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Introduction<br />Introduction<br />With the increased demand of garments in the world wide, number of garments factories is growing rapidly but Q.A. management system cannot be developed in the same speed due to the lack of Q.A. management system. Quality of product and service along with the efficiency of the work force is the foremost objective to produce products and service of the high standard, which meets all the specifications, including environmental concern and safety.<br />Commitments to valued customer:<br />
Maintaining the highest achievable quality possible
The most competitive pricing in the world market
The best environment for ethical standard in accordance with world compliance standards
Objective<br />Objective<br />Objectives of these policies are:<br />
To understand customer’s perspective of quality
To provide better quality of products and service
To provide good and safe working environment to the workers, which includes human value, respect, justice, cleanliness, discipline and equality between workers and others
To implement quality control system with the aim to achieve zero defect level through efficient management, research, development and continuous improvement
Cost and Quality<br />Cost and Quality<br />Cost and Quality<br />QUALITY: Quality is defined as “Totality of characteristics of an entity (product, service etc.) that bears on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs.”<br />QUALITY CONTROL: Is an effective system for interchanging the quality maintenance and quality improvement efforts of various groups in an organization so as to enable production at the most economical levels which allow full satisfaction for the consumers.<br />TOTAL QUALITY MANGEMENT (T.Q.M.): Is described as an all- inclusive fully integrated productivity technique. It helps to create new markets, expand existing markets and recapture lost markets by utilizing the optimum capability of man, machine, material, method and produces high and uniform quality of products with reduced costs. Total quality control starts from market i.e. from purchasing material and machine and ends in the market i.e. selling the finished products in the market including after-sale service. It includes market analysis, product development, production planning, statistical quality control, preventive maintenance, wastage control, inventory control, cost reduction and after sales service etc. The ultimate goal of T.Q.M. is to increases the quality/cost ration and continuous improvement. It may be done by increasing the quality with same cost, decreasing the cost with same quality and increasing quality and decreasing coast at the same time.<br />The basic quality problem is to set correct balance between the cost and quality i.e. to find out a suitable quality/cost ration for the product which will satisfy the consumer both for cost and quality.<br />Management Responsibility<br />Management Responsibility<br />Section 1<br />PURPOSE<br />The organization’s quality policy is documented and communicated to each person in the organization. The organizational structure, responsibilities and authorities have been described to ensure every key personnel know his job and the same could be cross checked by his higher management. To check the effectiveness of the quality system, it has been suggested to conduct a meeting after every fortnight with the responsible officers taking care of quality system in their assigned position.<br />SCOPE<br />This section covers the organizational structure and responsibilities of all personnel who supervises, perform and verify works at different stages for the improvement and maintenance of quality.<br />ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND RESPONSIBILITIES<br />The following positions play a managerial role in the maintenance of product quality and the quality control system through chain of command.<br /> <br />JOB DESCRIPTION OF RESPONSIBLES PERSONS FOR QUALITY<br />1. MANAGING DIRECTOR: will ensure the absolute adherence to the quality control system by exercising his authority through his channel of command.<br />2. G.M.Q.A CENTRAL:<br />a) Preparing quality manuals for the group<br />b) Taking approval from the MANAGING DIRECTOR for implementation of the system stated in the manual<br />c) Implementation of statistical quality control system in the factories here it is applicable<br />d) Training of QC personals for continuous improvement to achieve zero defect level<br />e) Training of QC personals on statistical quality control system and graphical method for achieving target quality level desired by the buyer<br />f) Collections of buyer’s quality guide lines from buyer’s website or manual and convey it to Manager QA central, Manager QA factory and Monitoring for proper implementation to achieve buyer’s quality level<br />g) Maintain liaison with buyers QA team for technical problems for which their help is needed<br />h) Monitoring the job of Manager QA central, Manager QA factory to evaluate their performance and report it to concern authority<br />i) To help authority to recruit right person for right job of QA department.<br />j) To inform to concern directors and chairman of the group the overall quality position of the factories by MIS.<br />k) Inform the concern director if any factory is unable to perform up to the desired level of quality by corrective action request or verbally.<br />l) Study quality related books, journals, manuals and research for continuous improvement.<br />3. MANAGER QA CENTRAL:<br />a) Collection of spec sheet, shade band card, trims card, fabric test report and approval sample from the concern merchandiser and compare production sample with the Approval samples as well as technical sheet<br />b) Not to allow any deviation from the approval sample if there is no written confirmation form the buyer<br />c) Collection of fabric inspection report to judge whether fabric is acceptable for production on the ground of shade, defect and other factors<br />d) In line inspection to see whether the garments quality is as per buyers requirement or not. In case of any deviation, take corrective and preventive action.<br />e) Briefly describe the buyer requirement and quality control procedure to Manager QA factory for proper monitoring to produce garments as per requirement of buyer<br />f) Report to Manager Quality, all his findings and inspection report for taking corrective actions and monitoring<br />g) Collecting of buyer’s quality guideline documents, going through these and explain these to manager Q.A. factory, and monitoring the same for correct implementation.<br />h) Conduct pre-shipment inspection before buyer’s inspection to be confirmed about the lots defect level, whether it is as per buyers desired level or not. It not, sends the lot for recheck for correction (alter) and re-inspect the same lot after correction.<br />i) Allotment of his QC team to all mother and sub contract factories (if any), monitoring the quality of production in all factories and subcontract factories.<br />4. MANAGER QA:<br />a) Over All Administration of factories QA dep’t and monitoring the work of Sewing Q.C, Finishing QC, Line QC, QI Cutting and all inspectors as well as evaluation of their performance.<br />b) Conduct training and make all his sub ordinates accountable to him for their performance to achieve the target of quality level.<br />c) Reporting day-to-day quality status and trend to factory GM/PM.<br />d) Collection of approval sample, shade band card, trim card, spec sheet and go through these to compare first of production with the approval sample before going for bulk production.<br />e) In case of any change in the style or design by the buyer he will communicate the floor people for the confirmation of change.<br />f) Send samples of fabric, garments, and accessories to the concern merchandiser for lab test, if it is required.