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CHAPTER 1<br />The Problem and It’s Background<br />,[object Object]
Our country suffers from multifarious crisis such as socioeconomic crisis, political crisis, and as well as financial crisis which is greatly affected by global economic crisis. Despite of all these crises, Filipinos are imaginative, creative, and courageous to surpass these obstacles in everyday life. Even though there are some companies affected by these crises which they are force to decrease their employees called as “recession”, some of them have job openings that offer new career opportunities to graduated college students. These job openings also offers a new challenge into their life – a great responsibility lies to his hand that someday will help his family strive to achieve wealthiest, use his acquired knowledge and skills when he engage into a job, and acted as one of the reinforcements in industry that would further improved the depleting economy of the country. All of these, comes first from wishes and aspirations that arises during childhood years that someday he or she will become a doctor, an architect, a teacher, a police, or an attorney to help those seek needs and help their family to ascend into poverty. According to Ginzberg and his associates , during the fantasy period play gradually becomes work-oriented and reflects initial preferences for certain kind of activities. This stage is the preparation for a child’s highly organized social life they will be required to adjust when they enter the first grade.
Career preferences are free opportunity to select a desired career. It is also a decision-making in a confusing situation which occurs during the senior year of high school level. When one is confused in choosing a career, he relies on his friends and relatives. He was confused in a sense that he cannot make his own decision and not yet ready to get into college. According to Tiedeman , career development unfolds within the general process of cognitive development as one resolves ego-relevant crises. He further noted out that decision-making as a continuous process in which individuals will change their courses of career action, generally by leaving a setting or environment. Such as when a student is disoriented in his course he have been taken that will result in decreasing eagerness on that particular field. He decides to transfer in another school or to shift another course that really fits his own interest and. When one is unstable in making decision, these disoriented strategy may be repeated until achieve different bachelor’s degree which can be a major distraction of one’s future job. Super also considered indecisiveness as a period of developmental process when interest was not fully crystallized.
Therefore, this study intends to determine the factors affecting career preferences among senior high school students of Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Vocational High School of academic year 2009 to 2010. This factors that serve as preferences of student in choosing a career in college includes childhood aspirations, family/ relatives, peer/ friends, interest and specialization, values,  in-demand jobs, school guidance counselor; and anticipated problems encountered are presumed to affect the student preferences of their career.
Statement of the ProblemThe study aimed to determine the factors affecting career preferences of senior high school students of Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Vocational High School of the academic year 2009-2010. Specifically, it sought to answer the following sub problems:<br />,[object Object]
Sexd. Parents Occupation
Agee. Size of Income
Parents Educational Attainmentf. Sibling Position
What are the top three expressed career choices of the students?
What are the preferences of students in choosing a career in college in terms of:
Childhood Aspirationsd. Values
Family/ Relativese. In-Demand Jobs
Peer/ Friendsf. School Guidance Counselor
What are the anticipated problems encountered in making their career choice?
Hypothesis of the Study
The following hypotheses are formulated for acceptance or rejection of study:
The socio-demographic characteristics (such as sex, age, parents’ educational attainment, parents’ occupation, size of income, and sibling position) does not affect the career preferences of the senior high school students.
The preference of student in terms of childhood aspirations, family/ relatives, values, in-demand jobs, and school guidance counselor does not affect their career choice.
The anticipated problem encountered by students does not affect their career choice.
Theoretical / Conceptual Framework
1.4.1. Theoretical Framework
The study is anchored on the theory of Donald Super which focuses on the development of life roles over the life span with emphasis on interrole congruence. His vocational concept as a part of self-concept is formed, it is the driving force that establishes a career pattern one will follow through life. Vocational developmental tasks are derived from vocational stages which provides framework for vocational behavior and attitudes.
VOCATIONAL DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES
Growth (birth-age 14 or 15), characterized by development of capacity, attitudes, interests, and needs associated with self-concepts;
Explanatory (ages 15-24), characterized by a tentative phase in which choices are narrowed but not finalized;
Establishment (ages 25-44), characterized by trial and stabilization through work experiences;
Maintenance (ages 45-64), characterized by a continual adjustment process to improve working position and situation; and
Decline (ages 65+), characterized by preretirement considerations, reduced work output, and eventual retirement.The crystallization task (ages 14-18) is forming a preferred career plan and considering how it might be implemented. Pertinent information is studied with the goal of becoming more aware of the preferred choice and the wisdom of preference. The specification task (ages 18-21) follows in which the individual feels the need to specify the career plan through more specific resources and explicit awareness of cogent variables of the preferred choice. The implementation task (ages 21-24)  is accomplished by the completion of training and entry into the career and develops a feeling of security in career position. The stabilization (ages 24-35) is reached when the individual is firmly established in a career and develops a feeling of security in career position. Finally, the consolidation task (35+) follows with advancement and seniority in a career. Super also identified six dimensions that he thought were relevant and appropriate for adolescents:<br />,[object Object]
Information and Planning (a competence dimension concerning specificity of information individuals have concerning future career decisions and past planning accomplished);

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My thesis proposal

  • 1.
