What you need to know about Canola meal

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Canola meal: A second protein meal for the Asian markets.
The canola evolution. The benefits. Special focus on poultry nutrition - broilers and layers.
Author: Dr. Rider A Perez, DSM Nutritional Products

Published in: Technology, Business
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What you need to know about Canola meal

  1. 1. © All papers and presentations of the 2013 Poultry Feed Quality Conference are copyright of Asian Agribusiness Media Pte Ltd. They are presented only for the personal reference of 2013 Poultry Feed Quality Conference delegates. Should you desire to reproduce a paper or presentation or part thereof please contact admin@asian-agribiz.com for written permission.
  2. 2. What You Need to Know about Canola Meal Rider A. Perez-Maldonado MSc PhD Technical Manager Asia Pacific
  3. 3. 页 2 University of Illinois University of Guelph University of Saskatchewa Canola Council Canada
  4. 4. 页  Complement/support SBM broiler and other livestock production  Reduce dependence: US, Brazil, Argentina. Main Asia pacific SBM suppliers  To ease pressure on the Amazon rain forest deforestation  Rapeseed/Canola is possible  Increasing global production and Affordability  Biofuel efficiency  Livestock compatible and oil of high quality content A new horizon for the Asia markets: a second protein meal
  5. 5. 页 4 From rapeseed to canola • Rapeseed-mustard oil in India Winter rape oils in China prefered over traditional edible oils. The meal normally used as animal protein supplement, presented several problems • The presence Erucic Acid (up to 50%) a long chain monounsaturatred FA (22:1) is feared to cause health problems like cardiovascular lesions (lipidosis) • High GLS (sulphur containing glucosides) in the meal are not desired for animal feed as cause bitter taste and can cause liver and thyroid problems when used at high levels
  6. 6. 页 • 1968 first single rapeseed lines low of EA appear in the market • 1974 first double-low (00) cultivars from Brassica napus (1936) and Brassica campestris/rapa were developed. Low EA B. juncea now also exists • 1979 the name “canola” adopted in Canada to all 00 cultivars • 1981 canola-quality rapeseed cultivars were developed in Europe, Canada, US and Australia • India (rapeseed/mustard) and China (winter rapa) still the majority of rapeseed has high EA (up to 50%), high GSL (up to 200 µM/g) • Oil and meal from these high EA/GSL are still accepted for human consumption and livestock use • Canada council data shows Japan and China are now major importers of canola seeds Evolution to Canola at glance
  7. 7. 页 Rapeseed/Canola Seed and high quality oil Small/round 1-2 mm diameter black/brown/dark red/yellow Rapeseed/Canola 42-45 oil 23-25 CP Soybean 18-20 40-42 OILS Saturates Omega-6 Polyunsaturates Omega-3 Polyunsaturates Monounsaturates Canola 7 20 10 63 Safflower 9 77 14 Sunflower 11 66 23 Olive 14 10 76 Soybean 15 54 8 23 Peanut 19 34 2 45 Cottonseed 26 58 16 Tallow* 50 2 1 47* Palm 51 10 39 Butter fat 64 2 1 33* Coconut 91 2 7 Lowest on saturated FA with two essential FA – linoleic and linolenic. EA < 2% of total FA. And ≤ 30 µmol/g of GSL (in the meal) Categorize as 00 or double low rapeseed
  8. 8. 页 Importance of rapeseed/canola production Canola oil is widely accepted for high quality human oil consumption 2012-13 season world’s rapeseed harvest about 63 mMT (Soybean 315 mMT) Canada 22.5 % India 13 % China 21.5 % EU 34% Australia 3.8 %
  9. 9. 页 8 Biological effect of RSM Glucosinolates in Poultry Effect of feeding rapeseed meal on liver and thyroid weights Meal fed Weeks on diet Liver wt g/100g bw Thyroid mg/100g bw Soybean 1 19 91 9 20.1 85 High GSL rapeseed 1 19.2 80 9 22.5 231 Low GSL rape seed 1 17.6 89 9 19.6 116 * Macrocopic lesion 0-1, Large haematomas (4-5) High GLS meals can have up to 200 µM/g. Low GSL meals contain less than 20 µM/g Depression in broiler performance due to HEARS, 5-10% feeding. In layer hen liver haemorrhages have been reported 20-40% inclusion. At QPRDC no problems with LEARS Martland et al. (1984); Summers, 1996
