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Basics of Fire fighting


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Fire fighting, types of fires, types of fire extinguishers, building management systems, sprinkler systems, heat and smoke sensors.

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Basics of Fire fighting

  1. 1. Fire Fighting Of Shopping Plaza 4th year Rizvi college of architecture
  2. 2. Index • Causes of fires In the mall. • Types of Fire Fighting in a mall. • New ways f Fire Fighting.
  3. 3. FIRE ESCAPE A fire escape is a special kind of emergency exit, usually mounted to the outside of a building or occasionally inside but separate from the main areas of the building. It provides a method of escape in the event of a fire or other emergency that makes the stairwells inside a building inaccessible.
  5. 5. SIGNAGES/DIRECTIONS Proper signage's and directions were provided on each floor.
  6. 6. MISSUSE OF STAIRCASE •Improper storage of flammable materials in fire escape staircase. •Hose reel system adjacent to the staircase. •Curved design makes its inefficient for use as a fire safety staircase.
  7. 7. FIRE EXITS •Fire Exist doors are opened by a push bar. •Speaker were provided on fire exist for guidance in case of emergency.
  8. 8. VENTILATION •Glass ventilators on either side of the staircase. •Smoke outlets/ventilation system from basement.
  9. 9. ENTRY / EXIT
  11. 11.  A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke, typically as an indicator of fire.  Smoke detectors are typically housed in a disk-shaped plastic enclosure about 150 millimetres (6 in) in diameter and 25 millimetres (1 in) thick,  Most smoke detectors work either by optical detection (photoelectric) or by physical process (ionization), while others use both detection methods to increase sensitivity to smoke.  Smoke detectors in large commercial, industrial, and residential buildings are usually powered by a central fire alarm system, which is powered by the building power with a battery backup. SMOKE DETECTORS
  12. 12. TYPES OF SMOKE DETECTORS PHOTOELECTRIC :In this type principle of reflected or scattered light is used to indicate the presence of visual smoke. IONIZATION: In this type radioactive source is used to ionize the air within sensing chambers.
  13. 13. PHOTOELECTRIC DETECTOR A pulsed light beam from a light-emitting diode (LED) with its associated optics is projected across the interior of a blackened chamber that may contain smoke to be detected. A photocell, with its optics, looks toward the projected beam along a line perpendicular to the beam. When smoke enters the chamber, the smoke particles reflect a small portion of the light beam toward the photocell, which provides a voltage to be amplified and causes an alarm. The light source may be monitored ahead of the smoke chamber and regulated to prevent variation of the light intensity from causing erratic detector behavior.
  14. 14. IONIZATION DETECTOR • A small amount of radioactive material ionizes the air inside a chamber that is open to the ambient air. • A measured, small electrical current is allowed to flow through the ionized air. • The small, solid particle products of combustion that enter the chamber as a result of fire interfere with the normal movement of ions (current), and when the current drops low enough, an alarm results. • A two-position switch to control sensitivity may be provided.
  15. 15. Ionization detector Photoelectric detector
  16. 16. Heat and Smoke Vents •Heat and Smoke Vents are installed in buildings as an active fire protection measure •They are openings in the roof which are intended to vent the heat and smoke developed by a fire inside the building by the action of buoyancy, such that they are known as "gravity vents".
  17. 17. Reasons to install vents • Storage occupancies - The heat release rate from high piled storage commodities is expected to be very high. In such cases, it is considered by some fire protection professionals desirable to vent the heat from the building if the temperatures in the building reaches sufficiently high levels to endanger the structural stability of the roof system. • Smoke venting is also considered to provide a minor benefit to increase the visibility in the interior space to facilitate manual fire fighting efforts for a limited period of time. • The use of vents in sprinklered buildings has been controversial over the last 25 years. Vent technology and sprinkler technology were developed independently of one another. Their interaction as beneficial technologies working together has not been successfully demonstrated. Many fire protection professionals are concerned that vents may cause sprinkler systems to fail to control a fire. • Large internal volume spaces – Venting smoke from large spaces which regularly contain large numbers of people, such as malls and atria
  18. 18. Types of vents Automatic heat and smoke vents are available commercially in two general categories. • Mechanically opened vent, powered by springs, pneumatic actuator, or electric motor. • Drop-out vent – constructed of plastic which shrinks in the presence of heat (i.e., drop-out panel).
