Wheat quality improvement in China, progress and prospects


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International Gluten Workshop, 11th; Beijing (China); 12-15 Aug 2012

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Wheat quality improvement in China, progress and prospects

  1. 1. Wheat quality improvement inChina, progress and prospectsZhong-hu He12, Xianchun Xia1, Yan Zhang1, Yong Zhang1,and Xinmin Chen11Crop Science Institute, CAAS2Global Wheat Program, CIMMYT
  2. 2. Outlines Chinese wheat quality Progress in quality improvement Application of genomic technology Future prospects
  3. 3. Chinese wheat quality
  4. 4. Major cereal production in China, 2007-2009Crop Area Yield Production % Mha Kg/ha Mt WorldRice 29.5 6520 196 29Maize 30.2 5327 161 20Wheat 23.9 4703 112 17Data Source: FAO Statistics, 2011
  5. 5. Wheat/maize interplanting Wheat/maize rotation Wheat/rice rotation Chinese wheat production zones
  6. 6. Wheat consumption in China, 2009Classification %Food 77Industrial use 9Feed 9Seed and storage loss 5Total 100
  7. 7. Percentage of wheat foods in ChinaFood type %Steamed bread including flat bread 45Noodles and dumplings 40Cookies and biscuits 8Western bread 4Others 3Total 100
  8. 8. History of quality improvement Before 1984, focused on yield improvement and disease resistance, little efforts on quality, white and hard kernel means good quality 1985-2000, establishment of quality labs and screening of advanced lines and varieties, market demanding for better processing quality 2000-present, release of high quality variety, and development and application of markers, market demanding both for processing and nutritional qualities
  9. 9. Chinese wheat quality Broad variation for all major parameters, mixed population, north with hard type, south with soft type Acceptable protein content, weak gluten strength and poor extensibility Color needs improvement for traditional products Acceptable quality for manual processing, inferior quality for mechanized production
  10. 10. 252015 中国 China10 加拿大 Canada 5 0 蛋白质 Protein 稳定时间 Stability 延伸性 Extensibility Comparison between Chinese and Canada wheats
  11. 11. 10080 软质 Soft6040 硬质 Hard20 0 北方 North 南方 South Distribution of kernel hardness in China
  12. 12. Genetic variation for bread-making quality
  13. 13. Genetic variation for noodle quality
  14. 14. Target Products: pan bread and white noodle for north China Traits: improvement of gluten strength and color rather than protein content Region: Yellow and Huai Valley, 75% of production Impact in milling industry and farmer field, new varieties with excellent quality and high yield Novelty in science, application of genomics and proteomics, and molecular markers
  15. 15. Approach Integration of breeding, cereal chemistry, new technology, and crop management National and international collaborations, CIMMYT, Australia, USA, France, Japan, and UK…. Training
  16. 16. Progress in quality improvement
  17. 17. Quality improvement Learn available technology for pan bread from other countries, develop noodle testing methodology High yielding Chinese wheat crosses with germplasm from CIMMYT, USA, and Australia, and then backcrosses with Chinese wheat to ensure high yield and broad adaptation SDS sedimentation value, mixograph, and HMW-GS are used as selection tool in early generations
  18. 18. 馒头制作方法Noodle preparation and testingFormula: flour extract rate 60%, water addition 35%, and salt 1%
  19. 19. New scoring system for Chinese white noodlesCharacter Chinese JapaneseColor 15 20Appearance 10 15Firmness 20 10Viscoelasticity 30 25Smoothness 15 15Taste and flavor 10 15Total 100 100Zhang et al, 2005, Euphytica,141:113-120
  20. 20. Sensory scoring system for noodle quality Name Origin DateParameter Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor Very poor Unacceptable (10) (9) (8) (7) (6) (5) (4)Color(15) Appearance(10)Firmness(20)Viscoelasticity(30)Smoothness(15)Taste & Flavor(10)Comprehensiveevaluation