  10. 10. 页 Linear relationship between GSL content in the diet and weight gain of broiler chickens (Zeb, 1998; Tripathi & Misha, 2007) • Growth depression in broilers likely to occur at 4 µmol GSL/g • Noticeable at levels above 11 µmol/g • Great importance to measure GSL levels in the meal/diet
  11. 11. 页 10 Canola oil extraction and meal production This process involves several steps: • Seed handling and cleaning • Conditioning and flaking • Expeller extraction (plant finished meal) • Solvent extraction Desolventising and toasting (plant finished meal)
  12. 12. 页 Cold-pressed canola meal • Canola seed is not pre-conditioned prior to oil extraction • Single-pass cold-pressing not steam applied • Temperatures up to 55-65°C generated within expeller by frictional forces • Meal residual oil 12-15% > ME (16-18% EE) and < CP (28-41%), 5µmol GSL/g
  13. 13. 页 Receiving Seed Cleaning Drying to 6% moisture 35-50 °C 45-60 min Screenings Preconditioning, 75 - 78 °C, 30 min Flaking rolls (0.3-0.4 mm) Cooker 75 – 90 °C, 60 min (- myrosinase) Expeller/screw <105 °C Desolventization/toasting 45 min 100-110 °C + direct steam, 20 min Hexane Canola oil Gums Canola meal Drying/cooler 60 min (10-12% moisture) Process flow in Solvent canola oil Extraction and CM production Adapted from Classen, Newkirk and Maenz, 2004; WP 2007 Solvent extraction 50 - 60 °C 90 min, hexane, <1% oil, mark
  14. 14. 页 Oil content of canola seed during process and finished meal (From Spragg and Mailer, 2007)
  15. 15. 页 14 Oil extraction method affects the amount of GSL found in CM • Heat processing, either through expeller or solvent extraction results in substantial GSL reduction. Thus not an issue for animal nutrition • SE using D/T procedures reduced GSL by around 40, 65 and 80% for Canadian, European and Australian processing conditions respectively • In Australia expeller extraction process also reduced GSL by 50%.
  16. 16. 页 Canola meal nutrient composition Nutrient (%) Solvent Canada Solvent Australia Review** Expeller Australia Soybean Moisture 12 10.7 10 7.1 10 Crude Protein 36-38 37.3 36.5 36.3 45-48 Crude fat 3.5 3.4 3.6 11.1 1.3-2 Linoleic acid 0.6 0.87 2.40 Ash 6.1 7.3 6.8 6.3 6.4 Crude fibre 12-14 9.9 11.6 10.6 5.4 NDF 20.7 24.1 26 24.1 12-14 ADF 16.8 16.4 18.2 16.9 7.5-9 Choline (mg/kg) 6500 2860 Total tannins 1.5 4.26 3.77 Sinapine 1.0 0.79 1.0 9.7 NA Glucosinolates* 7.2 1.73 5.5 5.26 NA * (µmol/g), ** Khajali Slominski, 2012 Influenced: Environmental, harvest, cultivar and processing of the seed and meal
  17. 17. 页 Nutrient (%) Solvent Canada Solvent Australia Review** SBM** Moisture 12 10.7 10 10 Calcium 0.62 0.56 0.67 0.33 Phosphorous 1.06 1.02 1.02 0.66 Phytate P (%) 0.66 0.83 0.64 0.38 Available P(%) 0.40 0.19 0.38 0.28 Sodium 0.10 0.08 0.01 Chloride 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.05 Potassium 1.20 1.26 1.17 2.0 Sulphur 0.83 0.62 0.65 0.44 Magnesium 0.53 0.47 0.56 0.28 Copper (mg/kg) 5.7 3.9 Iron (mg/kg) 162 138 Manganese (mg/kg) 51 52 Zinc (mg/kg) 57 45 Mineral content of canola meal
  18. 18. 页 17 High Ca X Sulphur interaction reduce feed intake thus < weight gain Protein Sulphur Ca (%) Mean weight (g) Feed intake (g) Canola 0.46 0.37 424 636 0.72 0.37 371 561 0.46 1.32 560 852 0.72 1.32 481 723 The Anion-Cation balance was responsible in part, for the weight gain response due to excessive level of sulphur CM has less potassium than SBM (1.25 vs. 2% SBM), thus Dietary electrolyte balance DEB is much lower in CM compared with SBM Broiler weight gain increased linearly when DEB increased from 50 to 150 MEq/kg, Summers (1995) Best value for DEB of 250 mEq/kg of diet maximum growth.