  • 2. Our country suffers from multifarious crisis such as socioeconomic crisis, political crisis, and as well as financial crisis which is greatly affected by global economic crisis. Despite of all these crises, Filipinos are imaginative, creative, and courageous to surpass these obstacles in everyday life. Even though there are some companies affected by these crises which they are force to decrease their employees called as “recession”, some of them have job openings that offer new career opportunities to graduated college students. These job openings also offers a new challenge into their life – a great responsibility lies to his hand that someday will help his family strive to achieve wealthiest, use his acquired knowledge and skills when he engage into a job, and acted as one of the reinforcements in industry that would further improved the depleting economy of the country. All of these, comes first from wishes and aspirations that arises during childhood years that someday he or she will become a doctor, an architect, a teacher, a police, or an attorney to help those seek needs and help their family to ascend into poverty. According to Ginzberg and his associates , during the fantasy period play gradually becomes work-oriented and reflects initial preferences for certain kind of activities. This stage is the preparation for a child’s highly organized social life they will be required to adjust when they enter the first grade.
  • 3. Career preferences are free opportunity to select a desired career. It is also a decision-making in a confusing situation which occurs during the senior year of high school level. When one is confused in choosing a career, he relies on his friends and relatives. He was confused in a sense that he cannot make his own decision and not yet ready to get into college. According to Tiedeman , career development unfolds within the general process of cognitive development as one resolves ego-relevant crises. He further noted out that decision-making as a continuous process in which individuals will change their courses of career action, generally by leaving a setting or environment. Such as when a student is disoriented in his course he have been taken that will result in decreasing eagerness on that particular field. He decides to transfer in another school or to shift another course that really fits his own interest and. When one is unstable in making decision, these disoriented strategy may be repeated until achieve different bachelor’s degree which can be a major distraction of one’s future job. Super also considered indecisiveness as a period of developmental process when interest was not fully crystallized.
  • 4. Therefore, this study intends to determine the factors affecting career preferences among senior high school students of Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Vocational High School of academic year 2009 to 2010. This factors that serve as preferences of student in choosing a career in college includes childhood aspirations, family/ relatives, peer/ friends, interest and specialization, values, in-demand jobs, school guidance counselor; and anticipated problems encountered are presumed to affect the student preferences of their career.
  • 5.
  • 9. What are the top three expressed career choices of the students?
  • 10. What are the preferences of students in choosing a career in college in terms of:
  • 13. Peer/ Friendsf. School Guidance Counselor
  • 14. What are the anticipated problems encountered in making their career choice?
  • 16. The following hypotheses are formulated for acceptance or rejection of study:
  • 17. The socio-demographic characteristics (such as sex, age, parents’ educational attainment, parents’ occupation, size of income, and sibling position) does not affect the career preferences of the senior high school students.
  • 18. The preference of student in terms of childhood aspirations, family/ relatives, values, in-demand jobs, and school guidance counselor does not affect their career choice.
  • 19. The anticipated problem encountered by students does not affect their career choice.
  • 22. The study is anchored on the theory of Donald Super which focuses on the development of life roles over the life span with emphasis on interrole congruence. His vocational concept as a part of self-concept is formed, it is the driving force that establishes a career pattern one will follow through life. Vocational developmental tasks are derived from vocational stages which provides framework for vocational behavior and attitudes.
  • 24. Growth (birth-age 14 or 15), characterized by development of capacity, attitudes, interests, and needs associated with self-concepts;
  • 25. Explanatory (ages 15-24), characterized by a tentative phase in which choices are narrowed but not finalized;
  • 26. Establishment (ages 25-44), characterized by trial and stabilization through work experiences;
  • 27. Maintenance (ages 45-64), characterized by a continual adjustment process to improve working position and situation; and
  • 28.
  • 29. Information and Planning (a competence dimension concerning specificity of information individuals have concerning future career decisions and past planning accomplished);
  • 30. Consistency of Vocational Preferences (individuals’ consistency of preferences);
  • 31. Crystallization of Traits (individual progress toward forming a self-concept);
  • 33.
  • 36. system of the career field
  • 39. committed cause or action is
  • 40.