  21. 21. Three factors for noodle quality 80.0 L* value of flour water slurry Medium-strong gluten quality 79.5 79.0 High starch viscosity 78.5 Bright color 78.0 r=-0.95 77.5 77.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Flour colour grade He et al, 2005, Cereal Chemistry, 82: 345-350 Zhang et al, 2005, Cereal Chemistry, 82: 633-638
  22. 22. Variety with outstanding noodle quality Excellent quality, higher yield than check variety Hebei: Jing 9428, Zhongmai 175 Shandong: Yannong 15, Jimai 19, Jimai 20, PH82-2-2 Henan: Yumai 34, Yumai 47, Yumai 49 Introductions: Eradu, Gamenya, Sunstate
  23. 23. Variety with outstanding bread quality Excellent quality, yield close to check variety Accepted by farmers and milling industry Hebei: Zhongyou 9507, Gaocheng 8901, Jishi 02-1 Shandong: Jinan 17, Jimai 20 Henan: Yumai 34, Zhengmai 366 Yumai 34 and Jimai 20 have dual purpose quality
  24. 24. Variety with improved bread-making quality
  25. 25. Application of genomic technology
  26. 26. Approach Breeding oriented approach, translate advances of genomics into breeding programs, focus on functional marker development and validation Functional markers can discriminate alleles of a targeted gene, is an ideal marker for breeding program Optimize available markers from other institutes
  27. 27. Example 1-yellow pigment Bright white color is preferred for Chinese noodle and steamed bread, low yellow pigment is desirable Three QTLs at chr 7A, 7B, and 7D, are responsible for yellow pigment Clone Psy 1 gene on chr 7A, 7B, and 7D Develop functional markers based on the gene allelic variations Validate markers in Chinese wheat varieties
  28. 28. Cloned Psy genes on wheat chr 7A and 7B Allele Coding Intron cDNA (bp) Deduced amino acids seq (bp) 5’UTR ORF 3’UTR Residues Mass (kD) PSY-A1 4177 bp 5 221 1284 303 428 47.8 PSY-B1 3313 bp 5 222 1263 156 421 47.0 1 2 3 4 5 6Z MU32 636 ZMU 32636 1 5995 1 2 3 4 5 6 PSY-A1 1 4177 1 2 3 4 5 6 PSY-B1 1 3313 He et al, 2008, TAG, 116: 213-221
  29. 29. Allelic variants for the Psy-A1 gene on chr 7A 1 2 3 4 5 6 Psy-A1a 1 4177 1 2 3 4 5 6Unt i t l e d Psy-A1b 1 414 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 Psy-A1c Unt itl e d 1 323 5 He et al, 2008, TAG, 116: 213-221
  30. 30. PCR amplification with YP7A Varieties with high Varieties with low yellow pigment yellow pigment194 bp 231 bp 231 bp194 bp
  31. 31. Validation of YP7A in Chinese varietiesAllele Accession number Mean (mg/kg) RangePsy-A1a 130 1.80 a 0.62-3.42Psy-A1b 87 1.35 b 0.35-2.88Different letters indicate significant difference at P<0.05He et al, 2008, TAG, 116: 213-221
  32. 32. Markers for color traits Yellow pigment: Psy-A1, Psy-B1, Psy-D1, TaZds-A1, and TaZds-D1 Polyphenol oxidase activity: PPO-A1 and PPO-D1 Lipoxgenase activity: TaLox-B1 Excellent understanding on color traits at molecular level and powerful tool for breeders, genetic materials are needed to develop markers for other locus
  33. 33. Example 2-LMW-GS Molecular marker development and application CE and MALDI-TOF-MS
  34. 34. Utilization of LMW-GS in breeding HMW-GS is well characterized and have been widely used in breeding programs for more than 25 years LMW-GS are poorly characterized, and utilization in breeding is not common, largely due to the unavailability of simple and efficient method
  35. 35. Relationship between Glu-B3 protein alleles fromSDS-PAGE and gene haplotypesLine Allele GluB3 GluB3 GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- -11 -12 13 14 15 21 22 23Aroona-B3a a + +Aroona b + +Aroona-B3c cAroona-B3d dCheyenne e + +Aroona-B3f f + +Aroona-B3g g + +Aroona-B3h hAroona-B3i iLine Allele GluB3 GluB3 GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- -31 -32 33 34 41 42 43 44 45Aroona-B3a a +Aroona b +Aroona-B3c c + +Aroona-B3d d + +Cheyenne e +Aroona-B3f f +Aroona-B3g g +Aroona-B3h h + +Aroona-B3i i + +
  36. 36. Establishment of gene marker system and separation ofLMW-GS genes in Xiaoyan 54 3730 DNA analyzerZhang et al, 2011, TAG, 123: 1293-1305, adapted from Zhang Xiaofei, CAS
  37. 37. LMW-GS genes in Chinese core collections, CAS 17 16 17 16Allelic variants of individual LMW-GS genes are conserved in sequences and polymorphic in length.