<br />g) Conduct day final inspection on the available quantity of ferments at the end of day in finishing. If the lost is not accepted go for correction. Conduct pre shipment inspection after completion of the lot and take necessary corrective measures before buyer’s final inspection.<br />h) Details study of test cutting, sample, wash and non-wash and consult with Manager QA Central, GM/PM of the factory if there is any discrepancy to find out appropriate solution.<br />i) Keep close co-ordination with Manager and GM QA, central for continuous improvement.<br />5. QC MIS & MONITORING: (Controlled by GM QA, CENTRAL)<br />a) Monitoring the job of MIS Asst./Inspector, and monthly MIS report to GMQA.<br />b) Process capability study of every line by calculating C.V of lines defect percentage.<br />c) Study of Technical sheet and approved sample of buyer. Compare first of production sample with approved sample, with respect of technical sheet approved trim card and shade.<br />d) Monitoring in-process 7 pcs inspection, counter check table inspection.<br />e) Checking of line wise Monthly operator’s performance and Monthly table defect analysis.<br />f) Monthly defect analysis, C.V of defects line wise and factory wise<br />g) Moving average line and factory wise to observe the trend of defect.<br />h) Defect analysis after 100% process inspection in finishing.<br />i) Monitoring accessories, fabric and cutting inspection.<br />6. SUPERVISOR QC:<br />a) Carry out instruction receives from manager QA factory.<br />b) Monitor the job of line QC’s in process 7pcs inspection, table inspectors and maintain liaison with cutting quality inspectors.<br />c) Go through buyer’s approval sample, shade band card, trim card, spec sheet and supervise making garments as per style and measurement.<br />d) Implementations of design change approved by buyer and instructed by Manager QA Factory.<br />e) Management, administration, training, motivation of his stuff for of continuous improvement.<br />f) Conduct daily inline inspection and fit audit and report to the manager QA.<br />7. TWO HOURS Q.I. (FINISHING):<br />a) Two hours inspection, visual and fit audit on buyers desired AQL. If lot is not passed, correction of defects and re-inspection on same method<br />b) Monitor the job of all finishing inspectors and report to Manager QA Factory<br />c) Keep close co-ordination with Sewing for rectifying defects in Finishing and make defect analysis in finishing taking corrective and preventive action in sewing.<br />d) Conduct training of all finishing QC Inspectors for continuous improvements.<br />8. Sr. Q.I. CUTTING:<br />a) He is responsible to Manager QA Factory.<br />b) Monitor accessories inspection, fabric inspection, and cutting inspection.<br />c) Submit all inspection report to Manager QA Factory..<br />d) Collection of trim card and shade band card from Manager QA to compare the lot during inspection.<br />e) Conduct cut panel inspection and accessories inspection as per sampling inspection plan.<br />f) Monitor spreading quality control and cutting quality control.<br />9. SR. Q.I. SEWING: Two/Three for each line (Depending on no. of machines in line)<br />a) Carry out instructions of Manager QA Factory.<br />b) Conduct process capability study of the Line by calculating C.V (Co-Efficient of variation) of hourly defect percentage.<br />c) Monitor quality performance of operators for continuous improvement and incentives to operators for their performance.<br />d) Supervise the cutting bundles numbering, size and serial for proper control in the sewing.<br />e) Review the production sample according to approval sample and shade,<br />f) Check machine cleanliness, needle condition and size, proper thread count and shade.<br />g) Conduct process inspection having idea from table inspection report and defect analysis, about the source of high ranking of defects.<br />h) Observe the trend of defects from the moving average of defects in the table inspection and take special care in those particular processes in the line.<br />10. ACCESSORIES INSPECTOR:<br />a) Sampling of accessories as per US-MIL-STD-105E Normal Inspection Level II AQL 2.5 or specified by buyer.<br />b) Inspection of accessories as per approved trim card by the buyer<br />c) Segregation of non- conforming accessories and keep it separately with non-conforming tags.<br />d) Preparing inspection report and submit it to Manager QA, factory.<br />11. FABRIC QUALITY INSPECTOR:<br />a) Random selection of rolls as per US-MIL-STD-160 5DE-1 05E to 10% of the lot.<br />b) Shade grouping of all rolls, compare shades with approved shade.<br />c) Side centre side, side-to-side, end-to-end and running shade check of individual rolls. `<br />d) Preparing shade grouping report and submit it to Manager QA.<br />e) Fabric inspection by 4-point system and making fabric inspection report<br />f) Segregation of non-conforming rolls with red tag and keep ii) a safe place.<br />12. CUTTING QUALITY INSPECTOR:<br />a) Spreading checking on 10 points<br />b) Block and bundle check.<br />c) Daily summary of cutting and spreading quality control report to manager A factory.<br />d) Affix allotted QA numbered arrow sticker to mark all defects where applicable,<br />13. TARLE QI, OUTPUT: Number two/three for each line (inside and out side) 100 Inspection of outside and inside of garments.<br />a) Segregation of non-conforming garments and returns to line QC for taking corrective and preventive action.<br />b) Re inspection of non-conforming garments after correction.<br />c) Fill up the line wise hourly inspection format,<br />d) Affix allotted QA numbered arrow sticker to mark all defects where applicable.<br />14. FINISHING QI (Individual Process)<br />a) 100% inspection of individual process inside and outside.<br />b) Segregate non-conforming garments in separate box and hand over to Finishing QC for correction.<br />c) Re inspection of non-conforming garments after correction.<br />d) Affix allotted QA numbered arrow sticker or mark all defects where applicable.<br />15. FINISHING QI (Measurement)<br />a) Measurements of 100% garments on specified points shown by QA Manager.<br />b) Segregation of non-conforming goods and hand over to QC Finishing for necessary correction.<br />c) Re-measurement of non-conforming goods after correction.<br />d) Fill up the measurement report and submit it to QC Finishing.<br />e) Affix allotted QA numbered arrow sticker to mark all defects where applicable.<br />6. FINISHING INSPECTOR (Final)<br />100% inspections of garments get up (Overall appearance)<br />a) Segregation of non-conforming goods to QC Finishing for correction.<br />b) Re- inspection of non-conforming goods after correction.<br />c) Fill up the hourly inspection report<br />d) Affix allotted QA numbered arrow sticker to mark all defects where applicable.<br />Quality System<br />Quality System<br />Section 2<br />PURPOSE<br />To document and maintain a quality system as a means to ensure that product of all factories to specified requirement.<br />SCOPE<br />The quality system operated aims to ensure compliance to specified requirements and is defined and driven by Quality Manual, departmental procedures and work instructions, those are defined in this section.<br />QUALITY SYSTEM PROCEDURES<br />The Quality procedure of each factory will be reviewed by the concerned persons of Management of that factory. Describing the quality systems of all factories of XYZ, this manual includes a brief description of the functions and mode of operation of the factories management personnel with respect to quality.<br />QUALITY PLANNING<br />Documented quality planning is stated by this manual, accompanying procedure and instructions and quality, all of which comprise the Quality System. Thus, quality planning is, documented and implemented by all Executives and Managers playing a role in the maintenance of product quality and the quality management system.<br />To achieve the goal of zero defect level following steps has been taken.<br />
For massive awareness building regular discussion and meeting are conducted with the concern people.