  19. 19. 页 Total P (mg/g) Phytate-P IP6 (mg/g) Phytate-P IP5 (mg/g) Phytate-P IP6 + IP5 (mg/g) Proportion of phytate-P in total P (%) Solvent 10.2 7.9 0.83 0.82 86.6 Expeller 9.6 7.6 0.86 0.84 88.2 Cold press 8.4 7.0 0.2 7.22 86.1
  20. 20. 页 Degradation (%) of ’IP6+IP5’ (incubation: pH 4, 40°C, 30 min.) SD: ~ 1-2 Brejnholt et al 2011 Phytate source HiPhos Recombinant wheat phytase (expr. in yeast) Isolated wheat bran phytase Wheat 78 25 1 Corn 75 63 0 Barley 89 30 8 Soybean meal 52 38 10 Rapeseed meal 79 70 7 Wheat based diet 79 35 2 SBM/corn based diet 83 27 12 RONOZYME HiPhos activity towards different feed raw materials Degradation (%) of ’IP6+IP5’ (incubation: pH 4, 40°C, 30 min.)
  21. 21. 页 Canola meal Gross energy and metabolisable energy Evaluation (Kcal/kg) Solvent Canada Solvent Australia Solvent Review** Expeller Australia Solvent Soybean** Broilers AME 2000 1973-2048 2000 2371 2230-2557 Broilers AMEn 2040 1766-1841 2242 Layers AME 2346 2393 Layers AMEn 2231 2350 2458 Protein Crops Gross energy (Kcal/kg) Apparent ME (Kcal/kg) “unreleased energy” Soybean meal 4508 2544 (56%) 44% Rape seed (se) 4383 1970-2110 (48%) 52%
  22. 22. 页 Ingredient Hemicellulose Cellulose Pectin Total Corn 5.4 3.1 1.6 9.5 Canola meal 10.0 14.2 8.9 32.0 SBM 10 8.0 7.0 25.0 Fibre and Cell wall NSP % energy Cell wall Oil bodies Protein bodies The primary cell wall consists of cellulose microfibrills embedded in a matrix which is made from pectins and hemicelluloses.
  23. 23. 页 22 Percent digestibility of NSP in hens fed diets with CM (40%) With and without a carbohydrase enzyme Treatment Polysaccharides Total Cellulose NCP Canola meal 2.3 0.1 3.2 Canola meal + E (1%) 36.6 13.0 40.5 Work by Campbell (1990), showed and increase of NSP digestibility to 37% Using enzyme supplementation Enzyme (Pectinase) addition on Canola meal improvement in 230 Kcal, about 10%
  24. 24. 页 23 Solvent Australia Solvent Canada Rapeseed meal Evonic SBM Brazil SBM North America Amino acid 37.3% CP 36 % CP 35.3% CP 46.13% CP 47.8 % CP Methionine 0.72 0.74 0.68 0.61 0.70 Cystine 0.88 0.86 0.83 0.69 0.71 Met+Cys 1.62 1.60 1.51 1.30 1.32 Lysine 2.04 2.0 1.81 2.83 2.86 Threonine 1.58 1.58 1.48 1.81 1.74 Tryptophan 0.51 0.48 0.46 0.64 0.64 Arginine 2.23 2.08 2.12 3.38 3.60 Isoleucine 1.44 1.56 1.36 2.14 2.60 Valine 1.88 1.97 1.75 2.24 2.70 Canola meal amino acid content
  25. 25. 页 van Barneveld (1998): Both expeller and solvent methods reduce total lysine in the protein of CM by 16-17% Newkirk et al (2003): heat through desolventising and toasting resulted in a 10% decline in lysine content and digestibility
  26. 26. 页 25 • Hexane loaded marc enters top and passes over heated trays • Hexane evaporates and is drawn through to Top of DT • Live steam is injected into the two bottom trays • Improves hexane evaporation • Toast meal Meal exits bottom of DT Desolventiser-toaster (DT) From Classen, 2004
  27. 27. 页 26
  28. 28. 页 Solvent Australia Solvent Canada Rapeseed Evonik Expeller Extracted Layer hen Germany SBM Brazil SBM North America Methionine 0.87 0.79 0.84 0.91 0.87 0.92 0.91 Cystine 0.67 0.74 0.77 0.79 0.73 0.76 0.82 Met+Cys 0.77 0.76 0.80 0.85 0.80 0.88 0.87 Lysine 0.73 0.78 0.80 0.76 0.74 0.92 0.90 Threonine 0.66 0.69 0.73 0.64 0.75 0.88 0.85 Tryptophan 0.80 0.78 0.80 0.80 0.81 0.91 0.89 Arginine 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.85 0.88 0.95 0.93 Isoleucine 0.73 0.72 0.79 0.73 0.82 0.91 0.89 Valine 0.713 0.76 0.79 0.72 0.76 0.89 0.88 MEAN 0.755 0.764 0.799 0.783 0.796 0.891 0.882 Canola meal digestibility coefficient of amino acid (poultry) 0.78 0.79 0.83 0.81 0.82Improvement
