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Industrial attachment of sea moss knitwear ltd

Course Code: Tex -4036 
Name of the factory : SEA MOSS KNITWEAR LTD.. 
Year of Establishment : 2004 
Status (L...
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Industrial attachment of sea moss knitwear ltd

  2. 2. At a glance SEA MOSS KNITWEAR LTD. Name of the factory : SEA MOSS KNITWEAR LTD.. Year of Establishment : 2004 Status (Legal Structure) : Private Limited Company Export Market : Europe Sales Turnover : 22 Million USD Annual GMT production : 1 Million Pcs/ Year Total manpower : 700 Buyer :Newtop, Plummy, SBP, Zxy,T ex geoup, H&M etc PRODUCT : LADIS :BRIEF, BIKINI, BOYSHORT, PANTY, THONG, HI-CUT, STRING, BRA, KAMISOL, AND OTHER LINGERIES. : MENS : MEN’S BOXER, UNDER GARMENTS KIDS : BODY SUIT :GIRLS/BOYS : ALL TYPES UNDERGARMENTS, SLEEPWEAR & DRESSES CAPACITY : 80,000 DZNS -100,000 DZNS PER MONTH SHIPMENT PORT : SEA -CHITTAGONG-BANGLADESH AIR – DHAKA, BANGLADESH
  3. 3. TRADE TERMS : CMT/ F.O.B/ CNF MODE OF PAYMENT : IRREVOCALE LETTER OF CREDIT AT SIGHT T/T BANKER : SOUTHEAST BANK LIMITED, KAWRAN BAZAR BRANCH, DHAKA, BANGLADESH. Factory : 228, Pial Cottage, Kawlar, Dakhinkhan, Dhaka- 1229, Bangladesh Telephone Number : +88-2-8933461
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………6 CHAPTER 2 FACTORY PROFILE…………………………………………….7 CHAPTER-3 GARMENTS MERCHANDISING ……………………………..9 CHAPTER-4 STORE OR INVENTORY SYSTEM…………………………...18 CHAPTER-5 SAMPLE, PATTERN, MARKER ……………………………....24 CHAPTER-6 CUTTING SECTION ……………………………………………34 CHAPTER-7 SEWING SECTION………………………………………………50 CHAPTER-8 FINISHING SECTION……………………………………….…..60 CHAPTER-9 Compliance/HR………….………………………………….64 CHAPTER-10 Conclusion……….…………………………………………68
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION In Sea Moss Knitwear Ltd. there consists a Training Center which is exceptional from the other factory. It is seen that majority percent of factories has no Training center. This center trains the fresh worker. This is help for bulk production and increase the efficiency and ultimately production is increased. There consists all type of sewing machine for practice. For supervision a manager and two supervisor trains the worker. They guide all day long. It is added here that some time a worker who trains for someday has to give for making local garments and with the concentration of the factory those sell in local market. By this practice a worker can get the proper idea about the floor level production. This training section also helps the worker to-  operation of a sewing machine  Familiar with the different parts of a sewing machine  Give a brief idea about the adjustable portion of a sewing machine  Make them as the identification where they are suitable for work in different section  Know about the process sequence of different garment
  6. 6. FACTORY PROFILE Sea Moss Knitwear Ltd. based in Bangladesh, is a woven factory with sustained goodwill and expertise in exports oriented ready-made garment manufacturing. Sea Moss Knitwear Ltd. has earned unrivalled success and remarkable distinction in the field of ready made garments local and international trading. The company started their ready-made garment manufacturing unit in the year of 2000. At the beginning they started with two lines of garments production unit with 200 manpower. But now a day they have 10 garments production lines with 700 manpower. Coming soon they started a largest Textile Composite unit. For this they purchases 170 acres land area Dhakkinkhan, Dhaka Industrial Area .
