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Nutrients

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This PowerPoint presentation on "Nutrients" is from a six part webinar series (on sheep and goat feeding and nutrition) that was held in Jan-Feb. 2012. The presentation was developed by Susan Schoenian, Sheep & Goat Specialist from University of Maryland Extension.

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Nutrients

  1. 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center sschoen@umd.edu - www.sheepandgoat.comNutrient -“a substance that provides nourishment”
  2. 2. 1) Water Livestock do not require specific feedstuffs; they require nutrients in certain quantities and ratios.2) Protein3) Energy4) Fat5) Vitamins6) Minerals
  3. 3.  Many (most) feedstuffs contain more than one of the essential six nutrients. Feedstuffs vary considerably in their content of the six essential nutrients. No single feedstuff can supply all six essential nutrients that an animal needs to survive and thrive.
  4. 4.  There are “linkages” or relationships between essential nutrients. You have to “balance” the ratio of different feed ingredients to meet the individual animal’s needs. The nutrient needs of an animal varies depending upon species, age, stage and level of production, and other factors.
  5. 5.  The most critical nutrient. Has many important functions in the body. Needs vary by species, stage and level of production, and climate. Quantity + Quality
  6. 6. Feedstuff % DMLettuce 5 percentPumpkins 10 percentOrchardgrass pasture 24 percentCorn silage 34 percentWet distiller’s grains 25 percentMolasses, cane 76 percentGrass hay 88 percentWhole corn 88 percentGround limestone 98 percentUrea 99 percent Pineapple Feedstuffs contain water. The amount of moisture in the feed must be considered when balancing rations. Rations are balanced on a dry matter (DM) basis.
  7. 7.  Nutrient needed in the greatest quantity. Building blocks for other nutrients. Dietary excess is stored as fat. Expressed as 1. TDN - total digestible nutrients 2. ME - metabolizable energy 3. NE - net energy [maintenance, gain, and lactation]
  8. 8. Feedstuff % TDNUrea 0 percentOat straw 48 percentOrchardgrass hay 59 percentGrass silage 61 percentFescue pasture 64 percentDry beet pulp 75 percentBarley 84 percentCorn 88 percentBread by-product 91 percentDistiller’s grains 92 percentFat 195 percent
  9. 9.  Cheapest energy source. 2.25x as much energy as carbohydrates. Used to raise energy level of feed, improve flavor, texture, and palatability. Source of heat, insulation and body protection. Essential fatty acids. Can manipulate to change nutritional profile of meat.
  10. 10. Feedstuff % EEUrea 0 percentDry beet pulp 0.7 percentBarley 2.1 percentAlfalfa hay, mid-bloom 2.3 percentOrchardgrass hay 3.3 percentCorn 4.3 percentFescue pasture 5.5 percentCorn distiller’s grains 10.5 percentWhole cottonseed 17.8 percentWhole soybeans 18.8 percentFat 99 percent Ruminant diets are typically < 4% fat
  11. 11.  Most expensive ingredient in feed ration. Need decreases as animal matures. Source of essential amino acids. Excess dietary protein is converted to energy, fat. Expressed as  CP - crude protein ▪ DIP – degradable intake protein ▪ UIP – undegradable intake protein  MP - metabolizable protein [microbial protein + UIP]
  12. 12. Feedstuff % CPWheat straw 3 percentCorn grain 9 percentBromegrass hay 10 percentBarley 12 percentFescue pasture 15 percentAlfalfa hay, mid bloom 17 percentCrystalyx ® protein tub 18 percentDistiller’s grains 29 percentSoybean meal 49 percentFish meal 66 percentUrea 288 percent
  13. 13. 1) Macro Needed in gram amounts Ca, P, Na, Cl, Mg, K, S2) Micro Needed in milligram amounts Co, Cu, F, I, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn Multiple functions in body
  14. 14. Dry matter basis Ca P Ca: PCorn 0.02 percent 0.30 percent 0.07Barley 0.06 percent 0.38 percent 0.16Soybean meal 0.28 percent 0.71 percent 0.39Orchardgrass hay 0.32 percent 0.30 percent 1.07Fescue pasture 0.48 percent 0.37 percent 1.30Soybean hulls 0.55 percent 0.17 percent 3.24Alfalfa hay, mid-bloom 1.4 percent 0.24 percent 5.83Dried kelp 2.72 percent 0.31 percent 8.77Dicalcium phosphate 22 percent 18.65 percent 1.18Bone meal 27 percent 12.74 percent 2.12Ground limestone 34 percent 0.02 percent 1700
  15. 15. 1) Water soluble B&C2) Fat soluble A, D, E , & K Multiple functions in body. Requirements increase with age. No dietary requirement for vitamin K or B complex.
