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What do women and men farmers want in their maize varieties

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Client-responsive maize seed systems in Eastern Africa. Presentation from Paswel Marenya, CIMMYT.

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What do women and men farmers want in their maize varieties

  1. 1. Client-responsive maize seed systems in Eastern Africa: what do wo(men) farmers want in their maize varieties? Paswel Marenya International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT),
  2. 2. Outline 1. Society demands on crop breeding programs 2. Decision making 3. Adoption 4. Maize trait preferences 5. Implications for seed systems and breeding
  3. 3. Farmer and society needs are numerous
  4. 4. Household Head Spouse Jointly (Spouse and HH head) Percent of households where variety choice was made by:
  5. 5. % households where maize harvests were controlled by Household head Spouse Jointly (Spouse and HH head)
  6. 6. % households where land ownership was by: Household head Spouse Jointly (Spouse and HH head
  7. 7. Gender of household head
  8. 8. What do farmers want? Willingness to pay experiments Results of economic experiments
  9. 9. Willingness to pay • We use economic experiments common in marketing and economics – Choice experiments (CE) – Becker-de Groot-Merschack (BDM) (1964) • Data Analyzed using Mixed Logit Estimators • Done in – CRV/West Ethiopia 2017 – Western Kenya 2017, 2018
  10. 10. Table 1: Comparison of WTP and WTSY between traits Traits Observ1 Observ2 Mean1 Mean2 difference St-Err t-value Cost variable: Seed price Yield - Drought tolerant 1400 - .023 2.485 -2.462*** .001 -2289.55 Yield - Resistant to FAW 1400 - .023 .112 -.088*** .002 -48.35 Yield – Tolerant to low N 1400 - .023 .698 -.674*** .001 -645.7 Yield – Tolerant to striga 1400 - .023 1.632 -1.608*** .009 -180.75 Drought tolerant - Resistant to FAW 1400 - 2.485 .112 2.374*** .002 1721.95 Drought tolerant - Tolerant to low N 1400 - 2.485 .698 1.788*** .001 5128.35 Drought tolerant - Tolerant to striga 1400 - 2.485 1.632 .854*** .009 96.95 Resistant to FAW - Tolerant to low N 1400 - .112 .698 -.586*** .002 -470.3 Resistant to FAW - Tolerant to striga 1400 - .112 1.632 -1.52*** .009 -432.85 Resistant to low N - Tolerant to striga 1400 - .698 1.632 -.934*** .009 278.5 Yield (m/f) 668 732 .035 .03 .004* .003 1.8 Moderate drought tolerant (m/f) 668 732 2.807 2.164 .643*** .029 22.25 Drought tolerant (m/f) 668 732 2.933 2.365 .568*** .002 370.3 Slight res to FAW (m/f) 668 732 .466 .621 -.155*** .017 -9.1 Resistant to FAW (m/f) 668 732 .484 .526 -.043*** .004 -12.1 Slight res to low N (m/f) 668 732 1.343 .991 .352*** .005 73.5 Resistant to low N (m/f) 668 732 1.019 .752 .268*** .003 109.1 Moderate tol to striga (m/f) 668 732 .419 .6 -.18*** .002 -96.5 Tolerant to striga (m/f) 668 732 1.476 1.685 -.209*** .018 -11.35 Cost variable: Yield Seed price - Drought tolerant 1400 - 39.828 93.055 -53.227*** .011 -4865.25 Seed price - Resistant to FAW 1400 - 39.828 5.099 34.73*** .007 4692.8 Seed price – Tolerant to low N 1400 - 39.828 24.743 15.086*** .002 11741.4 Seed price – Tolerant to striga 1400 - 39.828 63.377 -23.548*** .271 -86.85 Drought tolerant - Resistant to FAW 1400 - 93.055 5.099 87.957*** .014 6469.6 Drought tolerant - Tolerant to low N 1400 - 93.055 24.743 68.312*** .011 6133.7 Drought tolerant - Tolerant to striga 1400 - 93.055 63.377 29.679*** .271 109.45 Resistant to FAW - Tolerant to low N 1400 - 5.099 24.743 -19.644*** .007 -2613.7 Resistant to FAW - Tolerant to striga 1400 - 5.099 63.377 -58.278*** .272 -214.6 Resistant to low N - Tolerant to striga 1400 - 24.743 63.377 -38.633*** .271 -142.5 Price (m/f) 668 732 21.211 27.855 -6.645*** 0 -225000 Moderate drought tolerant (m/f) 668 732 50.843 54.783 -3.941*** .671 -5.85 Drought tolerant (m/f) 668 732 54.941 61.267 -6.326*** .1 -63.4 Slight res to FAW (m/f) 668 732 12.087 17.685 -5.598*** .343 -16.35 Resistant to FAW (m/f) 668 732 12.368 15.222 -2.854*** .051 -55.75 Slight res to low N (m/f) 668 732 24.903 25.444 -.541*** .074 -7.3 Resistant to low N (m/f) 668 732 18.911 19.044 -.133*** .012 -10.85 Moderate tolerance to striga (m/f) 668 732 12.643 18.519 -5.877*** .032 -185.2 Tolerant to striga (m/f) 668 732 32.03 46.035 -14.006*** .324 -43.2 Difference significant at: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1; FAW, fall army worm; N, nitrogen; WTP, willingness to pay; WTSY, willingness to sacrifice yield; m/f, difference between male and female respondents.