  7. 7. Mission and Vision: Mission: Starting from the beginning, Sea Moss Knitwear Ltd. has put emphasis on quality and credibility which helped a lot in earning buyers confidence upholding a customer centered perspective. Highly professionals of Sea Moss Knitwear Ltd. are working consistently to ensure best support to the valuable clients. For regular buyers dedicated lines of production and specific merchandisers are there to customize the service and ensure successful execution of order. Vision: 1. To build up an organization that runs with a motivated work force, beliefs in customer satisfaction, posse’s good marketing strategy. 2. To be one of the leading composite factory in Asia subcontinent within ten years. 3. To create & recruit 1 lac employee in Sea Moss Knitwear Ltd. within the year of 2030.
  8. 8. MERCHANDISING The Merchandiser An individual, who acts as a coordinator, follows-up and takes total responsibility of an order form booking to shipment and beyond, for the customer who placed it and for his company’s management. Merchandising The Merchandising is known to the persons specially involved in garments trade .The term merchandising has been derived from the merchandise. Merchandise means goods that are bought & sold. The term merchandising may be defined as person who merchandises good ,specially for export purposes. Garments merchandising means buying raw materials & accessories, producing garments, maintaining required quality level & exporting the garments within schedule time.
  9. 9. Merchandising Management system: Buyer sends an order copy by e-mail or sometimes swatch also. E-mail is taken hand from (Order copy) The measurement of various parameters are inserted by coding number in the order copy like-  Quantity of garments,  Yarn type,  Count,  Fabric type,  Color,  Body measurement,  Shipment date etc.  Before ultimate order a development sample is sent to buyer.  Lab-dip is approved  Sampling is carried out.  The sample is sent to buying house to check.  After approved the sample then accessories  and fabrics are booked. Finally shipment is done after all clearance. The merchandiser basically follows up with all concern production departments for their ordered products. The major functions/steps of a merchandiser:  Procuring the garments order.  Procuring the raw materials.  Production of garments.  Shipments of garments.  Receiving of payment for garments
  10. 10. GARMENTS MERCHANDISING Flow sequence of merchandising section: Received PDF Sheet Consumption  Costing  Negotiation with Buyer  Order Received  Purchase Order Sheet Received  L.C Opening  Purchase Fabric & Accessories  Time & Action Setting  Approval For Bulk Production  Related To Production Planning  Start Bulk Production  Inspectio
  11. 11. The steps are shown as diagramacally: a Buyer confirms a order to a factory
  12. 12. Production planning and pre production meeting:  Initial planning is prepared by the merchandising department when the order confirmed.  Based on the sample approval and shipment date, the production department makes the planning of the production only.  The planning is done following the styling of the product and the machine lay out to calculate the number of pieces production per hour.  Before production commence, pre production meeting is necessary with all concerned departments to get the correct productions.  Production: sample development, planning, quality control and inspection (AQL) Quality Control and Inspection [AQL]:  Customer wise the quality requirement will get vary and merchandisers are responsible to communicate with customers to get the correct quality requirements and need to co-ordinate with factory quality control department so that they will well understand the requirement and can take care of the bulk productions.  Inspections are done during production which is called in line inspection. Later the final inspection done by the factory QC as well as buying office QC to make sure that the final products is shipping with right quality.  Mentioned that, the right quality not good quality as the ‘quality’ refers to customer’s requirement.
  13. 13. Costing/Pricing  Costing is the principal task of any merchandisers.  Methods of Pricing:  Calculate the fixed and variable costs associated with the product.  Also below cost elements need to consider during costing. ~ Pricing for Fibers & Yarns ~ Pricing for fabric manufacturing ~ Pricing for garment manufacturing ~ Cost of accessories ~ Commercial cost ~ Break even point ~ Consumption of fabric and accessories with wastage percentage. ~ Total cost analysis [how much does it cost to provide merchandise to end customer Commercial  LC: Letter of Credit- Once the order is confirmed, buyer’s bank issues a Letter of Credit (LC) to the manufactures Bank. With this LC, manufactures can start procurement of yarn, fabric, accessories etc necessary for particular order execution.  If the LC delayed from buyers end, it will impact on the delivery date and merchandisers need to follow this up with buyer to get the LC for on time delivery.  Back to Back L/C: To procure the yarn, fabric and accessories, suppliers need to open another LC for secondary suppliers bank based on the master LC. This secondary suppliers LC is called back to back LC.
