S7.5 Biofortified Maize and Relevance of Innovative Maize-Poultry Value Chains

1,430 views

Published on

Presentacion de 11th Asian Maize Conference which took place in Beijing, China from November 7 – 11, 2011.

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,430
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
74
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
42
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

S7.5 Biofortified Maize and Relevance of Innovative Maize-Poultry Value Chains

  1. 1. Biofortified Maize and Relevance of Innovative Maize- Poultry Value ChainsPrakash Sadashivappa, Modinsab Attar* and Vijesh V Krishna CIMMYT – India & *UAS, Bangalore
  2. 2. Structure of the presentationIntroduction : Maize in Indian agricultureBackground: Maize poultry linkageResearch objectivesData & Study areaResultsConclusion
  3. 3. Maize in India• Sixth largest producer of maize in the world.• Third major food grain next to wheat and rice.• Contribution of 8% to national food basket, Rs.100 billion to agricultural GDP.• “Mini maize revolution” FAOSTAT, 2011 in last decade.• Most preferred cereal.
  4. 4. Maize market growth in India• Rapid economic growth.• Large population with growing middle-class population - 45% of population under age 25, representing demand center for meat and eggs.• Changing life styles, changing consumption patterns, specialty maize products.• Govt’s “egg-a-day” policy for school children.• 15% annual inflation for food driving food and feed commodity prices above the world market.
  5. 5. Maize consumption pattern201816 Total Non-feed Feed141210 8 6 4 2 0 1969-71 1979-81 1989-91 1994-96 1999-2000 2002-03 2007-08 Growth rate of maize in India (percent per annum) Total Non-feed Feed 1970-80 0.2 -0.5 14.3 1980-90 3.2 1.5 13.4 1990-1995 2.7 -0.1 8.8 1995-2000 4.2 -0.6 14 Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics., 2010; Narayanan et al., 2008
  6. 6. Poultry sector in India• Transformation from age- old backyard farming into a dynamic industry (15 % growth)• Third largest egg producer, fifth largest broiler producer in the world.• Rs. 350 billion to GNP.• 50% of total meat production.• Huge potential for egg and broiler industry.
  7. 7. Feed compsition of poultry Feed is the single largest cost item in poultry.• Energy : 60-65% – cereals (mainly maize) – cereal by-products, animal fats and vegetable oils• Protein: 30-35% – soybean meal – animal protein sources: fishmeal, meat and bone meal – crystalline amino acids: methionine, lysine, threonine• Mineral supplements: 3% – calcium supplements, phosphorus supplements, trace minerals, sodium sources• Miscellaneous: (2%) vitamin supplements & premixes, non- nutritive feed additives: enzymes, antibiotics.
  8. 8. Role of amino acids in poultry feed • The dietary requirement for proteins actually reflects the requirement of amino acids contained in the protein. • Optimum growth, feed conversion, egg size, etc. • Essential and non-essential amino acids Ideal nutrient level range in poultry Normal % change over QPM feed for maize normal maize Broilers Layers Protein (%) 8.00 - 8.00 – 19.50 – 22.50 15.00 – 18.00 11.00 11.00 Lysine 0.26 0.42 30 1.14 – 1.40 0.45 – 0.70 (% or unit/kg) Tryptophan 0.04 0.09 41 0.18 – 0.22 0.12 – 0.17 (% or unit/kg) Methionine 0.18 0.19 4 0.50 – 0.58 0.20 – 0.30 (% or unit/kg)Sources: FAO, 1992; Gupta et al, 2009; Hellin and Erenstein, 2009;Prasanna et al, 2001; Vivek et al., 2008; Panda et al, 2009.
  9. 9. QPM impact on animal feed• Improved growth in pigs and poultry with QPM (Asche et al., 1985; Lauderdale, 2000; Sullivan et al., 1989)• In Brazil and El Salvador, soybean meal usage reduced by about 50% (Lopez-Pereira, 1992).• In Ghana, the QPM is being used both in human nutrition as well as animal feed.• In USA, 2.8 percent of cost of production for broilers and 2.6 percent was the cost reduction for layers (Lopez-Pereira, 1993).• In Kenya found a 5 percent cost reduction (Nyanamba et al., 2003; De Groote et al., 2010)• In China, the effect of replacing normal maize with QPM was prominent for pigs as better weight gained than for poultry animals at various growth stages (Sofi et al., 2009).