  29. 29. 页 Page 28 Apparent ileal digestibility (AID, %) of amino acids in canola meal with and without mono-component protease Source: Gomez et al., 2011
  30. 30. 页 Page 29 Improvement (%) of the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in canola meal supplemented with and a mono-component protease Source: Gomez et al., 2011 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lys Met Cys Trp Thr Arg Ile Val Leu His Phe Tyr %Improvement CM + Protease
  31. 31. 页 30 Sinapine Sinapine is a choline ester of sinapic acid found in CM at 10-15 g/kg
  32. 32. 页 Test g CM/kg Strain As fresh Stored (2 wks) Stored (5 wks) Control (0) ISA brown 0 b 0 0 b 100 ISA brown 0 b 8 8 ab 150 ISA brown 17 ab 8 0 b 200 ISA brown 42 a 33 30 a LSD (P=0.05) 27 26 23 Test g CM/kg Strain As fresh Stored (2 wks) Stored (5 wks) Control (0) White ST 8 0 0 100 White ST 0 0 0 150 White ST 0 0 0 200 White ST 0 0 0 LSD (P=0.05) NA NA NA Odour % of eggs obtained from Isabrown and White Supertint layers fed on 100, 150, and 200 g CM/kg
  33. 33. 页 32 Factors involved in the production of trimethylamine (TMA) taint in eggs
  34. 34. 页 Averagesensoryscoreperegg 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 % CM trace sinapine choline: 1082 mg/kg 6 % CM: sinapine: 730 mg/kg choline: 1236 mg/kg 9 % CM sinapine: 100 mg/kg choline: 1355 mg/kg 12 % CM sinapine: 1146 mg/kg choline: 1490 mg/kg 15 % CM sinapine: 1830 mg/kg choline: 1595 mg/kg 15 % CM fed to non- responders layer hens Figure 5. Severity of fishy taint in eggs from responders hens fed varying levels of CM 1. Choline and sinapine (endogenous or supplemental) can generate a “fishy” taint in eggs 2. Taint levels increase at sinapine levels above 1.2g/kg and choline levels of 1.5 g/kg 3. As Australian CM has sinapine levels between 10-15 g/kg, an inclusion level of 10-12% (equivalent to 1.5 g sinapine/kg) should no lead to any increase in taint above control levels. Perez-Maldonado and Treloar, 2005
  35. 35. 页 34 Further Recommendations from the study included Layer breeding companies including Lohmann, ISA and Hy-Line have developed a new layer brown egg strains The defective gene that causes eggs with fishy odour has been eliminated This should allow poultry producers and feed manufacturers to incorporate CM at much higher level in poultry diets This year study in Australia (Dr Bob Swick) should demonstrate higher CM inclusion in brown strain layer hen
  36. 36. 页 35 1280 Dekalb SCWL Laying hens performance over 5 months feeding CM + SBM 0 + 20 10 + 6 20 + 0 10 + 8 20 + 3 Intake g/h/d 102.2a 100.7ab 99.2b 99.9b 99.8b Eggs (%) 90.1 89.4 90.5 90.7 89.4 FE 1.95 1.91 1.87 1.88 1.89 Not evidence of liver haemorrhage. Not thyroid weight changes. Plasma T3 and T4 similar to control Campbell et al 1999
  37. 37. 页 36 Ingredients (g/kg) of layer diets with 120 and 200 g/kg of canola meal from Numurkah, and Pinjarra (Hy-line Brown) Sorghum 450 480 450 319 Wheat 188 129 169 297 Meat& bone meal 50 50 50 50 Soybean meal 29 - - - Full fat Soybean meal 47 17 44.8 3 Sunflower meal 30 30 82 46 CM Numurkah (SE) 120 200 - - CM Pinjarra (EE) - - 120 200