  19. 19. An area of refuge is a location in a building designed to hold occupants during a fire or other emergency, when evacuation may not be safe or possible. Occupants can wait there until firefighters come to rescue them. This can apply to the following: •any persons who cannot access a safe escape route •any persons assisting another person who is prevented from escaping •patients in a hospital •sick people •people with disabilities •old people •very young children or infants •medical personnel who may be operating on a patient at the time of the emergency •operators in a nuclear power station Refuge Area
  20. 20. Technical requirements • An area of refuge is typically equipped with a steady supply of fresh outside air. • The ducting that must supply such fresh air is referred to as pressurisation ductwork. • Such ductwork are items of passive fire protection, , • The idea is that the ductwork must remain operable even while exposed to fire for a duration stipulated for each occupancy by the local building code. • A two way communication system is required on each floor above or below the main floor in a newly constructed building. • A call box is required in each area of refuge which will call into a central location called a base station. If the station is not attended 24 hours a day, the call must automatically call to an outside location and have two-way voice person to person communication capabilities.
  21. 21. SPRINKLER SYSTEMS- A fire sprinkler system is an active fire protection measure, consisting of a water supply system, providing adequate pressure and flow rate to a water distribution piping system, onto which fire sprinklers are connected. Sprinkler systems provide early fire control or extinguishment, helping to mitigate the hazards for occupants and firefighters alike. TYPES OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS Standpipe system Wet standpipe system Dry standpipe- system SYSTEMS FOR FIRE EXTINGUISHING
  22. 22. • Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguisher: Carbon Dioxide extinguishers contain pressurized liquid carbon dioxide, which turns to gas when expelled. Of particular importance if the fire protection is needed in areas with sensitive electronic equipment. Effective on Class B or C fires. • Class D Fire Extinguisher: Class D Fire is one that involves combustible metals or combustible metal alloys. There are basically two types of Class D fire extinguishers. The extinguishing agent for type 1 Class D is Sodium Chloride. The extinguishing agent for type 2 Class D is a copper based dry powder.
  23. 23. • Clean Agent Fire Extinguisher: Like CO2 , clean agent fire extinguishers store agent as a liquid, which turns to gas when it hits the air. Effective on Class A, B, and C fires. • Water Mist Fire Extinguisher: Water Mist fire extinguishers are environmentally friendly, clean, and easy to use. Water Mist fire extinguishers have no ODP (ozone depletion potential), no environmental concerns about its atmospheric life, and it has no toxic products of decomposition. Perfect for Class A fires, especially where a potential Class C (electrical) hazard exists.
  24. 24. • Water & Foam Stored Pressure Fire Extinguisher: Stored pressure water fire extinguishers extinguish fires by providing a cooling, soaking stream of water. Effective for a Class A fire. AFFF Foam fire extinguishers are typically used to fight Class B fires, but are rated to fight Class A fires as well. FFFP Foam fire extinguishers are also Class A:B rated. FFFP foam is alcohol resistant and is effective on a wide variety of Class B materials • Class K Wet Chemical Fire Extinguisher: Purple K extinguishers contain specially fluidized and siliconized potassium bicarbonate dry chemical which is particularly effective on Class B. Wet Chemical fire extinguishers are the best restaurant kitchen appliance. • Wheeled Unit Fire Extinguisher: A wheeled fire extinguisher is designed with a larger fire in mind. A wheeled unit allows the fire extinguisher operator to transport a larger cylinder to the location of a fire.
  25. 25.
  26. 26. HEAT DETECTORS • A heat detector is a fire alarm device designed to respond • when the convected thermal energy of a fire increases the temperature of a heat sensitive element. The thermal mass and conductivity of the element regulate the rate flow of heat into the element. All heat detectors have this thermal lag. Heat detectors have two main classifications of operation, "rate-of-rise" and "fixed temperature."