  14. 14. Accessories: 1) Sewing threads and sew able item a. Thread b. Button c. Main label d. Size label e. Care label f. Velcro (Hook and loop fastener) g. lace etc. 2) Finishing item: a. Price ticket b. Hang tag c. Poly bag d. Back board e. Neck board f. Collar inside g. Butter fly (Single, Double) h. Tag pin i. Tissue paper j. Draw string and stopper etc. Order follow-up and execution: They do it during running the production. As a result if any fault occurring it rectified in the primary stage.
  15. 15. Here, a example is given below how way a order is follow-up and done... Buyer: Guldenpfenning Gmbh Order: 500074 Item: Girls Summer Dress Article: 699,608 &635 Orde Quantity: 123504 Pcs/4156 Crt. Factory: Shagore Garment Ltd. Delivery: 30.01.2010 Buyer Development Process: 1) Reports & exports documents 2) Sample follow-up 3) Supplier/factory message 4) Buyer message 5) Order detailse 6) Trim approval 7) Fabric approval 8) Requirement break down 9) L/C 10) Pre-order papers
  16. 16. Arranging final inspection: After completion the garment making merchandiser arrange final inspection date with quality department. Inspection is also depending on the wishes of buyer. Now a days most of the buyer follow 2.5% AQL.Here given Bellow 2.5% AQL system: AQL 2.5%: Lot Size Sample Size Acceptable Rejectable 26-50 8 1 2 51-90 13 1 2 91-150 20 1 2 151-280 32 2 3 281-500 50 3 4 501-1200 80 5 6 1201-3200 125 7 8 3201-10,000 200 10 11 10,001-35,000 315 14 15 35,001-150,000 500 21 22
  17. 17. STORE OR INVENTORY SYSTEM Inventory: Inventory is the stock of any item or resources used in an Organization. Fabric storage: Supplied Grey fabrics are first subjected to the 4 point inspection system and fabric allowance point is 28 per 100 yards. Only those goods are stored here which are passed from the quality control department. And defected fabrics are back to the supplier. The types of fabric defect are check in 4 point inspection system: - Oil spot - Missing yarn - Dye defect - Hole - Color yarn - Drop pick - Net - Knot - Broken yarn - Slub yarn - Color shading
  18. 18. FIG: FABRIC STORE 4- Point inspection system: Defects (length wise): Penalty point: 1. 0-3 inch……………………………1 2. 3-6 inch……………………………2 3. 6-9 inch……………………………3 4. 9 inch & above…………………....4 5. Any hole& miss pick……………...4 Example: Suppose inspected fabric length=100 yds, fabric width=50 inch, and following faults are found. Faults length No of faults 0-3 inch 3 3-6 inch 5 6-9 inch 3 9 inch & above 2
  19. 19. We know, Points/100 yds= Total penalty points*100*36 Fabric length*Fabric width 13 3 Points /100 yds = ------×100×----- 100 50 = 09.36 per 100 sq/yds Fabric inventory: Various types of fabric and accessories such as sewing tread, button, interlining, label etc are stored in central room. Here also machine sparse parts and stationary are stored in store room. The flow sequence of fabric inventory is given below: Received the fabric Pre-inspection Physical inventory Make the swatch card Prepare blanket shade Shade segregation Issue fabric to cutting room. Fabric is separated and according to lot number. Accessories inventory:
  20. 20. Flow sequence of accessories inventory is given below Import receive Physical inventory Swatch making Swatch approval from buyer Register/Record the entry Supply to sub store according to demand Issue to bulk production
  21. 21. Accessories inventory item: Hanger size: Identify the size of the garment by hanger Label: Labels are the most important trimmings by which customer easily, know about the product. Here two types of label are available: 1. Main label: It contains the name of buyer and country. Ex. Wal- Mart, USA etc 2. Sub label: i. Size label: It contains the size of the garment ii. Care label: It contains care construction. Different types of care label are given below. a. Washing code b. Bleaching code c. Ironing code d. Dry cleaning code e. Drying code iii. Cost label: It contains the cost of garments. iv. Composition: It contains fiber composition of the fabric. Ex 65% cotton, 35%polyester. Sewing thread: Different types of sewing treads are available in store room. Such as
