S7.5 Biofortified Maize and Relevance of Innovative Maize-Poultry Value Chains
Biofortified Maize and Relevance of Innovative Maize- Poultry Value ChainsPrakash Sadashivappa, Modinsab Attar* and Vijesh V Krishna CIMMYT – India & *UAS, Bangalore
Structure of the presentationIntroduction : Maize in Indian agricultureBackground: Maize poultry linkageResearch objectivesData & Study areaResultsConclusion
Maize in India• Sixth largest producer of maize in the world.• Third major food grain next to wheat and rice.• Contribution of 8% to national food basket, Rs.100 billion to agricultural GDP.• “Mini maize revolution” FAOSTAT, 2011 in last decade.• Most preferred cereal.
Maize market growth in India• Rapid economic growth.• Large population with growing middle-class population - 45% of population under age 25, representing demand center for meat and eggs.• Changing life styles, changing consumption patterns, specialty maize products.• Govt’s “egg-a-day” policy for school children.• 15% annual inflation for food driving food and feed commodity prices above the world market.
Maize consumption pattern201816 Total Non-feed Feed141210 8 6 4 2 0 1969-71 1979-81 1989-91 1994-96 1999-2000 2002-03 2007-08 Growth rate of maize in India (percent per annum) Total Non-feed Feed 1970-80 0.2 -0.5 14.3 1980-90 3.2 1.5 13.4 1990-1995 2.7 -0.1 8.8 1995-2000 4.2 -0.6 14 Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics., 2010; Narayanan et al., 2008
Poultry sector in India• Transformation from age- old backyard farming into a dynamic industry (15 % growth)• Third largest egg producer, fifth largest broiler producer in the world.• Rs. 350 billion to GNP.• 50% of total meat production.• Huge potential for egg and broiler industry.
Feed compsition of poultry Feed is the single largest cost item in poultry.• Energy : 60-65% – cereals (mainly maize) – cereal by-products, animal fats and vegetable oils• Protein: 30-35% – soybean meal – animal protein sources: fishmeal, meat and bone meal – crystalline amino acids: methionine, lysine, threonine• Mineral supplements: 3% – calcium supplements, phosphorus supplements, trace minerals, sodium sources• Miscellaneous: (2%) vitamin supplements & premixes, non- nutritive feed additives: enzymes, antibiotics.
Role of amino acids in poultry feed • The dietary requirement for proteins actually reflects the requirement of amino acids contained in the protein. • Optimum growth, feed conversion, egg size, etc. • Essential and non-essential amino acids Ideal nutrient level range in poultry Normal % change over QPM feed for maize normal maize Broilers Layers Protein (%) 8.00 - 8.00 – 19.50 – 22.50 15.00 – 18.00 11.00 11.00 Lysine 0.26 0.42 30 1.14 – 1.40 0.45 – 0.70 (% or unit/kg) Tryptophan 0.04 0.09 41 0.18 – 0.22 0.12 – 0.17 (% or unit/kg) Methionine 0.18 0.19 4 0.50 – 0.58 0.20 – 0.30 (% or unit/kg)Sources: FAO, 1992; Gupta et al, 2009; Hellin and Erenstein, 2009;Prasanna et al, 2001; Vivek et al., 2008; Panda et al, 2009.
QPM impact on animal feed• Improved growth in pigs and poultry with QPM (Asche et al., 1985; Lauderdale, 2000; Sullivan et al., 1989)• In Brazil and El Salvador, soybean meal usage reduced by about 50% (Lopez-Pereira, 1992).• In Ghana, the QPM is being used both in human nutrition as well as animal feed.• In USA, 2.8 percent of cost of production for broilers and 2.6 percent was the cost reduction for layers (Lopez-Pereira, 1993).• In Kenya found a 5 percent cost reduction (Nyanamba et al., 2003; De Groote et al., 2010)• In China, the effect of replacing normal maize with QPM was prominent for pigs as better weight gained than for poultry animals at various growth stages (Sofi et al., 2009).
Need for high methionine maize• First limiting amino acid in maize-soy based poultry diet.• Increased body and breast meat weight of broiler chicks with increasing dietary methionine content in feed (Mack, et al., 2010; Panda et al., 2010).• High levels of egg output or feather growth is found to be associated with high levels of methionine (FAO, 2011).• Positive influence of methionine on the poultry bird immune system (Rubin et al., 2007).• High cost of synthetic methionine.
Study objectives1. What is the role of biofortified high methionine maize in the Indian poultry industry ?2. What are the innovative institutional innovations required to channelize the biofortified maize in India ?
Data & study area• Interview based survey of poultry growers.• Consultation with maize scientists, feed industry consultants, animal nutrition and poultry specialists, agricultural economists.• Maize farmers survey.
Study area and samplingOwnership Output Number of firms (% in sample)Owned Broiler 75 (41) Source of map: Neelam Chowdhury, Layer 72 CIMMYT/AWhere (39)Integrated Broiler 38 (21)Total 185 (100)
Potential of high methionine maize 1.00 0.90 Probability of Yes 0.80 Probability of Cant say 0.70Probability of adoption 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Price
Maize poultry value chains• Contract farming – vertical integration.• Local trader playing a major role.• Feed industry have a positive response towards contract farming with maize farmers.
Maize poultry value chainsThe grain output of biofortified maize being credence in nature can only bechannelized in two ways. Maize farmer Producer Intermediary Feed company Labeling & Certification Market Monitoring & implementation cost Poultry farmer Consumer Scenario 1 Scenario 2
Conclusions• Significant inter-firm variation with respect to use of essential amino-acids.• Farmers tend to overuse the amino acids.• Farmers demand for biofortified maize is high.• Scope for improvement in the methionine levels in poultry diet.• Direct contract farming with poultry firms would generate maximum profits.