Regular training session is being conducted on Statistical Quality Control System
Introduce incentives for inspectors and operators for the best performing line.
Introduce operators' quality performance chart to find out source and type of defect for taking preventive and corrective measures.
Reorganize process/7pcs inspector’s job allocation, work procedure to make them more accountable for effective control on process inspection with the help I-operators quality performance chart.
Weekly defect analysis of process inspection, table inspection and final inspection to find out the irregularities of inspection if any and. to take corrective measures.
Monthly defect analysis and moving average, line and factory wise, to monitor improvement and trend of defect.
For graphical representation of hourly defect percentage in control chart to set upper control limit at 1.0%, central line is 0.65% and lower control limit at 0.0% to brine down defect level towards zero by continuous improvement
Quality planning also includes the following<br />
Assignment of responsibility for conducting checks
Documents to maintain as evidence of the checks
Corrective & preventive action to be taken subsequent to the check
Receiving Inspection<br />Receiving Inspection<br />Section 3<br />PURPOSE<br />To establish and maintain documented procedures for receiving inspection in order to verify that the specified requirements for the product are met.<br />SCOPE<br />This section applies to the product being produced in the garment factories.<br />RECEIVING INSPECTION<br />ACCESSORIES<br />Before receiving accessories all necessary tests and inspection is conducted lot wise by the accessories inspector under the guidance of QA Manager at buyers desired AQL. If result found acceptable, then the lot is accepted otherwise lot is rejected and kept in marked area with a red tag for the safety. So that non-conforming goods are not used in process.<br />44577002032000FABRIC INSPECTION<br />Fabric roll is selected on the basis of random sampling; acceptance or rejection criteria are decided at prescribed label on 4-Point system. 10% of rolls -are inspected in this stage by Fabric Inspector. In case of rejection of lot on 10% of rolls, rest of the rolls of the lot is inspected thoroughly. Reject rolls are kept separately with red flags.<br />Inspection records are kept in inspection format.<br />Summary of the fabric inspection is recorded in the summary sheet, for management information.<br />Conforming goods are kept separately with Green Sticker and kept in stack named.<br />READY FOR CUTTING<br />All rejected goods are treated as "NON-CONFORMING GOODS" and marked with red sticker.<br />Checking of s-lade and shade grouping.<br />FABRIC INSPECTION PROCEDURE - 4 POINT SYSTEM<br />OBJECTIVE<br />The aim of fabric inspection is to check the quality, quantity and packing by visual, measurement a colour check confirming with the specification and general appearance of the approval sample given by buyer.<br />INSPECTION PROCEDURE<br />
Receive approved colour and quality swatches.
Check lot size and label against the submitted packing list.
Delivery of less than 1000 yds – 100% inspection
Delivery of 1000 yds to 10000 yds to inspect at least* 1000 yds.
Shipment of more than 10000 yds inspects 10% of the lot.
PENALTY POINT EVALUATION<br />Fabric to of graded will be examined from a distance of approximately three feet while runner-Up cover the perch of a fabric inspection machine. The inspector will run the fabric at a speed compatible with his ability to distinguish.<br />POINT CALCULATION<br />INDIVIDUAL ROLL<br />Penalty points X 36X 100<br />-------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Total yards Inspected x Width of cloth in inch<br />= Points per 100 Sq. Yard<br />AVERAGE POINTS PER SHIPMENT<br />Total Points per 100 Sq. yard of all rolls Inspected<br />-------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Total number of rolls Inspected<br />= Average points per 100 Sq. yard<br />PENALTY POINTS IN 4 POINT SYSTEM<br />The position of the defect in the fabric in either length or width<br />ROLLS SELECTION PROCEDURES<br />
These rolls shall be selected for inspection on a totally random basis.
The knit dyeing unit is required to present the inspector with a shipment packing list when 80% of the rolls are packed from which the rolls to be inspected will be chosen.
Once the inspector has selected the rolls for inspection; no adjustment may be made to the number of rolls to be inspected or to the rolls selected for inspection.
At no time during the inspection may any yardage be removed from any roll other than for recording and measuring shade tolerances.
All rolls inspected will be graded and assigned penalty points.