  27. 27. Hose reel system is intended for the occupant to use during the early stages of a fire and comprises hose reel pumps, fire storage tank, hose reels, pip work and valves. A typical hose reel installation is shown. Hose Reel System
  28. 28. Types of Hose: AttackHose is a fabric-covered, bring water from the fire pumper to the nozzle. This hose ranges in nominal inside diameter from1.5 to 3 in (38 to 76 mm) and is designed to operate at pressures up to about 400 psi (2,760 kPa). The standard length is 50 ft. (15.24 m). Supply and relay Hose is large-diameter, fabric-covered, bring water from a distant hydrant to the fire pumper or to relay water from one pumper to another over a long distance. These hoses range in nominal inside diameter from 3.5 to 5.0 in (89 to 127 mm). They are designed to operate at pressures up to about 300 psi (2,070 kPa) for the smaller diameters and up to 200 psi (1,380 kPa) for the larger diameters. The standard length is 100 ft. (30.48 m) Forestry Hose is a fabric-covered, used to fight fires in grass, brush, and trees where a lightweight hose is needed in order to maneuverer it over steep or rough terrain. Forestry hose comes in 1.0 and 1.5 in (25 and 38 mm) nominal inside diameters and is designed to operate at pressures up to about 450 psi (3,100 kPa). The standard length is 100 ft. (30.48 m).
  29. 29. Booster Hose is a rubber-covered, thick-walled used to fight small fires. Booster hose comes in 0.75 and 1.0 in (19 and 25 mm) nominal inside diameters and is designed to operate at pressures up to 800 psi (5,520 kPa). The standard length is 100 ft. (30.48 m). Suction Hose or Hard Suction is a rubber-covered, semi-rigid hose with internal metal reinforcements. It is used to suck water out of unpressurized sources, such as ponds or rivers, by means of a vacuum. Suction hose ranges in nominal inside diameter from 2.5 to 6.0 in (64 to 152 mm). The standard length is 10 ft (3.05 m).
  30. 30. Standpipe A standpipe is a type of rigid water piping which is built into multi-story buildings in a vertical position, to which fire hoses can be connected. Standpipes classes are as follows: • Class I system. A system providing 2 1 2-inch (64mm) hose connections to supply water for use by fire departments and in handling heavy fire steams. • Class II system. A system providing 11 2-inch (38mm) hose connection to supply water for use by the fire department during initial response. • Class III system. A system providing both 11 2-inch (38mm) and 21 2-inch (64mm) hose connections. Types There are two types of standpipes: • Automatic Dry • Automatic Wet • Manual Dry • Manual Wet
  31. 31. Many high-rise or other large buildings have an internal system of water mains (standpipes) connected to fire-hose stations and landing valves. Trained occupants or employees of the building management operate the hoses until the fire department arrives. Fire fighters can also connect their hoses to outlets near the fire. Types There are two types of standpipes/ riser : “Wet Risers" and “Dry Risers" Standpipe/ Riser Systems
  32. 32. Wet risers are a form of internal hydrant for the fireman to use and are always charged with water. Wet risers are only required for building where the topmost floor is higher than 30.5 meters above the fire appliance access level. Wet riser system comprises duty fire pumps with standby pump discharging into riser pipe with landing valves at each level and to jet at the fire. A jockey pump is usually provided to maintain system pressure. A typical wet riser installation is shown. Wet Riser System
  33. 33. Fire pumps are used to boost the water pressure in sprinkler and standpipe systems and to deliver the required amount of water. The pipes supplying water to the hoses are pressurized all the time. Three pumps supply the water from the tank to the hoses. The pumps are the duty pump, the stand-by pump, and the jockey pump. Pressure switches along the pipe control the starting of each pump. The pressures are monitored at the pump room to control the pumps. A typical system for a high-rise building is described below. Jockey Pump The first pump to start will be the jockey pump. The controlling pressure switch is set to start the pump at a pressure of 150 psi and stop it when the pressure reaches 230 psi. If a small leak exist in the wet riser piping - either on the wet riser or hose reel - the pump will start in order to compensate for the leak. Pumps Used
  34. 34. Duty Pump If the pressure drops below 125 psi, this means a wet riser landing valve or a hose reel gate valve has been opened. The pressure switch that senses this set pressure activates and starts the duty pump. Stand-by Pump If for any reason the pressure continues to drop below 125 psi, it means either the duty pump has not started or is not available (under repair). The stand-by pump then takes over the function, not performed by the duty pump. The stand-by pump is set to cut-in at 95 psi. Once the water flow is not needed any more the pressure builds up in the piping network. The duty or stand-by pumps stops after the cut-out pressure is reached at 220 psi. The jockey pump continues to run until the system pressure reaches its cut-out pressure of 230 psi.