  10. 10. Need for high methionine maize• First limiting amino acid in maize-soy based poultry diet.• Increased body and breast meat weight of broiler chicks with increasing dietary methionine content in feed (Mack, et al., 2010; Panda et al., 2010).• High levels of egg output or feather growth is found to be associated with high levels of methionine (FAO, 2011).• Positive influence of methionine on the poultry bird immune system (Rubin et al., 2007).• High cost of synthetic methionine.
  11. 11. Study objectives1. What is the role of biofortified high methionine maize in the Indian poultry industry ?2. What are the innovative institutional innovations required to channelize the biofortified maize in India ?
  12. 12. Data & study area• Interview based survey of poultry growers.• Consultation with maize scientists, feed industry consultants, animal nutrition and poultry specialists, agricultural economists.• Maize farmers survey.
  13. 13. Study area and samplingOwnership Output Number of firms (% in sample)Owned Broiler 75 (41) Source of map: Neelam Chowdhury, Layer 72 CIMMYT/AWhere (39)Integrated Broiler 38 (21)Total 185 (100)
  14. 14. Results: Feed sources of poultry firms Broiler 11% 89% LayersOnly feed-mixing 4% 4%Only ready-madefeedReady-made feed 92%& feed-mixing
  15. 15. Sources of limiting amino acids i. Lysine Broiler firms (n =75 ) Layer firms (n = 72)Sources quantity obtained % firms quantity obtained % firms (kg/000 birds) (kg/000 birds)Mineral mixture 81 9 3 0.02Synthetic source 1 0.10 49 13Maize 88 8 94 56Soy 63 27 93 279Fish 1 1 46 54Sunflower 1 0.02 64 24Sorghum 0 21 4.18Total lysine 88 46 94 426Recommendation 50 340
  16. 16. Sources of limiting amino acids ii. Tryptophan Broiler firms (n =75 ) Layer firms (n = 72)Sources quantity obtained % firms quantity obtained % firms (kg/000 birds) (kg/000 birds)Mineral mixture 84 2 0Synthetic source 0 0 1 0.01Maize 88 12 94 9Soy 63 6 93 61Fish 1 0.11 46 8Sunflower 1 0.01 64 8Sorghum 0 21 6.75Total tryptophan 88 20 94 86Recommendation 20 60
  17. 17. Sources of limiting amino acidsiii. Methionine broiler firms (n =75 ) layer firms (n = 72)Sources quantity obtained % firms quantity obtained % firms (kg/000 birds) (kg/000 birds)Mineral mixture 84 5 6 0.11Synthetic source 1 0.19 78 30Maize 88 6 94 38Soy 63 6 93 56Fish 1 0.29 46 21Sunflower 1 0.01 64 16Sorghum 0 21 3.19Total methionine 88 17 94 162Recommendation 20 170
  18. 18. Factors influencing application of amino acids• Multivariate regression analysis – single regression model with more than one outcome variable.• Broiler – maize price significant negative influence.• Layers – soy price, de-oiled rice bran, liver powder, toxin binder, agricultural ownership influence significantly.• Regional differences.
  19. 19. Amino acid consumption by poultry firms(Rs./bird) Total feed cost of firms % Total revenue of firms % difference in using amino acid difference using amino acid revenue below above in feed below above recommen recommen cost recommen recommen dation dation dation dation Lysine (i) Broiler 58.44 116.56 99.45*** 95.09 95.09 0.005 (ii) Layer 543.63 694.31 27.72*** 713.49 731.81 2.57 Tryptophan(i)Broiler 52.85 103.25 95.36*** 93.93 95.62 1.79 (ii) Layer 411.62 688.31 67.22*** 724.50 726.75 0.31 Methionine (i) Broiler 57.21 121.23 183*** 95.53 94.77 -0.79 (ii) Layer 629.81 714.04 13.37 721.68 741.41 2.73
  20. 20. Feed cost share of poultry firms below the recommended above the recommended dosage dosage Maize Soy Mineral Maize Soy Mineral Mixture MixtureLysineBroiler 44.74** 17.56*** 36.44*** 37.14 37.37 21.18Layer 38.31 17.15*** 2.78* 34.25 29.78 0.04TryptophanBroiler 43.92 9.98*** 44.29*** 39.59 35.42 21.78Layer 47.35** 15.20*** 5.42*** 33.53 27.82 0.12MethionineBroiler 41.42 20.90** 35.17** 40.59 32.26 24.18Layer 36.11 24.45* 1.12 33.19 31.20 0
  21. 21. Potential of high methionine maize 1.00 0.90 Probability of Yes 0.80 Probability of Cant say 0.70Probability of adoption 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Price
  22. 22. Maize poultry value chains• Contract farming – vertical integration.• Local trader playing a major role.• Feed industry have a positive response towards contract farming with maize farmers.
