Bureau DP 2010 Assessment of the Nutritive Value of Animal Proteins XIV ISFNF

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Presentation made at the Worlshop on Alternative Feed Protein Sources held during the XIV International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding in Qingdao, PR China on 1 June 2010.

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Bureau DP 2010 Assessment of the Nutritive Value of Animal Proteins XIV ISFNF

  1. 1. Workshop on Alternative Feed Protein Sources Assessment of the Nutritive Valueof Processed Animal Proteins for Fish Dominique P. Bureau
  2. 2. IntroductionProcessed animal protein ingredients, such as blood meal, feather meal, meat andbone meal, and poultry by-products meal, compare favorably cost-wise with manyother types of protein sources commonly used in fish feeds. Useful sources ofnutrients, such as essential amino acids, phosphorus, and various minor nutrients(micro-minerals, phospholipids, cholesterol, etc.)Accurately characterization of the nutritive value of the different types ofprocessed animal proteins available on the market is essential to optimize their usein feeds. Feedstuffs Crude Price Price Price Protein $/tonne $/tonne $/tonne % Crude Protein Digestible protein Fish Meal 60 900 1500 1667 Rapeseed (Canola) Meal 38 289 761 963 Corn Gluten Meal 60 500 833 868 Soybean Meal 48 369 761 802 Meat and Bone Meal 50 310 609 775 Feather Meal 83 355 426 570
  3. 3. Apparent Digestibility of Feather Meals ADC Guelph System Protein Energy Cho et al. (1982) 58% 70% Sugiura et al. (1998) 82-84% N/A Bureau (1999) 81-87% 76-80% Stripping HCl hydrolyzed feather meal Pfeffer et al. (1995) 83% 81% Data obtained using the same facilities and methodology. There is value in using standard methodological approaches consistently over many years.
  4. 4. State-of-The-Art and LimitationsProcessed animal proteins are produced using different mix of raw materials andprocessing equipment and conditions. This may result in inherent differences in thechemical composition and nutritive value for different “batches” of the “same”ingredient.Assessment of nutritional value of processed animal proteins has focused onapparent digestibility of proximate components (dry matter, crude protein, grossenergy) and very seldom on that of specific nutrients (e.g. as essential amino acids).Lots of research. However, in most feeding trials, the control diet is formulatedwith high fish meal levels (> 30% ) and all essential nutrients are supplied greatlyin excess of requirements. The test ingredient is included at graded levels and effecton growth performance is monitored. The “absence of effect” of the test ingredientis the “standard”. Yet, the “absence of effect” is highly dependent on thecomposition of the diet used.Need to refine methodological approaches to focus on meaningfully assessing theavailable nutrients composition of ingredients.
  5. 5. “Fish Meal Replacement” is Something Highly RelativeEffect of replacement of a fish meal by a mixture of processed animal proteins in feedsformulated to two different protein levels Wang et al. (2010)At higher protein levels, essential amino acids (EAA) deficiencies occur at lower fishmeal (higher alternative ingredient) levels. It is the EAA intakes that matter, not the“fish meal level” or “relative level” of essential amino acids of the diet (as % protein).
  6. 6. Adequately Characterizing the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Ingredients
  7. 7. Nutrient Composition of Different Fish Meals and Poultry by-ProductsMeals Fish meal Poultry by-Products MealComposition Herring Menhaden Feed-grade Prime RefinedDry matter, % 93 91 97 96 97Crude Protein, % 71 61 62 66 70Crude fat, % 9 9 11 8 10Ash, % 12 22 15 15 11Phosphorus, % 2.4 3.1 2.6 2.8 2.0Lysine, % 5.4 4.2 3.7 3.7 4.6Methionine, % 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.5Histidine, % 2.2 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.5Threonine, % 3.1 2.4 2.5 2.4 3.0 Fish meal is not fish meal and poultry by-products meal is not poultry by-products meal. These are generic names that regroup ingredients that can be widely different. Cheng and Hardy (2002)
  8. 8. Apparent Digestibility of Nutrients of Different Fish Meals andPoultry By-Products Meals Fish meal Poultry by-Products MealComponent Herring Menhaden Feed-grade Prime Refined %Dry matter 81 71 71 72 75Crude Protein 90 86 83 85 87Crude fat 92 91 80 83 80Phosphorus 58 47 49 46 56Lysine 95 95 89 92 93Methionine 95 95 92 95 94Histidine 92 93 85 89 89Threonine 90 92 82 85 85 Information on EAA content and digestibility is extremely meaningful for the formulation of cost-effective feeds Cheng and Hardy (2002)
  9. 9. Processing Conditions Affects the Nutritive Value of Processed Animal Proteins
  10. 10. Blood Meal ADCGuelph System Protein Energy Spray-dried blood meal 96-99% 92-99% Ring-dried blood meal 85-88% 86-88% Steam-tube dried blood meal 84% 79% Rotoplate dried blood meal 82% 82% Bureau et al. (1999) Different drying equipments can greatly affect apparent digestibility
  11. 11. Limitations of Apparent Digestibility as a Measure of NutritiveValueApparent digestibility is a measure of “disappearance” of nutrientsbut not a direct measure of the amount of nutrient availableHeat damaged amino acids may be digestible but not availableShould validate estimate of digestibility with more direct assessmentof the bioavailability of nutrients in feed ingredients
  12. 12. Slope Ratio Assay– Response of parameter of interest, e.g. protein gain, to graded levels of test ingredient is compared to that of graded levels of standard source of nutrient of interest (e.g. synthetic amino acid)– Indicates the net effect of all components that can affect bioavailability (digestion, absorption and utilization).