  22. 22.  60/3 (100% polyester)  50/3 (core spun yarn)  40/3 (100% polyester)  20/3 (100% cotton) etc Button: Many types of button are available in store room. Some examples of button are given below.  Horn button  Purl button  Shank button  Snap button  Coconut button  Chalk button Amount determination of button: There are two systems of determination the amount of amount. These are given below. 1. 1G.G =12GRS 2. Each cartoon contain 750 gross 1 gross =144 pcs 750 gross =144×750=108000 pcs Interlining: Types of interlining are available in store room are given below. o Dot fuse. o Paper fuse. o T.C interlining. o Non fuse etc
  23. 23. SAMPLE, PATTERN, MARKER SAMPLE Sample making is one of the most important activities in the garment manufacturing process. The manufacturer always needs at least a sketch of the garment, original patterns, specification and the designer’s sample to make high quality sample garments at the contractor’s factories. Garments factories are used different name used for different types of samples. In the sample departments of garment factories different type of sample are made for different purposes. Flow sequence of sample section is given below: Receive developed sheet from buyer  Develop the sample  Send the sample to buyer for approval  Approval of sample/comments about the sample (if necessary)  Send pre-production sample to buyer  Start bulk production
  24. 24. Types of sample produce by Sample Section according to buyer demand: There is various type of sample those are given below: 1. Original sample: This type of sample made of original fabric and accessories according to buyer sketch and measurement. 2. Photo/ Develop sample: Here measurement is very important but need not to match the fabric and accessories 3. Seal sample: Seal sample is approved by the buyer with tag. 4. Size set: All sizes of sample are produced such as S, M, L, XL, etc, and send to buyer. 6. Pre-production sample: First garment of bulk production is called pre- production sample. 7. Add sample: For advertising of the product buyer want this type of sample. 8. Sales man sample: To supply the new product in different showroom, buyer wants this sample. 9. Photo sample: Only photograph of the product is send to buyer. 10. Shipment/ Reference sample: After completion the shipment of the garment some garment are kept in sample room which are known as shipment or reference sample. 11. Pre-line sample: This type of sample is collected from anyone line during production.
  25. 25. 12. Lab-test sample: Sample is tested by third party or buyer’s nominated lab. Pattern making This department provides patterns of different design for sample preparation. Samples are not large scale production, they are small in quality .So plotting machines are not used for samples. Patterns are made by drawing the design on drawing papers and then cutting them manually. A sequence can be shown: Design → pattern → sample preparation Generally, finished pattern is provided by buyer. Then allowance is added and patterns are graded. Pattern making process:  Manually  By Computer By Computer: With CAD System -Concept drawing accomplished by computer With Digitizing System - where master pattern is made manual on hard pattern paper. -Patterns are laid-out on the sensitized table &placed cursor around the pattern. -Modified and graded them directly on screen.
  26. 26. CAD Section work flow CAD section Block pattern Pattern Digitizing by Digitizer machine Pattern Grading pointwaise Marker Making Costing consumption marker Booking Cutting Go to bulk production Marker making: Marker is a thin paper which contains all the pattern pieces of a garment. It is made just before cutting and its purpose is to minimize the wastages. The width of a marker is equal to the width of the fabric and it should not be greater than the width of the fabric i.e. the width of the marker is kept less than or equal to the width of the Fabric. The pattern pieces should be placed very carefully in such a way that it will obviously minimize wastages. Objects of marker making: - To reduce cost; - To improve the quality of the garments; - To reduce the cutting time; - To facilitate large scale production.