  11. 11. Tradeoffs have to be made ❑ To help in prioritization (breeding and market segmentation and development) ❑ We implement Choice Experiments to identify potential tradeoffs ❑ We estimate willingness to pay (willingness to sacrifice yield) to get specific traits ❑ The results confirm general patterns but also new insights It is expected that: no one variety can have all the desirable traits 1 2 3 4
  12. 12. Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Maize Traits in Kenya Base Model With interaction Pooled Male Female Pooled Male Female Matures in 3 months or less 1.54 1.76 1.51 4.84 1.40 2.47 Storability (3-4 months) 8.92 10.15 7.95 19.66 9.78 21.47 Medium grain size 0.77 1.37 0.35 -2.37 -1.35 0.23 Large grain size 1.12 1.76 0.75 0.04 3.15 -2.15 Closed tip 7.87 7.56 7.62 9.79 60.64 6.45 Heavy weight 3.96 3.30 4.47 7.48 4.31 5.87 Low top-dressing requirement 2.71 3.06 2.79 7.67 60.91 3.46 Drought tolerant 9.80 8.55 11.17 9.55 7.36 13.68 Lodging resistant 4.48 4.05 4.98 4.43 3.12 4.97 Striga resistant 8.23 7.96 8.38 8.29 6.17 12.51
  13. 13. Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Maize Traits in Kenya Base Model With interaction Pooled Male Female Pooled Male Female Matures in 3 months or less 1.54 1.76 1.51 4.84 1.40 2.47 Long shelf life (3-4 months) 8.92 10.15 7.95 19.66 9.78 21.47 Medium grain size 0.77 1.37 0.35 -2.37 -1.35 0.23 Large grain size 1.12 1.76 0.75 0.04 3.15 -2.15 Closed tip 7.87 7.56 7.62 9.79 60.64 6.45 Heavy weight 3.96 3.30 4.47 7.48 4.31 5.87 Low top-dressing requirement 2.71 3.06 2.79 7.67 60.91 3.46 Drought tolerant 9.80 8.55 11.17 9.55 7.36 13.68 Lodging resistant 4.48 4.05 4.98 4.43 3.12 4.97 Striga resistant 8.23 7.96 8.38 8.29 6.17 12.51 Women do not seem to prefer large grain size
  14. 14. Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Maize Traits in Kenya Base Model With interaction Pooled Male Female Pooled Male Female Matures in 3 months or less 1.54 1.76 1.51 4.84 1.40 2.47 Long shelf life (3-4 months) 8.92 10.15 7.95 19.66 9.78 21.47 Medium grain size 0.77 1.37 0.35 -2.37 -1.35 0.23 Large grain size 1.12 1.76 0.75 0.04 3.15 -2.15 Closed tip 7.87 7.56 7.62 9.79 60.64 6.45 Heavy weight 3.96 3.30 4.47 7.48 4.31 5.87 Low top-dressing requirement 2.71 3.06 2.79 7.67 60.91 3.46 Drought tolerant 9.80 8.55 11.17 9.55 7.36 13.68 Lodging resistant 4.48 4.05 4.98 4.43 3.12 4.97 Striga resistant 8.23 7.96 8.38 8.29 6.17 12.51 Storability is highly valued more by women farmers
  15. 15. Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Maize Traits in Kenya Base Model No Controls With interaction Socio-economic Controls Pooled Male Female Pooled Male Female Matures in 3 months or less 1.54 1.76 1.51 4.84 1.40 2.47 Long shelf life (3-4 months) 8.92 10.15 7.95 19.66 9.78 21.47 Medium grain size 0.77 1.37 0.35 -2.37 -1.35 0.23 Large grain size 1.12 1.76 0.75 0.04 3.15 -2.15 Closed tip 7.87 7.56 7.62 9.79 60.64 6.45 Heavy weight 3.96 3.30 4.47 7.48 4.31 5.87 Low top-dressing requirement 2.71 3.06 2.79 7.67 60.91 3.46 Drought tolerant 9.80 8.55 11.17 9.55 7.36 13.68 Lodging resistant 4.48 4.05 4.98 4.43 3.12 4.97 Striga resistant 8.23 7.96 8.38 8.29 6.17 12.51 When socioeconomic factors are controlled for: Male farmers had higher WTP for closed tip