  38. 38. Markers for discrimination of Glu-B3 alleles a b c d e f g h i gluB3fg 812bp gluB3g 853bp gluB3h 1022bp gluB3i 621bp
  39. 39. Molecular markers for Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 Glu-A3: 7 markers for alleles a, b, c, d, e, f, and g Glu-B3: 9 markers for alleles a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, and i Glu-D3: no marker is available due to tiny difference in gene sequence, with minor effect on quality
  40. 40. Molecular marker validation More than 1000 varieties and advanced lines from China, CIMMYT, and other 20 countries were tested Results from markers at Glu-A3 and Glu-B3, are well consistent with SDS-PAGE Much simple to use
  41. 41. Multiplex PCR assay Screen 3-5 genes in one test Excellent accuracy Low cost Breeding orientedZhang et al, 2008, Plant Breeding, 127: 109-115
  42. 42. Application of markers Totally, 90 markers available in our lab Parental characterization and advanced lines confirmation Provision of very useful information for crossing program with low cost, impossible by conventional method MAS operation in four breeding programs
  43. 43. Four lines in regional trialsApplication of molecular markers in breeding
  44. 44. Glu-A3a 1 2 3 4 5 6 Glu-B3a Glu-D3a Chinese Spring 2 Glu-B3h 5 CB037HMW-GS 10 12 Glu-A3c CB037-1 Glu-B3h Glu-B3h Glu-A3aGlu-A3c Glu-A3c CB037-2Glu-B3d Glu-B3g Glu-B3a Glu-D3c Ari124-3 Glu-D3aGlu-D3c Glu-B3g Ari127-6 Rapid identification of LMW-GS alleles by capillary electrophoresis Li et al, J. Cereal Sci, 2012, slide from Yan Yueming, Capital Normal University
  45. 45. Identification of Glu-B3 alleles by MALDI-TOF-MS 6. Chinese Spring, 7. Renan, 8. Insignia
  46. 46. MALDI-TOF-MS for LMW-GS Joint developed by the Capital Normal University and Murdoch University A powerful and rapid method, 4-5 minutes per sample Little operational cost, breeding program can not afford the equipment, need centralized service
  47. 47. Varieties recommended as standards for LMW-GSLocus Subunit Standard cultivarGlu-A3 Glu-A3a Neixiang 188, Chinese Spring Glu-A3b Gabo, Pavon Glu-A3c Pitic, Seri 82 Glu-A3d Nidera Baguette 10, Cappelle-Desprez Glu-A3e Amadina, Marquis Glu-A3f Kitanokaori, Renan Glu-A3g Bluesky, GlenleaGlu-B3 Glu-B3a Chinese Spring Glu-B3b Renan, Gabo Glu-B3b* Nanbu-komugi Glu-B3c Insignia, Halberd Glu-B3d/i Pepital, Norin 61 Glu-B3g Splendor, Cappelle-Desprez Glu-B3g* Thesee, Aca 801 Glu-B3h Aca 303, Pavon Glu-B3i* Heilo, Opata Glu-B3j Grebee, Seri 82Glu-D3 Glu-D3a Chinese Spring, Neixiang 188 Glu-D3b Gabo, Avocet Glu-D3c Insignia, Cappelle-Desprez Glu-D3c* Amadina, Heilo Glu-D3f Ernest, Darius
  48. 48. Future prospects
  49. 49. Challenge 1- production Food security is China’s national policy, and improvement of average yield is the only option Climate change, shortage of water, and more diseases Maize area increased 30%, wheat is less competitive than maize in yield and price, can we maintain wheat area? Challenges are to combine high yield potential, disease resistance, input use efficient, and excellent quality into one variety
  50. 50. Challenge 2- quality Significant progress has been made in quality improvement, still can not meet the needs of milling industry Breeders give more efforts to yield improvement after 2005, due to the high price of average quality grain, should we still breed for quality? Around 15 million tons wheat used for feed in 2012 With small farmer’s size (0.5 ha), can we ensure quality consistency?
  51. 51. Challenge 3-health food Health food is a hot subject, stop use of bleaching in milling industry, genetic improvement of color becomes more important Toxicity of Fusarium head scab could be a significant threat, due to climate change and popularity of wheat/maize rotation How should we prioritize Fe/Zn and other nutritional elements? food diversity or genetic improvement?
  52. 52. Challenge 4- traditional products Significant progress has been made in improving white noodle quality, but more efforts are needed to understand other types of noodles, and dumplings More efforts to understand north style steamed bread quality and Chinese flat bread…. More efforts for soft wheat products
  53. 53. Opportunity 1-molecular marker Molecular markers will play an increasing and much more significant role in varietal development within next 5-10 years More and more functional markers will be available for important traits, as progress made in genomics and gene cloning Can we rapidly transfer the advances from sequencing into breeding program?
  54. 54. Opportunity 2-GMO wheat Large investment on GMO crops including wheat Great potential for wheat improvement Low transformation efficiency: <1% Shortage of interest genes Declines of consumer’s acceptance
  55. 55. Opportunity 3- integrated approach Great expectations from new science in understanding quality and provision of new tools Combination of conventional breeding, quality testing, molecular markers, GMO, and other approaches International and national network
  56. 56. Conclusions Significant progress has been made in noodle testing methodology and development of quality variety Comparative genomic was successfully used for gene cloning, molecular markers development and application, particularly for LMW-GS Integration of various disciplines, and combination of traditional approaches and new sciences will help us to meet the great challenges in the future
  57. 57. CollaboratorsLiu Jianjun, Shandong AASYan Yueming, Capital Normal UniversityD. W. Wang/A.M. Zhang, Chinese Academy of ScienceR. J. Pena, CIMMYTK. Quail/S. Huang, Former BRIT. Ikeda/Yoshida, NAROG. Branlard, INRAW. J. Ma/R. Appels, Murdoch UniversityC. Morris, USDA-ARS
  58. 58. Acknowledgement Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Science and Technology National Natural Science Foundation of China