  • 41. To the Parents – In this study, parents will realize how important they are as a source of encouragement in which children are free to explore different areas of career preferences. This study will look forward in giving their children an assurance to acquire quality education that would enable them to obtain better job, better income, and brighter future.
  • 42. To the Teacher – This study will give information to the teachers of EARVHS as to the preferences of students such that they can focus on the skills needed by the students if ever the latter would pursue the career they have chosen.
  • 43. To the School Administration – The result of this study will help the school administration in putting up an effective, integrated career information and guidance system that plays a very helpful role in guiding students towards making the best possible career decisions.
  • 44. To the Researcher – The process and outcome of this study will produce a great satisfaction, competence, and professionalism to the field. Although the topic of the study is focused on career which belongs to the field known as Industrial Psychology, the purpose is to have a diversity and idea about the field rather than understanding the abnormalities of human behavior.
  • 46. The following terms are conceptually or operationally defined to enhance the understanding of the readers of this paper.
  • 47. Crisis – an unstable or crucial time or state of affairs whose outcome will make a decisive difference for better or worse. In this study, crisis is mentioned into four: socio-economic, political, financial, as well as global economic.
  • 48. Recession – a period of reduced economic activity or withdrawal. In this study, recession refers to a decrease of employees in a company affected by economic crisis.
  • 49. Career – a field for or pursuit of consecutive progressive achievement especially in public, professional, or business life. In this study, career is the application of education whereby it is the totality of acquired knowledge.
  • 50. Ego-Relevant Crisis – is derived from Erik Erikson’s eight psychosocial crises such as
  • 51. 1)Trust, 2)Autonomy, 3) Initiative, 4) Industry, 5) Identity, 6)Intimacy, 7) Generativity, and 8) Ego-Integrity.
  • 52. 5. Disoriented Strategy – displace from normal position or relationship. In the study, this term refers to mechanism of students when he or she is unstable in choosing a career which can be repeated.
  • 53. 6. Socio-Demographic Characteristics – refers to sex, age, parent’s educational attainment, parent’s occupation, size of income, and sibling position.
  • 54. 7. Sibling Position – the position of respondent in his family, whether he or she was a first child, second child, third child, etc. .
  • 55. 8. Preference – other term for recommend ; the power or opportunity of choosing. In the study, the term career preference refers to the basis of student in choosing the course he wants whether it comes from his childhood aspirations, relatives, peer, his values in life, interest and specialization, and school guidance counselor.
  • 56. 9. Childhood Aspirations – the child’s infantile wishes of what he wants when grew up.
  • 57. 10. Interest – to induce or persuade ; to participate or engage.
  • 58. 11. Specialization – to concentrate one’s efforts in a special activity of field.
  • 59. 12. Values – refers to motivated drives the individual is striving to achieve their aspirations in life.
  • 60. 13. “In-Demand” Jobs – refers to the majority of present occupation which many companies are in need for a particular job.
  • 61. 14. School Guidance Counselor – is a type of counseling profession specialized in assisting the students in choosing their career in college and as well as vocational or educational problems.
  • 62. 15. Anticipated Problems – the expected problems of student’s career choice. For example, financial sustainability, poor health, self-conflicts, etc.
  • 63. 16. Self-Concept – the mental image one has of oneself.
  • 64. 17. Vocational Self-Concept – a driving force that establishes a career pattern one will follow through life.
  • 65. 18. Vocational Ego-Involvement – a term which describes Tiedeman’s self-development approach to career.
  • 67. Review of Related Literature and Studies
  • 68. Career preference is the process of decision-making. A great number of studies, researches, and write-ups has been conducted for a period of time and still emerged as one of the top-priority researches due to rapid changing and need of time. This chapter is the presentation of literature and studies from foreign to local which may directly or indirectly bearing to study at hand. Relevance to present studies will give a big picture why these literature and studies from foreign to local are used.
  • 70. According to Howard and Ill stressed out that whenever students are in their high school experience, they are the center of learning. In a traditional high school, the center of the system is the content or subject, not student learning. Howard and Ill present a system to promote the shift from traditional content or subject –centered high schools to student-centered high schools which is called as Collaborative Career Pathways – a system of organizing the student learning interests and aptitudes around career paths. It provides a structure for students to reference their learning and comment each year of their high school experience. It allows students to plan and practice their skills while creating a smooth and successful transition to a post-secondary option.
  • 71. Goffredson’s Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations describes how people become attracted to certain occupations. Self-concept in vocational development is the key factor to career selection and people want jobs that are compatible with their self-image. The key determinants of self-concept are one’s social class, level of intelligence, and experiences with sex-typing. Roe’s need approach9 emphasized that early childhood experiences play an important role in finding satisfaction in one’s chosen field. The need structure of the individual, according to Roe, would be greatly influenced by early childhood frustrations and satisfactions.