  38. 38. 页 Canola meal FI (g/d) Eggs % Egg wt (g) Egg mass (g/d) FCR (g FI/g egg mass) Speci gravity Hen weight (g/b) Liver Pancre as Control 113.8 bc 89.3 64.6 57.6 1.981 1.085 2160 1.98 0.162 Numurkah120 g/kg 115.4 abc 84.4 64.4 54.3 2.138 1.084 2086 1.95 0.186 Numurkah200 g/kg 118.5 a 87.4 64.1 56.0 2.128 1.085 2150 1.76 0.168 Pinjarra 120 g/kg 117.1 ab 89.3 64.0 57.1 2.064 1.082 2115 1.81 0.182 Pinjarra 200 g/kg 110.3 c 86.3 63.2 54.4 2.047 1.083 2026 1.89 0.174 LSD (P=0.05) 4.6 4.3 2.3 2.9 0.113 0.0031 116 0.33 0.033 main effects: (1) CM source Numurkah 116.9 a 85.9b 64.2 55.1 2.133 1.084 2118 1.85 0.177 Pinjarra 113.7 ab 87.8ab 63.6 55.7 2.055 1.082 2071 1.85 0.178 LSD (P=0.05) 3.2 3.0 1.6 2.0 0.080 0.0022 82 0.23 0.023 Inclusion levels 120 g/kg 114.0 88.4 63.4 56.0 2.048 1.084 2134 1.91 0.176 200 g/kg 114.2 87.6 63.5 55.6 2.066 1.084 2081 1.84 0.176 LSD (P=0.05) 2.3 2.1 1.2 1.4 0.057 0.0016 58 0.16 0.017 Hy-line Brown hens fed on diets with 120, and 200 g/kg of canola meal from Numurkah (SE), and Pinjarra (EE) over 16 weeks period
  39. 39. 页 Ingredients Control Canola meal Sorghum 483 433 Wheat 193 100 Meat & bone meal 70 70 Poultry offal meal 21 40 Soybean meal 204 112 CM Numurkah - 200 Ingredients Control Canola meal Sorghum 522 450 Wheat 259 100 Meat & bone meal 60 54 Poultry offal meal 3 50 Soybean meal 130 - CM Numurkah - 300 Broilers Starter and finisher diets (Cobb 500) 0-43 days
  40. 40. 页 BW0 BFI 0-43 LWG 21 LWG 0-43 FCR 0-43 Control 41.4 4533 a 825 2395 1.893 b Canola 41.6 4393 b 829 2367 1.856 c LSD (P=0.05) 0.4 129 19 80 0.023 Cf variation 1% 4% 3% 4% 2% Results summary
  41. 41.
  42. 42. 页 A$ Ingredients Control A$ Cost CM A$ Cost Save 350 Sorghum 522 182.7 450 157.5 400 Wheat 259 103.6 100 40 700 Meat & bone meal 60 42 54 37.8 500 Poultry offal meal 3 1.5 50 25 650 Soybean meal 130 84.5 0 0 345 CM Numurkah 0 0 300 103.5 1000 Soybean oil 0 0 30.7 30.7 Cost/mt 414.3 394.5 19.8 Comparative formula cost when using CM vs SBM CM higher phytate P, higher SAA, low dig in Aas, higher choline. With further potential for savings in formulation
  43. 43. 页 42 Control SBM; Cottonseed meal and Canola meal
  44. 44. 页 Conclusions The APAC highly depends on SBM imports as the main protein meal in broiler diets Evolution of rapeseed to canola was partially due to human health concerns as high EA and GSL in rapeseed oil and meal can result in heart disease and GSL can be detrimental to animals Canola is the meal in APAC due to its increasing global production, affordability, biofuel efficiency, livestock compatible and oil of high quality content Methods for oil extraction and variations between processing plants results in slightly different characteristics in the meal affecting residual oil, GSL content, energy value and amino acid quality The most commonly known ANF found in CM include fibre, condensed tannins, sinapine, and phytic acid which affect nutrient availability The understanding of CM energy value, amino acid content and digestibility characteristics and how to improve on most common ANF will result in a useful raw material for least-cost poultry diets

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