  16. 16. Vitamin Feedstuffβ-caroteen Green, pasture forage; dehydrated hay; (vitamin A) cured hay, vitamin supplements D Ultraviolet irradiation, sun-cured hays, vitamin supplements E High quality legume hay, dehydrated alfalfa, wheat germ, vitamin supplements K Green, leafy feedstuffs (K1). K2 synthesized in rumen B Not required in diets of ruminants
  17. 17. 1) Ca - Vitamin D2) P - Vitamin D3) Co - Vitamin B124) Se - vitamin E5) Cu - Mo - S
  18. 18. 1) Acid detergent fiber (ADF) Cellulose + Lignin ADF Forage quality 2) Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) Hemicellulose + Cellulose + Lignin  NDF  IntakeTDN is calculated from ADF.
  19. 19.  Species Size (weight) Sex Age Genetics Stage and level of production Climate, environment, and activity. Body condition
  20. 20. 5.0 4.5Lbs. per day 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 Maintenance Early Gestation Late gestation Early lactation Dairy doe Non-dairy doe Ewe Parlor-milked ewe Parlor-milked doe NRC 2007
  21. 21.  Sheep have lower maintenance requirements than goats. Dairy goats have higher maintenance requirements than meat and fiber goats. Females with a higher genetic potential for milk production have higher nutritional requirements.
  22. 22. 7.0 6.5 110-lb. ewe 6.0 5.5 154-lb. ewe 5.0 4.5 198-lb. eweLbs. per day 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 52% 2.0 1.5 66% 1.0 0.5 66% 0.0 10% 10% 8.5% Dry matter intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007
  23. 23. 4.5 66-lb. doe 4.0 110-lb. doe 3.5 154-lb. doe 3.0Lbs. per day 2.5 2.0 66% 1.5 1.0 66% 0.5 80% 15% 13% 13% 0.0 Dry matter intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007, Errata
  24. 24.  Bigger animals have lower maintenance requirements than smaller animals.   % body weight Bigger animals need to eat more and consume larger quantities of nutrients.   lbs. TDN and  lbs. CP However, smaller animals need to consume a more nutrient-dense diet.   %TDN and  %CP
  25. 25. 176-lb. mature ewe (twins) 5.0 132-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 4.5 110-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 4.0 110-lb. ewe lamb (single)Lbs. per day 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 -- 79% -- 1.5 1.0 ~10% 0.5 66% 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007
  26. 26. 176-lb. mature ewe (twins) 12.0 132-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 110-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 10.0 110-lb. ewe lamb (single) 8.0Grams per day 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium (Ca) Phosphorus (P) NRC, 2007
  27. 27.  Mature females are usually bigger and need to eat more.  More lbs. of dry matter  More lbs. of energy  More lbs. of protein  More grams of Ca and P However, young females need a more nutrient-dense diet.  Higher % of energy  Higher % of Ca and P  But NOT protein!
  28. 28. 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5Lbs. per day 3.0 66% 2.5 2.0 66% 1.5 53% 1.0 0.5 53% 7% 8% 10% 15% 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC 2007
  29. 29. 10.0 8.0Grams per day 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium Phosphorus Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactationNRC, 2007
  30. 30.  Energy requirements during late gestation are more than 50 percent higher than for maintenance. Ewes require a more nutrient-dense diet during late gestation and lactation. Protein requirements don’t increase significantly until the female begins to lactate. Calcium requirements are highest during late gestation. Phosphorus requirements are highest during lactation.
  31. 31. 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0Lbs. per day 2.5 2.0 1.5 ? 1.0 0.5 ? 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC 2007, Errata
  32. 32. 10.0 8.0Grams per day 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium Phosphorus Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactationNRC, 2007
  33. 33. 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0Lbs. per day 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC 2007 Errata
  34. 34.  Energy requirements during late gestation are more than 50 percent higher than for maintenance. Calcium and Phosphorus requirements are highest during lactation. Females with a higher genetic potential for milk production have much higher nutritional requirements during lactation.
  35. 35. 6.0 Single lamb 5.0 Twin lambs Three or more 4.0Lbs. per day 3.0 66% 2.0 66% 53% 1.0 8.3% 10 10% 0.0 % DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007
  36. 36. 12.0 Single lamb 10.0 Twin lambs Three or moreGrams per day 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium Phosphorus NRC, 2007
  37. 37.  Ewes carrying twins and triplets need to eat more.  Dry matter  Energy (TDN)  Protein (CP)  Calcium and phosphorus Ewes carrying twins and triplets need a more nutrient-dense diet. A ewe carrying triplets needs 43% more energy than a ewe carrying a single fetus.