  • 72. According to John Holland , individuals are attracted to a given career by their particular personalities and numerous variables that constitute their backgrounds. First of all, career choice is an expression of, or an extension of personality into the world of work followed by subsequent identification with specific occupational stereotypes. Accordingly, one chooses a career to satisfy preferred modal personal orientation. Modal personal orientation is a developmental process established through heredity and the individual’s life history of reacting to environmental demands. If the individual has developed a strong dominant orientation, satisfaction is probable in a corresponding occupational environment. If, however the orientation is one of indecision, the livelihood of satisfaction diminishes.
  • 74. According to the study conducted by Siguan Jr. (1994), it was found out that the students self-concept showed no significant influence on their career preferences. The academic achievements of students proved to be significant related to their career preferences. The school were students came from had no influence on their choice of career. He recommends that a more improved and functional guidance provided in school to help students make sound career choices. The guidance services in school must be collaborative efforts of the administrator, guidance counselors, and teachers. Classroom teachers are encouraged to do their best in improving teaching learning processes, considering that academic achievement of student influences their career preferences. Another study conducted by Almerino (2003), it was found out that a big picture of a big family with low educational attainment and inadequate investment was the sole foundation of choosing a course, which was psychologically motivated. The respondent’s level of preferred intelligence did not match to their chosen course. This could be drawn from the required level of the course in contrast with their level of preferred intelligence.
  • 75. The necessity of developing a career development program was need in order to prevent any misfits and to assist students in the process of crystallizing their career in life. She recommended that this program be effectively implemented.
  • 76. Personal interests, abilities, skills, and values are the most influential factors in coming chosen occupation by the participants according to Pabiton (2007). These imply that like other graduating students in high school students, the participants seemed to have chosen occupation. She also noted that the students be given all the chances to learn and develop the skills and attitudes required for various occupations. She recommends that career counselors could give more emphasis on this environmental factor during individual and small group career counseling.
  • 77.
  • 78. According to Elmer (1989), career planning is life goal-setting. Without such a plan, it is like making a journey to an unfamiliar destination without a map. He proposed a Career Planning Guide that will help the students in choosing their appropriate course from planning a career, steps in planning career, goal-setting and self-understanding. Also, it reveals that guidance and counseling is intervention of underemployment individuals and career preparedness must be initiated.
  • 79. 2.5. Relevance to the Present Studies
  • 80.
  • 81. The instrument used was a researcher-made questionnaire checklist to gather the needed data for the student’s profile. The draft of the questionnaire was drawn out based on the researcher’s readings, previous studies, professional literature, published and unpublished thesis relevant to the study.
  • 82. In the preparation of the instrument, the requirements in the designing of good data collection instrument were considered. For instance, statement describing the situations or issues pertaining was toned down to accommodate the knowledge preparedness of the respondents. Open-ended options were provided to accommodate to free formatted views related to the topics or issues. In this way, the instrument is authorized to obtain valid responses of the students.
  • 83. Preference for the use of the structured questionnaire is premised on several research assumptions such as a) cost of being a least expensive means of gathering data, b) avoidance of personal bias, c) less pressure for immediate response, and giving the respondents a greater feeling of anonymity. In the end, it encouraged open responses to sensitive issues at hand.
  • 85. The first step before going to the testing proper is to make a request letter. Upon approval, the researcher retrieves the request letter. The assistance of guidance counselor, as well as class advisers and other faculty members were selected in the administration.
  • 86. In administering the questionnaire, the researcher was use the time allotted for vacant to avoid distractions of class discussions. The student responses were given enough time to answer the questions.
  • 87. After data gathering, the researcher now collected it for tallying the scores and to apply the statistical treatment to be used with the study.
  • 89. The responses made by students describing their socio-demographic characteristics, preference of choosing their career, and anticipated problems were presented. For instance, sex, age, parent’s educational attainment, parent’s occupation, size of income and sibling position. This was also applied for top three career choice and students preference in making his career choice. In providing overall picture of the socio-demographic characteristics and career preference, as well as anticipated problems in pursuing their studies and it’s effect on students, summary presentations will also presented.
  • 91. Responses to the questionnaire by senior high school students were statistically analyzed with the data requirements of the study. Students were statistically analyzed with the data instruments of the study. Descriptive statistics such as frequency count, mean, percent and rank are considered.
  • 92.
  • 93.
  • 99.
  • 103. Location of the School from Residence
  • 107. Confusion due to varied interests
  • 109. Not stability for my chosen career
  • 110. Others, please specify: _____________________________________________________