  35. 35. Dry risers are a form of internal hydrant for the fireman to use and are always charged with water. Wet risers are only required for building where the topmost floor is higher than 18.3 meters and less than 30.5 meters above the fire appliance access level. Dry risers are normally dry and depend on the fire engine to pump water into the system. Dry riser system comprises a riser pipe with landing valves at each floor and to which rubber-lined hose with nozzles can be connected to direct the water jet at the fire. Breeching inlet into which the firemen pump water are provided at ground level and connected to the bottom of the dry risers. A typical dry riser installation is shown. Dry Riser System
  36. 36. Why dry riser are used in cold countries? In cold countries, the weather some times get below freezing point, and then it is hard to keep pipes insulated and they tend to freeze up when water is held inside them. With a dry riser you will have either a hosepipe or a sprinkler system that does not have any water in it but instead is filled with air.
  37. 37. Suppression Gas System A suppression gas extinguisher system consists of gas cylinders, steel piping, discharge nozzles, heat, and smoke detector and a control panel, which monitors the space, activates both visual and audio alarms before releasing the gas. The gas discharged after a time delay upon detection of fire to warn any occupant to evacuate the room. Such systems are usually provided for electrical transformer room, switch room and standby generator room and should not be installed for room, which is normally occupied. A typical Carbon Dioxide extinguisher installation is shown.
  38. 38. Wet Chemical System Wet chemical systems are designed to provide fire protection for commercial kitchen hoods. They provide efficient, automatic detector response with fast-acting fire suppression with no danger of re-flash or re-ignition. The installation comprises gas cylinders, steel piping, discharge nozzles, control head, detector with fusible element and manual pull station. The system provides automatic actuation and can be manually actuated through a manual pull station. Upon actuation, the system discharges a pre-determined amount of agent to the duct, plenum, and cooking appliances. A typical wet chemical system installation is shown.
  39. 39. Foam Deluge System Foam deluge systems, sprinkler heads are open and the pipe is not pressurized with air. Foam Deluge systems are connected to a water supply through a deluge valve that is opened by the operation of a smoke or heat detection system. Foam is mixed in with the water supply from a foam bladder tank. The detection system is installed in the same area as the sprinklers. When the detection system is activated foam water discharges through all of the sprinkler heads in the system. Foam Deluge systems are used in places that are considered high hazard areas such as power plants, off shore oil rigs, aircraft hangars and chemical storage or processing facilities. A sample of foam deluge system installation is shown
  40. 40. FIRE ALARM CONTROL PANEL (FACP) A Fire Alarm Control Panel (FACP), or Fire Alarm Control Unit (FACU), is the controlling component of a Fire Alarm System. The panel receives information from environmental sensors designed to detect changes associated with fire, monitors their operational integrity and provides for automatic control of equipment, and transmission of information necessary to prepare the facility for fire based on a predetermined sequence.
  41. 41. WHERE FIRE ALARM CONTROL PANEL SHOULD BE LOCATED?? The Fire Alarm Control panel should normally be sited in an area as follows: Preferably in an area of low fire risk and on the ground floor by the entrance used by the Fire Brigade and preferably viewable from outside of the building. It should be located in an area common to all building users and where automatic detection is in use, the Control Panel should be in a protected area.
  42. 42. PRINCIPLE TYPES OF ALARM SYSTEM All Fire Alarm Systems essentially operate on the same principle. If a detector detects smoke or heat, or someone operates a break glass unit, then alarm sounders operate to warn others in the building that there may be a fire and to evacuate. TYPES : • Conventional • Addressable • Analogue Addressable
  43. 43. Automatic Sprinkler System An automatic sprinkler system is intended to detect, control and extinguish a fire, and warn the occupants of occurrence of fire. The installation comprises fire pumps, water storage tanks, control valve sets, sprinkler heads, flow switches, pressure switches, pipe work and valves. The system operates automatically without human intervention. The sprinkler head has a liquid filled glass bulb that breaks due to the heat of the fire and release water that sprays over fire. The installation is the most common type and a typical sprinkler is shown.