  13. 13. Final Body Weight - Lysine Bio-Availability Trial Spray 140.0 Flash 130.0 Disk Lys+DiCal FBW(gifish) 120.0 110.0 100.0 90.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Lysine intake (g/fish) Shows that differences exist in the bioavailability of lysine in blood meals produced with different drying equipment El Haroun and Bureau (2006)
  14. 14. Apparent Digestibility of Feather Meals from Various Originsto Rainbow Trout Processing Conditions ADC (provided by manufacturers) DM CP GE % 1 Steam hydrolysis, 30 min at 276 kPa, disc dryer 82 81 80 2 Steam hydrolysis, 5 min at 448 kPa, disk dryer 80 81 78 3 Steam hydrolysis, 40 min at 276 kPa, ring dryer 79 81 76 4 Steam hydrolysis, 40 min at 276 kPa, steam-tube dryer 84 87 80 Bureau et al. (1999)
  15. 15. Formulation of Experimental Diets Used in Feather Meal TrialIngredients Diet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8Herring meal 50 35 35 35 50 40 30 20Blood meal, tube-dried 10 10 10 10 6 9 12 15Feather meal 1 15Feather meal 2 15Feather meal 4 15 8 12 16 20Corn gluten meal 10 10 10 10 6 9 12 15Whey 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12Vitamins + minerals 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3Fish oil 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
  16. 16. Performance of rainbow trout fed diets with different feather meals Diet Gain Feed FE RN RE g/fish g/fish G:F g/fish kJ/fish1- Control 73.5 ab 51.6 1.42 ab 1.9 a 587 a2- 15% FEM 1 74.3 ab 51.4 1.44 a 1.9 a 553 a3- 15% FEM 2 71.1 bc 52.0 1.37 bc 1.8 a 561 a4- 15% FEM 4 73.0 abc 52.3 1.40 abc 1.9 a 547 a5- 20% FEM-CGM-BM 74.5 a 51.8 1.44 a 1.9 a 574 a6- 30% FEM-CGM-BM 73.2 abc 51.7 1.42 abc 1.9 a 554 a7- 40% FEM-CGM-BM 73.3 abc 52.2 1.41 abc 1.9 a 579a8- 50% FEM-CGM-BM 70.1 c 51.8 1.35 c 1.8 a 537aCould not highlight differences in the nutritive value of feather meals withdifferent digestible protein levels. Diets 2-4 contained at least 35% fish meal.
  17. 17. Trial #1 – Bioavailability of Arginine in Feather Meal using a Slope-Ratio Assay - Formulation of the Experimental Diets Ingredient Diet 1 Diet 2 Diet 3 Diet 4 Diet 5 Diet 6 Diet 7 Diet 8 Diet 9Skim milk powder 20 20 20 20 20 18 16 14 12Corn gluten meal 32 32 32 32 32 28 24 20 16L-arginine 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4Feather meal 6 12 18 24 Calculated Composition (% DM)CP 40.3 40.4 40.5 40.6 40.7 40.6 40.8 41.0 41.2Lipid 21.0 21.0 21.0 21.0 21.0 21.0 21.0 21.0 21.1Arg (digestible) 1.19 1.30 1.40 1.51 1.61 1.31 1.42 1.53 1.64
  18. 18. Trial #1 – Bioavailability of Arginine in Feather Meal using a Slope-Ratio Assay - Digestible amino acid composition of the diets Met Phe Diet Arg Lys Thr His Val Leu Ile + Cys +Tyr 1 Basal 1.2 2.9 1.8 1.5 3.9 1.1 1.7 4.8 1.5 2 Arg 1.3 2.9 1.8 1.5 3.9 1.1 1.7 4.8 1.5 3 Arg 1.4 2.9 1.8 1.5 3.9 1.1 1.7 4.8 1.5 4 Arg 1.5 2.9 1.8 1.5 3.9 1.1 1.7 4.8 1.5 5 Arg 1.6 2.9 1.8 1.5 3.9 1.1 1.7 4.8 1.5 6 FEM 1.3 2.9 1.8 1.6 3.6 1.0 1.8 4.5 1.5 7 FEM 1.4 2.8 1.8 1.6 3.4 1.0 1.9 4.2 1.5 8 FEM 1.5 2.8 1.9 1.6 3.2 0.9 2.0 3.9 1.5 9 FEM 1.7 2.7 1.9 1.7 2.9 0.8 2.0 3.6 1.5 Requirements: NRC (1993) 1.5 1.8 1.0 0.8 1.8 0.7 1.2 1.4 0.9
  19. 19. Trial #1 - Weight gain of rainbow trout in response to increase dietary arginine supplied as L-arginine or feather meal 55 y = -53.494x2 + 178.76x - 97.086 R² = 0.8378 50 Synthetic ArgWeight Gain (g/fish) 45 Feather Meal 40 y = -93.263x2 + 257.86x - 135.92 R² = 0.7732 35 30 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Arginine (% DM) Poppi (2010)
