naveed Iqbal Ch.
Surveys (A Thumbnail Introduction) “ A type of research to collect the data and facts bout some certain situation or issue from the target population existing in surroundings having relevance to the nature of study.” “ Survey research is the research strategy to study the relationships and characteristics.”
“surveys are based on the desire to collect information (usually by questionnaire) about a well defined issue or situation (hypothesis) from the well defined population” Surveys are method of data collection in which information is gathered through oral or written questioning”
“Data collection through survey involves persuasion of respondents and then on some level social interaction between the respondents and the research interviewer” A team effort of many people having diverse skills. surveys are now used in all areas of life. For example business, politics, agriculture, industry, education, media etc.
Why surveys? (Purpose & Uses) To provide someone with information (to describe the situations). To explain the situations (analytical surveys). Problem identification & solving. To measure the change. To study attitudes, behavior and habits.
To examine the cause-effect relationship. To study the characteristics. To formulate a hypothesis. To test a hypothesis. Decision making.
Types Of Surveys: Descriptive Survey“A descriptive survey attempts to picture or document current conditions or attitudes that is, to describe what exists at the moment”Examples: Audience survey to determine the program taste. To study the changing values, life style by the effect of some special type of program.
Analytical Surveys “An analytical survey attempts to describe and explain WHY certain situations exist. Here we examine two, or more variable to test our research hypothesis”Examples: How life-style effects the t.v. viewing habits. Impact of war games on teenagers.
Some more types… 1- Factual surveys. (respondents act as reporters). 2- Opinion surveys. (respondents expresses his view point opinion). 3-Interpretative surveys. (interpretation ) Example: Why do you read newspapers?
Steps in the Process of Survey ResearchStep 1:- Develop Hypotheses. Decide on type of survey (mail, interview, telephone). Write survey questions. Decide on response categories. Design layout.
Step 2:- Plan how to record data. Pilot test survey instrument. Revise the instrument.
Step 3:- Decide on target population. Get sampling frame. Decide on sampling size. Select sample.
Step 4:- Locate respondents. Conduct interviews. Carefully record data.
Step 5 :- Enter data into computers. Recheck all data. Perform statistical analysis on data.
Step 6:- Describe methods and findings in research report. Present findings to others for critique and evaluation.
Three Methods of survey Mailed questionnaire. Personal interview. Telephone interview.
The Mailed Questionnaire It is one of the most important data collection survey method. Mail survey involves sending a cover letter and a questionnaire to a specific person.
Advantages Low cost. Reduction in biasing errors. Greater anonymity. Accessibility. Less time & trained staff.
Disadvantages Requires simple questions. No probing opportunity. No control over WHO fills? Low response rate.
Personal InterviewsInterviewing is a form ofquestioning characterizedby the fact that it employsverbal questioning.Together with thequestionnaire , interviewsmake up the surveymethod, which is one of themost popular technique ofdata collection.
Advantages Flexibility in questioning. Control over the interview situation. High response rate. Collection of supplement data.
Telephone Interview Telephone interview demonstrates the same structural characteristics as standard interviewing technique, except that it is conducted by telephone.
Advantages Moderate cost. Less time consumption. Higher response rate. Quality ……(Supervision , Recording)
Disadvantages Hesitation to discuss sensitive topics. The “Broken-Off ”interviews. No supplement information.
Mailed Questionnaire Introduction Mail survey involves sending a cover letter and a questionnaire to a specific person. The cover letter states the purpose sponsor instructions and time of return. The questionnaire---- totally self explanatory, clear and simple.
Advantages of Questionnaire Less expensive (no need of interviewers). Quick results. Less opportunity for bias and errors. Wide coverage Respondents may use personal records. Collection of data about sensitive topics. Less time consumption. High response rate.
Disadvantages Many factors effect on response rate Low education. Disliking to write. Disliking to read. No interest in the topic. No further explanations Lack of understanding of respondents. We receive minimum amount of in formations against open ended questions.
Disadvantages No probing and clarification. No identity of the respondent.(some one else can also fill). No supervision- partial responses.
When to design? 1-The problem SOP PSM 2-Literature review. 3-Hypothesis (Variables, Operationalization) 4-Literature review. 5-Sampling. 6-Questionnaire construction
Sampling “The process of choosing some representative members from the target population”1- Probability Sampling.2- Non-Probability Sampling.
Probability Sampling Simple random sampling. Systematic sampling. Cluster sampling. Stratified random sampling. Multi phase sampling. Multi stage sampling. Panel studies. Spatial sampling.
Structure of the QuestionnaireThere are three main elements: The cover letter. The instructions. The main body.
The Cover Letter The cover letter must have the following details; The main objectives and social significance of the study; The research team and its sponsors; The reasons why the respondent should complete the questionnaire; Assurance of anonymity and confidentiality; Requirements for completion such as maximum time, conditions, etc; Issues related to ethics.
The Instructions How to fill the questionnaire? To remind the Ethics. To request the respondents not to please the researcher.
The Main Body It includes questions. Be careful with regard to; Content. Structure. Format. Wording. Flow.
Questionnaire Format It refers to the general model which provides guidelines on hoe the questions should be placed? Logical Order Transition and Flow
Steps in Questionnaire Construction The process of questionnaire construction goes through a number of interrelated steps as;Step 1: Preparation: Decision for the most suitable type of questionnaire. Determine the way how it will be managed? Literature Review. Proper Guidance from the Experts.
Step 2: Constructing the First Draft: Formulation of the material. Implementation of decided method of questionnaire. Secondary and tertiary questions.
Step 3: Self Critique:Testing of ; Relevance Symmetry Clarity Simplicity Accordance with the basic rules.
Step 5: Re-examination & Revision: After changing …Re-examination by the experts. Implementation of the final changes.
Step 6: Pre-testing: Selection of the small sample. Filling up of the questionnaire. Analysis of the data.
Step 7: Revision: Revision of the minor changes by the researcher himself. Revision of the major changes by the help of experts.
Step 8: Second Pre-test: Revised questionnaire filling. Data analysis. Adjustments & revision.
Step 9: Final Draft Formulation: Editorial work. Checking for spelling mistakes. Legibility. Instructions. Space for responses. Scaling issues General presentation.
Types of Questions Primary Questions Directly related, as “Who is boss in your home?” Secondary Questions Provides info on secondary issues
Types of Questions Tertiary Questions Padding Questions (Breather) Probes (Stimulating) Direct Questions Do you believe in god? Indirect Questions Do u think that ppl of ur age and status believe in god?
Types of Questions Suggestive Questions Filter and contingency Questions Fixed alternative & Open ended
Response Format…should be Accurate Exhaustive Mutually Exclusive Uni-dimensional