ACCEPTABLE PENALTY POINTS:<br />If no specifies standard provided for knit fabric, the average point value per shipment not exceeds 40 points per 100 linear yards. Individual rolls exceeding 40 points shall be rejected.<br />DEFECTS CONDITIONS<br />
No more than 4 points will be penalized within one yard
Severe defects are assigned max 4 points for each yard
Any hole and any running defect will be penalized 4 points
Whole roll having running defect or continuous defects in more than 10 yard will be considered reject
SPLICE ALLOWANCE<br />
It will not be allowed more than one splice
No part of a spliced roll can be shorter than 40 yard except specified by customer
ROLL LENGTH<br />
Roll found to deviate more than 2% from the roll ticket yards shall be rejected.
The entire shipment shall be rejected if the total measured yards in the sample audit deviates 1 % or more from the ticket yards.
HAND FEEL<br />The hand feel will be checked between roll with a reference sample. If there is a noticeable difference, the roll will be classified as second quality.<br />SHADE HATCHING<br />Roll to roll with head to end, side to side, side center side will be checked during visual quality inspection for preliminary. Final checking will be taken in the light box against gray scale rating. Under light source D-65.<br />COLOR SHADING RATING<br />1) Side to Side 4 – 5 or 5 (Accepted)<br />2) Side center Side 4 – 5 or 5 (Accepted)<br />3) End to End 4 – 5 or 5 (Accepted)<br />4) Lot to Lot 4 or 4 – 5 or 5 (Accepted)<br />5) Against approval sample 4 or 4 – 5 or 5 (Accepted)<br />ACCEPTABLE POINT COUNT LEVEL<br />Various types of textiles are divided into the following five groups. Individual rolls exceeding the specified point count level shall be graded as second quality. A shipment shall fail the inspection if the shipment penalty count points exceed the specified point count level<br />REJECTION RATE<br />If total rejected inspection yardage is over 10% of total inspected yardage, then overall result is concluded as "Rejected"<br />RUNNING DEFECTS<br />
Any defect found to repeat and/or run in a continuous manner will constitute a running defect. All running defects must be assigned four points to every yard in the roll when the running defect occurs.
Any roll having a running or repeating defect through more than three continuous yards shall be rejected regardless of point occurs.
FULL WIDTH DEFECTS<br />
No roll that contains more than four full width defects per one hundred linear yards shall be accepted as first quality.
Any roll found to contain defects, in any increment of one hundred yards, with an average of more than one major defect per ten linear yards will be rejected.
No roll shall be accepted that contains a major defect in the first or last three yards of the rolls. A major defect is considered to be any three or four point defect
No roll shall be accepted as first quality that exhibits a noticeable of loose or tightness along either or both selvedges or ripples, puckers, folds or creases in the body of the fabric that would prevent the fabric form lying flat when being spread in a conventional manner.
FABRIC WIDTH<br />
Fabric width will be checked a minimum of three times during the inspection of a roll, beginning, middle and end. The roll width will be checked more often if the fabric is close to the specified minimum width of if the fabric width is uneven.
Rolls paving a measurement of less than the specified width will not be accepted.
For knit fabric, rolls having a measurement of 1" wider than the specified diameter will not be accepted. But for the stretched woven fabric, it can be accepted 2" wider than the specified purchased width.
For knit fabric, rolls having a measurement of 2" wider than the specified purchased width will be accepted. But for the Lycra knitted fabric, it can be accepted 3" wider than the specified width.
Process Inspection<br />Process Inspection<br />Section 4<br />PURPOSE<br />To establish and maintain documented procedures for process inspection in order to verify that the specified requirements for the product are met.<br />SCOPE<br />This section applies to the product being produced in the factories of XYZ.<br />PROCESS INSPECTION<br />Process inspection is conducted on following sages.<br />
CUTTING INSPECTION<br />Cutting inspection should be on the basis on random sampling on desired AQL. If the lot is passed on sampling inspection then it is send for sewing operation, if not passed the whole lot is re-inspected and rejected parts are replaced by good parts. In cutting inspection there are two types of check BLOCK CHECK & BUNDLE CHECK. Following points are inspected in block check such as Size, Parts, Pattern check, Mis cut, Ragged cutting, Notches, Matching plies.<br />Following points are checked in the bundle check such as Size, Parts, Total quantity, Inspect quality, Defect quality. However it is recommended to check 100% cutting parts under the light box table.<br />SEWING INSPECTION<br />a) The SR. Line Q.I should audit completed finished bundles<br />b) He must select 7 pcs at random from the bundle.<br />c) If the inspector finds defective unit, he will take following steps on operator’s duality Performance Chart.<br />d) He will mark red in the room against date of inspection with defect code and frequency as a symbol for warning and recheck. He will hand over remaining units of the bundle to supervisor for check and taking corrective action.<br />e) He will inspect next three bundles as follow up audit of the same operator and mark yellow in three rooms if no defective units are found in next three bundles. <br />f) He will mark green in the room against date if no defective unit is found in the bundle.<br />g) The inspector will make operators monthly analysis to compare it with tables monthly defect analysis to find out whether there is any lacking in the sewing inspection procedure.<br />h) QC Supervisor Sewing will monitor 7 pcs inspection, whether it is being done properly or not.<br />TABLE INSPECTION<br />Table inspection is conducted by two/three/four inspectors (depends on hourly output) to inspect inside and outside of the garments. They will record hourly inspected garments, defect found, defect percentage; also calculate average defect percentage, quality index of the day and CV of defects. This will help to represent the defects graphically with the help of MIS Inspector. Monthly table defect analysis report is prepared and to compare it with operators monthly defect analysis.