  20. 20. Trial #1 - Feed efficiency (gain:feed) in response to increase dietaryarginine supplied as L-arginine or feather meal 1.250 Synthetic Arg Feather Meal 1.200 1.150 Feed Efficiency Ratio y = -1.42x2 + 4.40x - 2.23 R2 = 0.94 1.100 y = -0.03x2 + 0.32x + 0.67 1.050 R2 = 0.80 1.000 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Arginine (%DM) Poppi (2010)
  21. 21. Trial #1 - ConclusionsFish responded well to basal diet supplementation with L-arginineWeight gain of fish did not respond to increasing arginine supplied by feathermealInterestingly, feed efficiency improved very significantly with increasinglevels of feather meal. This means that overall, the “nutrients” (energy) infeather meal were well utilizedExperimental diets formulated to meet all EAA requirements according toNRC (1993) levels with large safety margin for all essential amino acids (e.g.all diets apparently 15-30% above histidine requirement according to NRC(1993))Obviously overlooked something. May be one or two essential amino acids aredeficient. Supplementation feather meal diets with various essential EAA tofind out which one likely missing.
  22. 22. Trial #2 – Supplementation of Trial #1 Diets with various EAA supplements Weight gain Diet Original Diet – Trial #1 Supplement g/fish 1 Diet 1 – 1.3% Arginine None 64.1 2 Diet 4 -1.6% Arg, (L-Arg) None 75.5 3 “ + 0.5% DL Methionine 68.0 4 “ + 4% EAA mix (no Met, no Arg) 73.1 5 “ + 4% EAA + 0.5% DL Met 65.1 6 Diet 8 – 2.1% Arg (FEM) None 72.3 7 “ + 0.5% DL Methionine 68.2 8 “ + 4% EAA mix (no Met, no Arg) 81.2* 9 “ + 4% EAA + 0.5% DL Met 74.5 * Significant different from Diet 6
  23. 23. Conclusion Traditional (simplistic) experimental design have suggested that feather meal is an ingredient with “poor” or “variable” quality. A slightly more elaborate methodological approaches suggest that issue may simply be low available levels of specific EAA in feather meal and poor characterization of EAA requirements of fish This is easily addressed through feed formulation (use of synthetic amino acids, use of complementary protein sources). Take Home Message: Researchers: Meaningfully characterize the available nutrient contents of different processed animal proteins Feed formulators: Formulate (least-cost) feed on a digestible or available nutrient compositions. Beware of reference (table) values.
  24. 24. Acknowledgements- Dr. Li Peng, National Renderers Association – HK Office- Fats and Proteins Research Foundation- Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs- Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources- NSERC- EVONIK Degussa- Martin Mills-- Canadian Rendering Industry
  25. 25. Extra Slides
  26. 26. Feather Meal
  27. 27. Disulfide BondsCertain natural proteins, such as keratins,contain many disulfide bonds. These bonds arevery stable. Moist heat + pressure can breakdisulfide bondsRaw feather and hair (>90% keratins)Apparent digestibility coefficient of CP= 0%Feather, steam hydrolyzed (steam + pressure)Apparent digestibility coefficient of CP > 70% Different processing conditions can affect digestibility: -Variations in ADC of crude protein of up to 15% between feather meal processed using different conditions in poultry (Latshaw et al., 1994; Moritz and Latshaw, 2001) -Fine balance between sufficient hydrolysis and over-processing
  28. 28. Apparent Digestibility of Feather Meals from Various Origins toRainbow Trout Processing Conditions ADC (provided by manufacturers) DM CP GE % 1 Steam hydrolysis, 30 min at 276 kPa, disc dryer 82 81 80 2 Steam hydrolysis, 5 min at 448 kPa, disk dryer 80 81 78 3 Steam hydrolysis, 40 min at 276 kPa, ring dryer 79 81 76 4 Steam hydrolysis, 40 min at 276 kPa, steam-tube dryer 84 87 80 Bureau et al. (1999)

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