  38. 38. Single lamb 6.0 Twin lambs Three or more 5.0 Parlor milked 4.0Lbs. per day 80% 3.0 66% 2.0 1.0 53% 19% 15% 11% 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007
  39. 39. Single kid 8.0 Twin kids Three or more 7.0 Parlor milked 6.0Lbs. per day 79% 5.0 66% 4.0 53% 3.0 53% 2.0 1.0 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) NRC, 2007
  40. 40.  The more milk a female produces the more nutrients she needs to consume.  Energy  Protein  Minerals In some cases, animals can simply be fed more, but in the case of higher-producing animals, a more nutrient dense diet must be fed. Nutrient requirements are significantly higher for dairy does and ewes.
  41. 41.  Their nutritional requirements are affected by many of the same factors.  Age  Species  Size  Genetic type and potential  Level of performance  Environment, activity
  42. 42. EARLY MATURING LATE MATURING 4 months old 8 months old 4 months old 8 months old 4.0 3.5 5.5% 3.0Lbs. per day 79% 2.5 4.2% 2.0 3.4% 79% 79% 1.5 2.9% 1.0 66% 0.5 18% 15% 12% 9% 0.0 DM TDN CP NRC, 2007
  43. 43.  Assuming the same size and rate-of-gain:  Young lambs convert feed more efficiently, but need a higher percentage of protein in their diet.  Older lambs need to eat more and require a more digestible diet to achieve the same rate-of-gain.  Later maturing lambs need to eat more, but have lower protein requirements.
  44. 44. 4.0 Weight % TDN % CP 3.5 22 87.5% 16.5% 44 67.1% 11.2% 3.0 66 67.0% 10.7%Lbs. per day 2.5 88 48.9% 7.6% 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 AS FED DM TDN CP 22 lbs. 44 lbs. 66 lbs. 88 lbs. NRC, 2007
  45. 45.  Assuming the same rate of gain (0.22 lbs/day):  Smaller kids (weight) need to consume a more nutrient-dense diet, both energy and protein.  Bigger kids need to consume more quantity of nutrients, but the diet does not need to be as high Weight 22 % TDN 87.5% % CP 16.5% quality (% TDN, CP). 44 67.1% 11.2% 66 67.0% 10.7% 88 48.9% 7.6%
  46. 46. 3.0 Type % TDN % CP Dairy 87.7% 14.4% Boer 66.3% 15.1% 2.5 Indigenous 67.0% 13.0% 2.0Lbs. per day 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 AS FED DM TDN CP Dairy Boer Indigenous
  47. 47.  Assuming the same rate of gain (0.44 lbs/day).  Dairy goat bucks don’t need to eat as much as Boer bucks, but their diet needs to be more energy-dense.  Boer bucks need to eat the most, but their diet doesn’t need to be as energy-dense.  Boer bucks have the highest requirements for protein: lbs. and %.  Indigenous (local) breed goats have Type % TDN % CP lower requirements for protein than Dairy 87.7% 14.4% improved breeds. Boer 66.3% 15.1%Indigenous 67.0% 13.0%
  48. 48. 2.5 2.0Lbs. per day 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 As Fed DM TDN CP Doelings and wethers Intact males
  49. 49.  Assuming the same rate of gain (0.44 lbs/day).  Bucks need to eat more dry matter and energy.  Bucks and does require the same amount of protein.  But since does eat less, they require a higher percentage of protein in their diet.  Realistically, the differences will be larger as bucks will gain Sex % TDN % CP faster and you don’t want to Doelings, wethers 65.8% 15.9% feed does to gain as fast. Intact males 66.3% 14.5%
  50. 50. 2.0 1.5Lbs. per day 1.0 0.5 0.0 AS FED DM TDN CP 0 lbs/day 0.22 lbs/day 0.33/lbs/day 0.44 lbs/day 0.55 lbs/day NRC, 2007
  51. 51.  Assuming the same genetic potential for growth:  The more you feed a kid or lamb the more it will gain.  Better performance requires both more feed and better quality feed. ▪ Higher % TDN ▪ Higher % CP  The bigger question is: is better ADG 0 lbs/day % TDN 49.7% % CP 7.8% performance economical? 0.22 lbs/day 67.1% 13.8% 0.33/lbs/day 87.9% 19.9% 0.44 lbs/day 89.2% 21.7% 0.55 lbs/day 88.6% 23.1%
  52. 52. Next webinar – Thursday, 1/26, 7:30 p.m. EST Topic: Feedstuffs w/Jeff Semler Thank you for your attention. Any questions? Susan Schoenian sschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.com

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