<br />TWO HOURLY INSPECTIONS<br />i) It is the responsibility of finishing unit TWO HOUR Q.I.<br />ii) It is conducted every after two hour.<br />iii) Both visual and fit audit is conducted on available garments received. per two hoursat desired AQL.<br />iv) If lot is acceptable than passed for poly packing<br />v) If not return back for correction<br />vi) After correction it is re inspected in the same way.<br />Final Inspection<br />Final Inspection<br />Section 5<br />PURPOSE<br />To establish and maintain documented procedures for final inspection in order to verify that the specified requirements for the product are met.<br />SCOPE<br />This section applies to the product being produced in factory facilities.<br />ACTIVITIES<br />Final inspection is the inspection which is conducted before shipment or buyer’s inspection. It is conducted in two stages.<br />i) Day Final.<br />ii) Lot Final<br />DAY FINAL<br />Day final inspection is the responsibility of factory QA Manager. He conducts this inspection daily on available garments which has passed by TWO HOURLY inspection and is conducted on desired AQL. If it is passed, garments are ready for Central Q C Inspection or Buyers 0 C inspection<br />LOT FINAL<br />Lot final is conducted by Central QA Manager when the lot is passed by Factory QA Manager before shipment or in case any buyer gives the authority to the factory to conduct final inspection before shipment. It is also conducted when buyer’s inspection is conducted before shipment. It is conducted on desired AQL. If lot is passes, they are ready for shipment and placed before buyer's representative for final inspection before the shipment.<br />Garments Inspection Procedure<br />Garments Inspection Procedure<br />STEP-I<br />Inspector should collect the following before going for the inspection.<br />a. Approved sample from the proper authority.<br />b. First of production (FOP) garments sample as per size and color from the concern person or authority.<br />c. Approved colour swatches, shade band card, trim card from the concern person or authority.<br />d. Garments and Fabrics test report from the factory or agent.<br />STEP-II<br />a. Inspector should take the following items with him.<br />
STEP-III<br />a. Collect packing list from the factory and check carton against the packing list.<br />b. Compare FOP sample with the approval sample and find out if there is any deviation.<br />c. Check the shipping mark with the work sheet.<br />d. Select the carton for inspection by square root of .the total carton and select carton number with the help of random number table illustrated in Sampling Technique chapter.<br />e. Put signature on both the side of carton opening.<br />f. Bring the carton in the inspection room which should be sufficiently lighted, tidy and clean.<br />d. Unseal the carton and check assortment, poly packing, hang tag, labels, colour tone etc.<br />e. Select the garments for fit audit size and color wise with respect to prescribed AQL of fit audit. Conduct fit audit and identify total major and minor defects.<br />g. The defects will be called major if it exceeds tolerance and touch another size in case of measurement.<br />k. The defect will be called minor if it exceeds tolerance but does not touch another size in case of measurement.<br />I. Major and minor defects criteria for Visual audit have been illustrated below.<br />M. If the total points major and minor exceeds points as per prescribes AQL, lot will be rejected for fit audit.<br />n. Select garments sample size for workmanship<br />
Classify defects as major and minor and score accordingly.
If the total points, each major=10 and minor=0.5 exceed the prescribed points as per desired AQL reject the lot.
Complete data sheet of both visual and fit, take signature from the factory representative on the sheet.
Replace defective garments in the carton by good-garments.
Collect some defective garments for reference hand over these to the Person concern for corrective and preventive action.
Defect Classification List (Major)<br />Defect Classification List (Major)<br />FABRIC DEFECTS<br />1. Holes (yarns cut), broken ends, continuous missing yarn<br />2. Soil, oil spot, contrast visible at arm’s length / A-zone, adversely affecting appearance.<br />3. Misweaves, mispicks (woven)<br />4. Slubs (Linen & Silk not included) distinguishable when viewed at arras length A-zone<br />5. Colour bleeding (A-zone) colour combination not as specified<br />7. Misprint, dye spot<br />8. Bow in knit/ to ½ inch (A-zone)<br />9. Coating defect less than % inch round (All zones)<br />10. Shaded parts (conspicuous mismatched)<br />11. Hand feel different from approved fabric swatch<br />12. Permanent crease mark Streaks<br />COMPONENTS AND TRIMS<br />BUTTONS & BUTTON HOLES<br />1. Buttons sewing thread colour not as specified<br />2. Missing button or button hole<br />3. Broken, damaged, defective or inverted buttons<br />4. Buttons do not conform to specification<br />5. Britton insecurely sewn<br />6. Improper button or button hole<br />INTERFACING / LINING / PADS<br />1. Fusible interfacing must be compatible to garment without bubble or pucker.<br />2. In a lined garment, the liner must not extend below hem of the shell.<br />3. Interlining apparent from outside of garments.<br />4. Missing one or both pads.<br />ZIPPERS<br />1. Insecure bottom or top stops<br />2. Incorrect colour or tape (shade) of zipper<br />3. Faulty slider on zipper<br />4. Any missing or damaged teeth<br />5. Does not function without special effort<br />6. Zipper size and length should be appropriate to garment end use or as specified not more than + ½ inch from spec. Any cut in the zipper tape. Tape stitched too loose or tight resulting in excessive bulge on tape or placket when closed.<br />9. Any malfunction<br />10. Missing top or bottom stopper<br />11. Wavy zippers<br />HOOK AND YES<br />1. Omitted or sewn in wrong places<br />2. Hook and eyes misaligned when fastened causing bulge or twist at the point of closure.