  16. 16. Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Maize Traits in Kenya Base Model No Controls With interaction Socio-economic Controls Pooled Male Female Pooled Male Female Matures in 3 months or less 1.54 1.76 1.51 4.84 1.40 2.47 Long shelf life (3-4 months) 8.92 10.15 7.95 19.66 9.78 21.47 Medium grain size 0.77 1.37 0.35 -2.37 -1.35 0.23 Large grain size 1.12 1.76 0.75 0.04 3.15 -2.15 Closed tip 7.87 7.56 7.62 9.79 60.64 6.45 Heavy weight 3.96 3.30 4.47 7.48 4.31 5.87 Low top-dressing requirement 2.71 3.06 2.79 7.67 60.91 3.46 Drought tolerant 9.80 8.55 11.17 9.55 7.36 13.68 Striga resistant 8.23 7.96 8.38 8.29 6.17 12.51 Lodging resistant 4.48 4.05 4.98 4.43 3.12 4.97 Women valued Drought and Striga tolerance twice more than male farmers
  17. 17. Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Maize Traits in Kenya Base Model No Controls With interaction Socio-economic Controls Pooled Male Female Pooled Male Female Matures in 3 months or less 1.54 1.76 1.51 4.84 1.40 2.47 Long shelf life (3-4 months) 8.92 10.15 7.95 19.66 9.78 21.47 Medium grain size 0.77 1.37 0.35 -2.37 -1.35 0.23 Large grain size 1.12 1.76 0.75 0.04 3.15 -2.15 Closed tip 7.87 7.56 7.62 9.79 60.64 6.45 Heavy weight 3.96 3.30 4.47 7.48 4.31 5.87 Low N tolerance 2.71 3.06 2.79 7.67 60.91 3.46 Drought tolerant 9.80 8.55 11.17 9.55 7.36 13.68 Striga resistant 8.23 7.96 8.38 8.29 6.17 12.51 Lodging resistant 4.48 4.05 4.98 4.43 3.12 4.97 With Socioeconomic controls male farmers WTP for low N tolerance was nearly 20 times that of female farmers
  18. 18. Top traits 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Big grains Earliness Low N requirement Heavy grain Drought tolerance Lodging resistant Closed tip Storability Striga resistant Preference for maize traits in western Kenya, 2017 BDM Method -5.0 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 Medium size grains Large grains Lodging resistant Early maturity Low top-dressing Heavy grain Striga resistant Closed tip Drought tolerant Storability Prefeerence for maize traits in western Kenya, 2017 CE Method
  19. 19. Top Traits in Ethiopia 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 Sweet taste Matures in maximum 3 months Closed tip Lodging resistant Tolerant to foliar diseases Drought tolerant BDM Method 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Matures in maximum 3 months Tolerant to foliar diseases Drought tolerant Sweet taste Lodging resistant Closed tip CE CE Method
  20. 20. Although seed price was lowest priority women were sensitive to seed price (Kenya, 2018) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Seed price Tolerant to striga Moderate drought tolerant Drought tolerant Women Men
  21. 21. Summary • Women valued on storability (3.6 times than males) • Women valued storability about 5 times than 90-day maturity • Male farmers valued closed tip (10 times) than female farmers • Women valued drought and striga tolerance twice more than male farmers • Male famers valued closed tip and low top- dressing nearly equally • Nitrogen efficiency was valued about 20 times among men than women • Women seem not prefer large grain size (given the negative coefficient)
  22. 22. Variety (Product) differentiation 1 2 3 4
  23. 23. Market Segmentation
  24. 24. Product Differentiation What to breed for? Market Segmentation For whom? Take home Messages A tale of two principles
  25. 25. Take home Messages A tale of two principles Product Differentiation What to breed for? Market Segmentation For whom? 1. Breeding programs focus on a set of manageable traits per product 2. Guided by market segmentation based on client needs
  26. 26. Thank you for your interest!

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