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Challenges in Feeding Birds in India - Knowledge Day 2016

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Challenges in Feeding Birds in India - by Dr. D Chandrasekaran

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Challenges in Feeding Birds in India - Knowledge Day 2016

  1. 1. Feed Requirement (MMT) 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 2016 2020 2025 93.4 102.0 127.4 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 Dairy Poultry Aqua 66.0 24.2 3.2 69.3 29.0 3.7 86.6 36.3 4.5 2016 2020 2025
  2. 2. Ingredientsrequirement (MMT) 2016 2020 2025 26.4 30.1 37.6 GRAINS 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 2016 2020 2025 19.5 21.4 26.6 Oilmeals
  3. 3. Grainspresent andfutureAvailability& Requirement(MMT) 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 21.7 21.8 22.3 24.3 24.2 21.0 24.5 7.0 6.0 5.3 5.5 5.5 4.6 5.5 13.0 12.7 10.8 11.7 11.6 10.5 11.5 Maize Jowar Millet 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 2016 2020 2025 41.5 41.5 41.5 24.9 24.9 24.9 26.4 30.1 37.6 Grain production Grain Available for feed Grain requirement of feed
  4. 4. Oil Meal Present and FutureAvailability and Requirement(MMT) 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 7.4 7.7 8.0 6.6 5.4 4.7 6.1 3.8 3.4 3.5 3.5 2.5 3.0 3.4 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.0 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.1 1.2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 SBM RSM CSM GN Others 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 2016 2020 2025 15.1 15.1 15.1 19.5 21.4 26.6 Oil meal production Requirement
  5. 5. Status • The present situation is itself is on the negative • The production for the last 5 years seems to be constant or declining • If this situation continues then the future seems to be bleak • Can import help us in overcoming the situation? • Definitely not as our need is huge
  6. 6. PerHa Production of Corn and Soybean comparedtoother countries 0 2 4 6 8 10 United States: Egypt: Canada: France: Italy: Argentina: Poland: China: Hungary: Thailand: Ukraine: Brazil: Serbia Russia: South Africa: Mexico: Romania: India: Indonesia: Philippines: Zimbabwe: 18 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Italy: Argentina: Brazil: United States: Paraguay: Canada: Bolivia: Serbia China: South Africa: France: Japan: Uruguay: Indonesia: Vietnam: Ukraine: Thailand: Korea, North: Uganda: India: Russia: 20
  7. 7. Per Ha Production of Corn and Soybean compared to other countries 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 2197 7000 2314 2452 2353 4000 3087 9970 8699 3430 Corn 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 1550 201 979 1174 722 1695 2915 3387 Soybean
  8. 8. Arable Land (M Ha) and Renewable Water Resource (Cu M /Ha) 0 50 100 150 200 USA India Russia China Brazil Australia Canada Ukraine Nigeria Argentina 174 160 122 103 59 49 46 32 31 28 Arable Land 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 139542 72273 36935 2917627366 17593 119509384 8056 4299 Water resource
  9. 9. How to proceed • India Number two in arable land availability • Renewable water resource higher than several high producing countries • Increasing the per hectare production by 10%per annum will be able to meet the deficit • This can be achieved with the help of the Government and the state Agriculture departments, as for now their concentration is only on food grains andpulses
  10. 10. Quality
  11. 11. Maize Quality Moisture (%) Fungus (%) Grains in 100gms 10.6 5.5 378 10.8 2.2 388 10.9 0.5 352 11.4 2.6 354 11.5 3.6 380 11.6 4.5 374 11.9 3.2 354 12.3 4 358 12.6 1 380 12.6 6.5 378 12.8 0.5 356 13.8 2.1 355
  12. 12. Oil meal quality Protein supplement Mean Crude protein(%ADB) Range Min Max DOGN 40.81 30.15 47.05 Soya 45.18 33.07 52.14 SFOC 26.77 22.14 34.9 Fish meal 37.4 22.59 58.65 Rape seed meal 36.4 30.08 38.64 0 5 10 15 20 25 90.0&> 85.0-89.9 80-84.9 75.0-79.9 70-74.9 60-69.9 59.9 &< 10 16.9 21.3 21.7 13.3 10 6.8 Soybeanmeal Solubilityof protein 56.3%
  13. 13. Quality Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1& G2, Citrinin Cyclopiazonic acid Fumonisins Ochratoxin Oosporin Patulin Sterigmatocystin Trichothecenes:- T2, DON & DAS Zearalenone
  14. 14. Incidenceof Aflatoxin +ve Total % +ve Maize 4464 9803 45.5 Bajra 664 1148 57.8 JOWAR 765 1619 52.7 DOGNC 11024 11097 99.3 SFOC 12944 14824 87.3 SOYA 3089 10297 30.0 RICE 1288 2442 52.7 RSM 468 2247 20.8 FEED 16604 19921 83.3 Total 51310 71597 69.9