<br />3. All metal parts (snap, hook and eyes, rivets etc) must be rust proof, washable and dry cleanable<br />4. Improper type<br />5. Defective<br />BELT AND BELT LOOPS<br />1. Belt Loop not fully secure<br />2. Incorrect number of belt loops on garments as specified<br />3. Missing belt loop<br />POCKET AND F LAP<br />1. Missing or miss located bar tack<br />2. Wrong placement<br />3. Insecure opening<br />4. Pocket zippers and stress points no' as specified / bar tacked<br />CARE LABEL<br />1. Incorrect fibre content, country of origin, RN number etc.<br />2. Maintenance instructions do not meet all federal requirements<br />3. Not caught completely or not sewn securely<br />4. Missing/incorrect / illegible<br />5. Incorrectly attached<br />COMPRESSION ATTACHMENT OF HARDWARE<br />1. Clasp/snap, rivet which is defective, damaged incorrectly placed or attached<br />2. Eyelet missing or misplaced<br />3. Velcro placement closure not within 50% of total area mates<br />4. Draw cord not free to move as designed<br />5. Length of drawstring not as specified<br />6. Ends of drawstrings not secured (missing stopper)<br />PRINTING DEFECTS<br />1. Wrong colour, missing colour<br />2. Miss registered obvious from 6 inch<br />STITCHING<br />1. SPI in excess of more than 3 or less than 2 than the specified<br />2. Ends of stitching (back tacked at least'/. inch/2 or 3 stitches)<br />3. Open seams more than 1/4 inch. On outside or'/2 inch on inside<br />4. Any raw edges more than Y4 inch on outside<br />5. Run off stitch (conspicuous)<br />6. Needle holes.<br />7. Seams closure uneven, off more than 1/8 inch<br />8. Seam twisted, puckered or pleated (conspicuous)<br />9. Poor mending or repairing (conspicuous)<br />10. Gathered/ bunched stitching<br />11. Skipped stitch (401), one skipped stitch in a row permitted; no more than 2 occurrences per seam (lock stitch - 301)<br />12. Button hole (skipped stitch, cut not securely caught in fabric, incomplete stitch, uncut not aligned)<br />13. Button not securely sewn, not cross stitched when specified<br />14. Bar tacks not as specified length, placement, width, stitch count or completely missing.<br />15. Blind stitch (103,503) excessive pick through 3/32 inch or more, or tight tension causing distortion or puckering.<br />16. Beaded stitching (loose top of bobbin thread)<br />17. Button or button hole not aligned, causing noticeable bulge<br />18. Conspicuous high/low pockets (A-Zone)<br />19. F -ant legs uneven off more than 1/4 inch on any fabric<br />20. Part of garment caught in any unrelated operation or stitching (unauthorized stitches)<br />21. Seams and stitching not as specified type<br />22. Tight/Loose tension<br />23. Top stitching not uniform greater than -3/4 inch affecting appearance<br />24. Permanent needle hole (needle cut, burrs)<br />25. Seam allowance (All zones) - join seam < 1/2 inch. / Double needle setting < inch. Zipper setting < ¼ inch<br />FINISHING AND PACKAGING<br />1. Not pressed / folded / hang / assorted as specified<br />2. Over pressing or under pressing/poor pressing defects including-shine, colour change, scorching or any other conspicuous "Hard" pressing defect<br />1. Labs, tickets, tags, logo, hanger size clip missing/incorrect, illegible or not specified.<br />2. Item not dry when packed<br />1. Adhesive labels or adhesive residue visible from 3 inch. (2 inch in any view)<br />2. Seam should be pressed open<br />3. Burn or scorch mark<br />4. Shine marks on the surface of the garment<br />5. Sweaters pressed out of size<br />PACKAGING<br />1. Merchandise folded or packed incorrectly, resulting in poor appearance<br />2. SKU information on box not same as item in the box<br />3. Incorrect poly bag, box dimension<br />4. Size sticker, price tag, hanger, box labelling UPC code etc. incorrectly placed, missing or not as specified<br />5. Printed information incorrect or missing<br />6. Poor or improper selling<br />7. Not packed or assorted as specified<br />8. Wrong carton marking (shipping mark)<br />BUCKLES AND SUSPENDER LOOP<br />1. Broken, rough or sharp edges<br />2. Coating omitted or thickness or coating/plating less than specified<br />3. Wrong colour or metal type<br />4. Incorrect size or type<br />1. Oxidized or corroded<br />2. Misplaced<br />3. Not attached as specified<br />Defect Classification List (Minor)<br />Defect Classification List (Minor)<br />FABRIC<br />1. Broken yarn (one yarn) – zone B/C.<br />2. Mispick (low contrast) – zone C.<br />3. Barre (low contrast) – zone B.<br />4. Needle hole (which holes do not run / enlarge).<br />5. Garment s not within specified shade range or shade band.<br />6. Printing defects:<br />i) Incomplete coverage of colour.<br />ii) Design and pattern direction not as specified.<br />7. Mismatched stripe/ plaid:<br />i) On side seam or seat seam when requested in construction specification Over Y4 inch<br />ii) 1i ) On placket or pant fly – Over 1/16 inch<br />iii) On centre front panels or placket – Over '/8 inch<br />iv) On pocket or flaps – Over 1/8 inch<br />v) Skewed, bowed or biased fabric, solid or stripe over 1/2 inch side to side<br />vi) Shaded parts / thread / or visible components<br />COMPONENTS AND TRIM<br />1. Any component not of specified colour, dimension or appearance<br />2. Hardware trim misaligned<br />3. Incorrect position of snaps in excess of 1/8 inch and the specified<br />3. Untied cord<br />3. Velcro, placement (closure) not within 75% of total area mates<br />INTERLINING AND PADS<br />1. Type of interlining or pad not as specified<br />2. Misplaced fused interlining or pad location<br />3. Insecurely attached pad<br />LABEL<br />1 Label must be positioned at specified location + 1/4 inch and fully visible<br />2. Crooked label<br />THREADS<br />1. Outside, Uncut thread over 1/4 inch<br />2. Inside Uncut thread over 1/2 inch seen hanging below a hem or visible as presented<br />STITCHING<br />1. Topstitching — Single or double needle not overlapped, stitch on stitch at start and finish.<br />2. Poorly objectionably mended (C-zone).<br />3. Gathering or bunched stitching (B & C zone)<br />4. Sewn in pleat over 1/4 inch. (C- Zone)<br />CONSTRUCTION<br />(FRONT, BACK AND ASSEMBLY DEFECTS)<br />1. Knitted only – Insecure shoulder tape.