  44. 44. External Fire Hydrant Fire hydrant installation consists of a system of pip work connected directly to the water supply main to provide water to each and every hydrant outlet and is intended to provide water for the firemen to fight a fire. The water is discharged into the fire engine form which it is then pumped and sprayed over fire. Where the water supply is not reliable or inadequate, hydrant pumps should be provided to pressurize the fire mains. A typical hydrant installation fed directly from JBA water main and pressurized by fire pumps is shown as below.
  45. 45. Emergency exit An emergency exit in a structure is a special exit for emergencies such as a fire: the combined use of regular and special exits allows for faster evacuation, while it also provides an alternative if the route to the regular exit is blocked by fire, etc. It is usually a strategically located (e.g. in a stairwell, hallway, or other likely place) outward opening door with a crash bar on it and with exit signs leading to it. A fire escape is a special kind of emergency exit, mounted to the outside of a building. Local building codes will often dictate the number of fire exits required for a building of a given size. This may include specifying the number of stairs For any building bigger than a private house, modern codes invariably specify at least two sets of stairs. Furthermore, such stairs must be completely separate from each other
  46. 46. An exit sign is a device in a public facility denoting the location of the emergency exit, guiding people to the closest exit in case of fire or other emergency. Most relevant codes (fire, building, health or safety) require exit signs to be permanently lit. Exit signs are designed to be absolutely unmistakable and understandable to anyone A small minority of nations adhered to the exit signs that show the word "EXIT" (or similar in another language). The English word "exit" comes directly from the Latin word meaning "(he or she) goes out.“ Now-a-days emergency exits are given more important with proper design and colors codes Emergency exits are to highlighted because during the fire it should be visible from a distance so that people can run in that direction to be safe
  47. 47. Fire Detection and Alarm System Fire detectors are designed to detect one or more of the three characteristics of fire – smoke, heat and flame. Besides that, every fire detection system must include manual call point (break glass), so that in the event of fire, help can be called immediately. During a fire, activation of an alarm sounders or bells is to arouse the attention of the occupants so that evacuation can be carried out without causing harm to the occupants. A sample of fire detection and alarm system installation is shown
  48. 48. Things to be taken care of • Fire protection should be provided in malls with all care and condition that are required to save once life • The staircase that are to be provided should be at minimum distance of 24meters • Advantage for fire protection is that is safe life during emergency • Care should be taken that the building in and out is properly maintain • Signage that are to be provided should be properly seen from far away. • Bright colors should be used for signage.
  49. 49. Signages
  50. 50.
  52. 52. LOCATION •The distance between Bandra fire station & Globus is about 1 km. •The average time for a fire brigade to reach Gobus will be about 15 min. •The Fire-Fighting Access is through the back entrance. •The Entrance connects the main road 10 m wide
  53. 53. SERVICE STAIRCASE Clothes are the major fire load of the building and there is inadequate storage of it especially in small store areas and in the service staircase. These areas can be a possible fire hazard.
  54. 54. EXPOSED WIRING Exposed wires and instruments strewn along with clothes can be a potential fire hazard.
  55. 55. DEFUNCT FIRE DETECTORS Some of the detectors are defunct and there is a lack of periodic inspection. The detectors should be maintained and taken care of.
  56. 56. CLUTTER FREE FIRE EXIT They should store clothes in a orderly manner in the store rooms and the fire exit / service staircase should be made clutter free.
  57. 57. FUNCTIONALITY There should be periodical checking of functionality of various equipments like Speakers, hydrants, alarms extinguishers, detectors, sprinklers etc. If any malfunctioned should immediately be replaced
  58. 58. FIRE DRILLS The employees should be well informed about fire safety They were lacking of such People. They should have a proper Fire fighting unit dedicated to fire fighting. They should conduct fire drills. They should properly maintain storage, and exit area
  59. 59. Thank you Group members • Rafay • Esa • Noopur • Mubashshira • Ninad • Owesh • Faiz • Ishra • Huzefa