  23. 23. Maize poultry value chainsThe grain output of biofortified maize being credence in nature can only bechannelized in two ways. Maize farmer Producer Intermediary Feed company Labeling & Certification Market Monitoring & implementation cost Poultry farmer Consumer Scenario 1 Scenario 2
  24. 24. Conclusions• Significant inter-firm variation with respect to use of essential amino-acids.• Farmers tend to overuse the amino acids.• Farmers demand for biofortified maize is high.• Scope for improvement in the methionine levels in poultry diet.• Direct contract farming with poultry firms would generate maximum profits.
  25. 25. THANK YOU
  26. 26. Maize-poultry growth predictionsPoultry population in India (million no.) Maize demand by poultry sector (million tonnes) 1000 14 900 12 800 700 10 600 8 500 400 6 300 4 200 2 100 0 0 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 Poultry poulation in India (million no.) Maize demand (million tonnes) Maize demand predicted (million tonnes) Expon. (Poultry poulation in India (million no.))
  27. 27. Factors influencing application of essential amino acids for broiler firms Variables Total amino acid Methionine Lysine TryptophanMaize price † -1.00* -0.35 -1.24** -0.76(Rs./kg)Soy price† -0.56 0.54 -1.13 0.06(Rs./kg)Mineral mixture 0.05 -0.07 0.10 0.14price† (Rs./kg)Capacity utilization 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.001Town distance 0.01 0.0001 0.01 0.004Duration 0.17*** 0.19*** 0.18*** 0.15***Bangalore rural 0.58*** 0.52** 0.64*** 0.61***Davanagere 0.52** 0.49* 0.54** 0.64***East Godavari -0.03 0.16 0.02 0.09Intercept -0.30 -6.31 1.02 -4.29R-square 0.64 0.43 0.65 0.68Note: Dependent variable: Log of amino acid; † indicates log of respective variables.***, ** stands for significance, at 1 % and 5 % respectively.
  28. 28. Factors influencing application of essential amino acids for layer firms Variables Total amino acids Methionine Lysine Tryptophan Coefficients of the multivariate regression analysis (standard error)Maize price† (Rs./kg) 0.16 0.19 0.11 0.28Soy price† (Rs./kg) -0.60* -0.53** -0. 62* -0.72*Sunflower price† (Rs./kg) -1.03 -0.73 -1.19 -1.32Groundnut price† (Rs./kg) -0.58 -0.49 -0.60 -0.80De-oiled rice bran† (Rs./kg) -1.46** -1.55*** -1.41* -1.50*Fish price† (Rs./kg) -0.62 -0.70 -0.65 -0.47Synthetic lysine price† (Rs./kg) 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.12Synthetic methionine price† (Rs./kg) -0.02 -0.01 -0.03 -0.01Phytase enzyme price† (Rs./kg) 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.06Liver powder price† (Rs./kg) -0.42* -0.45* - 0.40 -0.38Toxin binder price† (Rs./kg) -0.64*** -0.55*** -0.66*** -0.75***Trace minerals price† (Rs./kg) 0.24 0.16 0.28 0.24Agricultural land ownership -0.26** -0.28*** -0.26 -0.26*Duration 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02Bangalore rural -0.51 -0.48 -0.53** -0.38Davanagere -0.61*** -0.53*** -0.64*** -0.62***East Godavari -0.86*** -0.86*** -0.86*** -0.86***Intercept 12.11 9.99** 12.13* 11.47*R-square 0.57 0.62 0.52 0.51
  29. 29. Multinomial logit analysis of factors influencing the adoption of QPM Coefficient (standard error) Variables Yes over no Can’t say over no Yes over can’t say Maize price (Rs./kg) -0.07 -0.20 0.13 (0.46) (0.48) (0.32) Bid amount (Rs./kg) -0.06 *** -0.04 ** -0.02 ** (0.01) (0.01) * (0.01) Knowledge about amino acids 1.71 ** 1.23 0.49 (0.84) (0.82) (0.51) Town distance -0.01 -0.05 0.03 (0.05) (0.05) (0.04) Poultry education & training 1.25 2.00 -0.75 (1.10) (1.06) (0.62) Agricultural land holding -1.87 ** -2.25 ** 0.37 (0.90) (0.87) (0.55) Duration -0.04 ** -0.03 ** -0.004 (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) Capacity utilization 0.004 0.001 0.003 (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) Bangalore 3.32 ** 1.16 2.16 ** (1.37) (1.34) (0.78) * Davanagere 1.75 0.75 1.00 (1.11) (1.06) (0.70) East Godavari 1.86 * 0.44 1.43 (1.12) (1.07) (0.79) Intercept 4.40 6.54 -2.14 (4.75) (4.93) (3.38)
  30. 30. Maize Poultry Value Chains Seed Production Units Private Seed Companies Seed DistributorsGovernment farmers Village input Taluk input District input service centre dealer dealer dealer 32% Rs. 75 22% Rs. 79 5% Rs. 114 41% Rs. 116 Maize Farmers 1% Rs. 900 71% Rs. 877 8% Rs. 858 20% Rs. 860 Regulated Market Village trader Taluk trader District trader 64% Rs. 1000 6% Rs. 943 21% Rs. 1057 Poultry Farmers Neighbouring 9% State Rs. 1118

×