<br />2. Fronts are uneven at the bottom in excess of 1/4 inch<br />3. Uncle- facing shows on the top side of the garment<br />4. Component to component or joining seams -seam - alignment worse than % Inch<br />5. Darts uneven in length in excess of % inch<br />6. Darts poorly shaped with large bubbles at the end<br />7. Darts not properly located<br />8. Waistband irregular or not uniform in width in excess of 1/4 inch<br />9. Right versus left side seam / in seam difference not exceeds 1/4 -1/2 inch<br />10. Fly that gaps or doesn't lay flat, exposed zipper tape when fly is closed<br />POCKET DEFECTS<br />1. Raw edge of pocket not square<br />2. Corresponding pockets horizontally uneven or misaligned in excess of 1/4 inch<br />3. Flap and pocket pattern mismatched<br />4. Weight and colour of pocketing material not according to specification<br />5. Dog ears at pocket corners, more than 1/8 inch above top of pocket<br />6. Non-uniform shaped or biased pockets more than 1/4 inch, side to side or top to bottom, noticeable at arm’s length<br /> 7. Pocket width bigger than flap in excess of 1/8 inch<br />BELT LOOP DEFECTS<br />1. Belt locos incorrectly placed in excess of 14 inch.<br />1. Colour c- shade of loop not as specified<br />2. Thread colour must be matching unless otherwise specified.<br />3. Conspicuously crooked belt loop.<br />4. Width of belt loop more than % inch too wide too narrow.<br />HEM DEFECTS<br />1. Excessively puckered or twisted hem<br />2. Open hem greater than 1/4 inch<br />3. Hem uneven, twisted or poorly sewn<br />4. High/lpN bottom hem difference greater than 1/4 inch side to side, or back to front<br />5. Lining less than 1/2 inch below top edge of the shell hem turn back<br />BUTTON/BUTTONHOLE DEFECTS<br />1. Improper button-hole size<br />2. Ragged edges caused by cut if dull knife causing fabric pulls<br />3. Thread shade that does not match Specified colour<br />4. Incompatible density of stitching in relation to the fabric<br />FINISHING<br />1. Draw cord length not as specified<br />2. Odours – Offensive odour (Chemical odour)<br />3. Improper Sealing<br />SAMPLING TECHNIQUE<br />The purpose of sampling is to draw correct conclusion about the population from the sample, now if the sampling is not proper, we may be misguided for taking action on the basis of wrong sampling. Again an inspector cannot check all the items produced in a factory in the whole day, it will cause more man power, more cost, more time and more labour. If proper, sampling technique is used to draw sample, it will not only reduce these factors, will also reduce the monotonousness of the inspector. One of the most important things of sampling technique is the business of the inspector. Inspector cannot take sample as per his wish; he must follow the random number table and probability each item to be drawn is equal. There are various types of sampling of which, sample random sampling, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling are commonly used.<br />SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING<br />Simple random sampling is a method of selection n units out of N, such that every one of the Cn samples has an equal chance of being chosen. It is the simplest type of probability sampling and is the basis of most of the other sampling methods. In practice a single random sample is drawn unit by unit. I he units of the population are numbered I to N.A series of random numbers between I and N are drawn with the help of random number table or computer which produces such table.<br />USE A RANDOM NUMBER TO SELECT A SAMPLE <br />Use a random number to select a sample the RAND Corporation of USA has published a random number table in 1955 in the name " A million random digits with 100000 normal Deviates" To select a sample with this table, let us consider we have 750 items numbered from 1 to 750 on each item and we want to draw a sample of size 5. For these purpose we need to select three digits number 001 to 750.<br />First it is necessary to determine the starting point of the table. The random number table contains 50 rows and 50 columns of digits. We are starting from 8th row 39th column from there the first number is 471, 098, 443, 3351 015 it we arrange them in order then 015, 098, 335, 443, 471. Again we want to select sample of seize 10 from a population 500, for this we have to select three digit number i.e. from 001 to 500. Let us start from row 30 arid column 11 then our first number will be 732 but it is not in our serial no so we will exclude it, by going down we will have 752, 640, we will also exclude these.<br />Next 268, 454, 013, 201, 017, 194, 361, 452, 419, 312 excluding all the numbers, which are out of serial. Arranging the numbers in order 013, 017, 194, 201, 268, 312, 361, 419, 452, 454 these are the sample numbers which we want to select randomly. <br />PRE-SHIPMENT SURVEY BY ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING<br />ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING<br />Acceptance sampling is the art or science that deals with procedures in which decision to accept or reject lots or process is based on- the examination of samples. 100% inspection is generally not justified because of time and cost as well as for the shortage of trained manpower. Good sampling inspection, where the items inspected are examined carefully may even provide. Better assurance –of product quality than 100% inspection with carelessness. The purpose of acceptance sampling is to specify course of action not to control lot quality.<br />Acceptance sampling plan merely accepts c, rejects lots. Generally we like to ensure that lots of manufactured goods do not contain an excessively large portion of defective items. This is achieved mainly through the technique of sampling inspection. Acceptance sampling has indirect effect on improvement of quality through its encouragement by high rate of acceptance of good quality and through discouragement of bad quality by high rate of rejection. It also reduces the risk of rejection of good lots and accepting of bad lots on the basis of sample.<br />TERMINOLOGY OF ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING<br />LOTS SIZE:<br />Is the number of units in the lot and is denoted by "N"<br />SAMPLE SIZE: <br />The number of units in the sample and is denoted by "n"<br />LOT INSPECTION:<br />A specific quantity of similar material, or a collection of similar units, offered for inspection and acceptance at one time.<br />SAMPLING INSPECTION PLAN:<br />A specific plan which states (a) the sample size (b) The criteria for accepting, rejecting, or taking another sample, to be used in inspecting a lot.<br />ACCEPTANCE NUMBER:<br />The large number of defectives (or defects) in the sample or samples under consideration that will permit the acceptance of the inspection lot is called acceptance number, and is denoted by "Ac".