  15. 15. Mycotoxin Contamination the major Challenge 18% 54% 28% Cereals Oilcakes Feed Multi-toxinAnalysed 13532 10%of thesamples containedAFT + 1 Toxin 5%of thesamples containedAFT +2Toxins Commonothertoxins were OA, Citrinin, Zearalenone, StregmatocystinandT2
  16. 16. Quality of Ingredients • Variabilityis theNormin India • Formulationsometimes isanightmareas wehavetoassumevalues manyatimes • Averaging valuesofdifferentlotsis a practice • In aUS studyaveraging for48,49and50%CP forSBMandformulatingforeach lot separatelyFCR difference 0.02 • CostimpactforanIntegratorof1lakh/weekwill be61 lakh/annum
  17. 17. Quality continued VariationinMaize qualitythe variationindensityaffectsthe ME Moistureabove11% forevery1% increaseME reducedby 33kcal/kg Grainno/100 gmhighly variable Testweightvariedfrom720 to800gm/litforevery10gm reductionbelow 750gm ME reducedby30kcal Mould count isalwayshigheventhoughtoxinmay belowbutitaffectsthe nutrientcontent LevelofE.Coli and Clostridium? Grouping Lysine (%) % Reduction Meth (%) % Reduction No mould 1.355 100 0.537 100 L mould 1.344 1 0.435 19 M mould 1.329 2 0.419 22 H mould 1.317 3 0.397 26 Influenceof mouldonaminoacidcontentinpoultryfeed
  18. 18. FeedManufacturing • We talk that the feed cost is 70% of the production cost • If so what is the daily focus is on feed manufacturing • Most farmers are under the impression that getting a formula from a good Nutritionist is enough • The formulation is only 2% of the whole process
  19. 19. Storage inDifferent Mills
  20. 20. Batching
  21. 21. Feed manufacturingcontinued • Except Feed manufacturers the on farm mixing is mostly manual batching • Each bag is mostly not weighed just dumped • The nameof the nutritionist is depends not on the owner or the bird but on the labourer in the feed mill • If he weighs properly and dumps the material as per the formula I get a good name else I am dumped
  22. 22. How are wegoingtodeliverthe nutrientintothecell
  23. 23. Gut Health • Maintaining the optimal guthealth is the greatest challenge • Under field conditions the high variation in the FCR can be attributed the derangement in the gut mucosa • In a layer farm the feed/egg varied from 118gm to 135gm intwo different batches causing a difference of Rs.100/bird in the production cost • In my experience the gutlesion score ranged between 1.5 to 1.75both in layers and Broilers
  24. 24. EnhancingNutrientAvailability • Takingcare ofguthealth • Creatingconditionsforbetterperformanceoftheenzymes • Enhancingnutrientabsorbtion
  25. 25. Impact of infectionin first two weeks
  26. 26. Gut Health
  27. 27. Undigested Protein on Performance 29.1 32.4 34.2 36.3 67.7 67.1 65.5 63.7 1.63 1.67 1.69 1.72 1.58 1.60 1.62 1.64 1.66 1.68 1.70 1.72 1.74 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 Undigested protein g/kg Weight gain g/d FCR
  28. 28. Gut Health Leison Score 2 4 1 3
  29. 29. Impact of Gut Health Maintenance ME increase over 0 lesion group ME consumption/day (Kcal) Average Daily Gain g/d 100 100 100 119 115 111 122 117 110 124 119 108 227 165 112 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 250 14-20 28-34 42-48 Kcal 0 1 2 3 4 Age 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 14-20 28-34 42-48 386 562 701 364 516 628 342 477 570 318 440 522 300 420 482 Age in days 0 1 2 3 4 50.5 92.6 97.3 45.2 72.2 61 35.6 54.3 32.7 23.7 38.2 10 15.7 27.3 -7 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 14-20 28-34 42-48 0 1 2 3 4
  30. 30. Cellular Loss FARMER Udhayakumar Control No of Birds 2670 Coenzyme Q10 group No of Birds 2670 Age AVG.WT F.C.R AVG.WT F.C.R 8 0.18 0.87 0.17 0.84 15 0.38 1.15 0.4 1.14 22 0.81 1.28 0.85 1.22 29 1.27 1.47 1.26 1.45 36 1.75 1.72 1.72 1.65 40 2.03 1.796 2.03 1.7 1. If 1 mole (180gms) glucose enters the cell 673 Kcal enters 2. Energy harvested as ATP’s rage between 380 to 456Kcal 3. Energy Loss 33 to 45% • Glucose Metabolism • Mitochondria O2 leak • Field trial
  31. 31. Nightmare of a Nutritionist Year Average Egg cost `. Average Feed cost `/kg Feed cost Paise/egg Percentage of feed cost/egg income Aug-04 1.3 5.85 73.1 56 Aug-09 2.09 11.87 148.4 73 Aug-10 2.41 14.05 175.6 73 Aug-12 2.86 20.12 252 88 Aug-13 2.98 20.31 254 85 Aug-14 2.70 18.94 237 88 March - 15 2.80 17.02 213 76 Housed 126125 Mort% 4.2 FCR 1.640 C.FCR 1.572 Avg.Wt 2.3 Avg Rt 57.3 P&L/Kg -11.83
  32. 32. Conclusions Constraints • Availability of ingredients is expected to go from bad to worse • Quality of ingredients over the period deteriorating • Feed manufacturingprocess revamping needed • Bird enhancing the nutrient utilization

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