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  1. 1. www.powerpointpresentationon.blogspot.com
  2. 2. RADAR By- Arvind Chaubey
  3. 6. Basic components of RADAR System: Synchronizer Transmitter Display Receiver Power Supply Duplexer switch Antenna
  4. 8. Radar equation : The power  P r  returning to the receiving antenna is given by the radar equation: where; P t  = transmitter power G t  = gain of the transmitting antenna A r  = effective aperture (area) of the receiving antenna σ  = radar cross section, or scattering coefficient, of the target F  = pattern propagation factor R t  = distance from the transmitter to the target R r  = distance from the target to the receiver.
  5. 9. <ul><li>Type of EM radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Travel with speed of light </li></ul><ul><li>Wavelength 100 meters to 30 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency 3 MHz to 1000 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Naturally occurring </li></ul><ul><li>Artificially generated </li></ul>Radio Waves
  6. 10. Parabolic Antenna
  7. 11. Doppler Effect <ul><li>Where :- </li></ul><ul><li>f is the apparent frequency </li></ul><ul><li>v is velocity of wave in the medium </li></ul><ul><li>v obs is the velocity of the receiver relative to the medium; positive if the receiver is moving towards the source.  </li></ul><ul><li>v s is the velocity of the source relative to the medium; positive if the source is moving away from the receiver </li></ul><ul><li>f O is the frequency of wave </li></ul>
  8. 12. Applications of RADAR: <ul><li>Search RADAR scans a large area </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting RADAR scans a small area </li></ul><ul><li>Navigational RADAR used on commercial ships and aircrafts </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping RADAR remote sensing and geographic applications </li></ul><ul><li>Weather RADAR locate precipitation, its motion & future </li></ul><ul><li>RADAR is used for Air Traffic Control </li></ul>
  9. 13. Incoherent Scatter Radar: A RADAR application <ul><li>Used to study the earth’s </li></ul><ul><li>Ionosphere and its interaction </li></ul><ul><li>with the upper atmosphere, </li></ul><ul><li>the magnetosphere and </li></ul><ul><li>the solar wind </li></ul>
  10. 15. RADAR can measure Pressure <ul><li>The strength of the echo received from the Ionosphere measures the number of electrons able to scatter radio waves or what we call </li></ul><ul><li>- The Electron Pressure </li></ul>
  11. 16. RADAR in weather forecasting <ul><li>Locate precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate its motion </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate its type (rain, snow) </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasts future position </li></ul><ul><li>and intensity </li></ul>
  12. 17. Conclusion: <ul><li>Radar  is a way to detect and study far off objects by transmitting a radio pulse in the direction of the target and observing the reflection of the wave. </li></ul><ul><li>Its basically a radio echo. </li></ul>
  13. 18. Arvind Chaubey Thank You