<br />REJECTION NUMBER:<br />The smallest number of defectives (or defects) in the sample or samples under consideration that will require the rejection of inspection lot is called rejection number, and is denoted by "Re".<br />PRODUCER'S RISK: <br />The probability of rejecting a lot under the sampling inspection plan when the fraction defective in the lot is actually within specified limit is called producer's risk and is denoted by "Pp"<br />CONSUMER'S RISK:<br />The probability of accepting a lot with higher fraction defective than the specified limit under the sampling inspection plan is called consumer's risk and is denoted by "Pc".<br />SINGLE SAMAPLING INSPECTION PLAN: <br />Is the sampling inspection plan in which a decision to accept or to reject a lot is reached after the inspection of a single sample.<br />PROCESS AVERAGE QUALITY: <br />Expected quality of products form a given process, usually estimated from first sample inspection results of past lots.<br />ACCEPTABLE QUALITY LEVEL: <br />The maximum per cent defective that, for purpose of sampling inspection, can be considered satisfactory as a process average is called acceptable quality level anti is denoted by AQL.<br />PROBABILITY OF ACCEPTANCE: <br />Probability that a lot or will be accepted is called probability of acceptance and is denoted by "Pa"<br />OPERATING CHARECTERSTIC CURVE OR O.C. CURVE:<br />A curve showing the relation between the probabilities of acceptance, either lot quality or process quality, whichever is applicable is called O.C. CURVE. The stealer the O.C. CURVE, the greater is the protector to the consumer against accepting a bad lot.<br />AVERAGE SAMPLE NUMBER: <br />The expected value of the sample size required for coming to a decision, i.e., for acceptance or rejection of a lot, under the sampling inspection plan is called average sample number and is denoted by ASN. The curve obtained by plotting ASN against "P" is called ASN curve. Lower the ASN curve better is the sampling inspection plan.<br />MAJOR DEFECT: <br />A major defect is a defect that is likely to result in failure, or to reduce materially the Liability of the unit of product for its intended purpose.<br />MINOR DEFECT: <br />A minor defect is a defect that i s not likely to reduce materially the usability of the unit of product for its intended purpose, or a departure from established standards having little bearing on the effective use or operation of the unit. Minor defects may be classified into two categories; more important minor defects may be designated as Minor "A" and less important ones, Minor "B"<br />CRITORIA FOR SHIFTING TO TIGHTENED INSPECTION:<br />When normal inspection is on effect, tightened inspection to be instituted when 2 out of 5 consecutive lots or batches have been rejected on original inspection.<br />CRITORIA FOR SHIFTING TO NORMAL INSPECTION FROM TIGHTENED<br />INSPECTION:<br />When tightened inspection is in effect, normal inspection shall be instituted when 5 consecutive lots or batches have been considered acceptable on original inspection, criteria for shifter to reduced inspection When normal inspection is on effect, reduced inspection maybe institute when,<br />(a) The preceding 10 lots or batches have been on normal inspection and has been accepted on original inspection.<br />(b) The total number of defects in the samples from the preceding 10 lots or batches are equal to or less than the desired level.<br />(c) Production is at a steady rate.<br />(d) Reduced inspection is considered desirable by the responsible authority.<br />CRITERIA FOR SHIFTING TO NORMAL INSPECTION FROM REDUCED<br />INSPECTION:<br />When reduced inspection is on effect, normal inspection must be reinstated whenever a lot or batch is rejected or production becomes in e-regular or delayed or other conditions warrant that normal inspection shall be instituted.<br />Control of Non-Conforming Products<br />Control of Non-Conforming Products<br />Section 6<br />PURPOSE<br />To prevent the dispatch of non-conforming products to the customer<br />SCOPE<br />This section applies to the products which do not conform the require quality<br />ACTIVITIES<br />Non-conforming goods are identified during the checking of receiving section. Process inspection or final inspection:<br />
When a major non-conformance is discovered i.e. (one that requires a managerial/executive decision regarding its disposition) it is so identified and segregated," subject to the appropriate management decision, the defective goods are reworked, accepted on concession, re-graded or rejected.
Where appropriate, the customer is consulted concerning any concession.
<br />Front View<br />Back View<br />Parts of Formal Trouser<br />Waist band width 1.5”Waist band 28”Front raise9”Fly length6” Fly width1.6” Position from Waist band 0, from side seam 6.2 Pocket opening6.8” Position from Waist band 0, from side seam 0 Thai width21.5”Leg opening18”Welt 4.9*0.4 Back raise 14”Back pocket 7.2*5” Position from Waist band 2.5, from side seam 1.2 Belt loop 2.2*0.5”Pocket bag9.7*6.7”Zipper length 7”Size label 0.5*0.5” On the right side of the fly below the waist band Brand label 1.1*0.5” 1.5” inch below from waist band Wash care label1.5*1.2” Right side of the front part inside Total length 40” <br />Conclusion<br />Conclusion<br />Quality has always been a primary requirement and considers being the life of a garment. There is no denying the fact that we have been following Quality Control System in the production process since its birth but there might have been differences in those applications in factories. Compiling this quality manual is a humble effort to put almost all necessary details of Quality Control System to ensure that all our factories have a written Manual/ Guideline in black and white to follow. In the beginning we will not concentrate on the statistical Quality Control System. We will follow this after a while when we have enough and required manpower to exercise that. Any positive inclusion in this manual which will help the factories in improving quality is always welcome; but has to done with prior approval from the Managing Director. We all need to educate and train our work force in line with this Quality Manual to try and streamline our quality system. Our united and sincere effort only can help to improve in the sector of quality.<br />