  27. 27. Possibilities of marker making: Generally there are two methods by which marker can be made – MANUAL METHOD: The man performs it by himself using his hands. It is a conventional system and requires more time. Manually two types of marker are made – 1. Full size marker: Full size marker is made for production purpose. 2. Miniature type marker: Miniature type marker is sometime made and its purposes are to plan or schedule and learn or study i.e. for planning and learning purposes. COMPUTERIZED METHOD: Now the commonly used system of marker making is computerized method. In this system, a man performs it by himself using computer software (CAD and CAM) and it requires considerably less time than manual system. Two types of marker are generally made using computerized system – 1.Full size marker: Using ‘Digitalizing Board’ the pattern pieces are input into the computer. Computer uses software and a marker paper is printed out that will be used in the production.
  28. 28. 2.Miniature type marker: Only for learning, practicing, and planning purposes this type of marker is printed from the computer. Factors considered during marker making: The important factors considered during marker making are – Nature of the Fabric: The fabric may be either symmetric or asymmetric. Thus the nature of the fabric should be considered during marker making. Lay planning of patterns: Improper lay planning of patterns may create more wastage. Thus it should be taken under consideration. Alignment of the pattern pieces according to the grain line: It is also another important factor that must be considered. The warp direction of a fabric is very much important for a garment and the grain line indicates the warp or wale direction.
  29. 29. Requirements of cutting: Before placing the pattern pieces on to the marker or during marker making the cutting allowances are considered where necessary and where is not. It may produce more wastage and may reduce the dimensions of patterns. Production planning: Different types and sizes if garments manufacturing may un at a time in an industry. So during marker making it should be considered. Size of marker: During marker making we have to think about the table size, length of the fabric, etc. Marker Efficiency: The ratio between the total areas of the pattern pieces to the total area of the maker paper is technically termed as Marker Efficiency. It is expressed in percentage. If it is denoted by the symbol ή then – Marker Efficiency (ή) = (Total areas of the pattern pieces/Total area of the Marker paper) * 100 The factors which influence the Marker Efficiency –  Manufacturers of the marker;  Size of pattern pieces;  Length of the marker;  Pattern Engineering;
  30. 30.  Nature of the fabric;  Method of marker making;  Marker width;  Kinds or design of garments. The hinders of marker making are – Grain Line: Grain line is a more effective constraint of marker making. Because of grain line sometimes it is tough to place the pattern pieces on to the marker, even though it is possible the wastage become higher. Design of Garments: Sometimes the designs and repeats of the fabric are regarded as constraints of marker making. The patterns may miss the designs or may overlap the designs. Nature of the Fabric: Nature of the fabric may sometimes be regarded as a constraint of marker making. Nature of the fabric includes symmetric and asymmetric. Cutting Accuracy: Accurate cutting may be one of the constraints of marker making. Production Planning: Production planning includes rate of production, types of garments, sizes of garments, etc.
  31. 31. Fabric wastages inside and outside of the marker INSIDE WASTAGE: That wastage that is obtained from the inter-spaces of the pattern pieces in the marker paper. It depends on the efficiency of the marker maker and on the size of the patterns as well. OUTSIDE WASTAGE: Besides the inside wastages, some fabric is wasted outside of the marker – Ends of the ply losses: Generally each ply of the fabric losses up to 4 cm at both sides (Two sides * 2 cm). End of fabric losses: The length of fabric may sometimes not cover the ply, it may finish its end at less than 5 yards (cut piece). This piece of fabric goes through wastage and is called end of fabric losses. Selvedge losses: Generally selvedge losses are 2% to 3%. Purchase losses: Sometimes losses may arise from purchase. Wrong consumption calculation may cause huge wastage.
  32. 32. Fabric inspection CUTTING SECTION Fabric Inspection: When the fabrics are received from the dyeing and finishing section, it needs to be checked, because, faulty fabrics can be supplied from dyeing and finishing. But the cutting section has to check it. Otherwise the end products will be faulty. For this, the fabric is being inspected by the quality inspector of the cutting section. They check the fabric fully and find out the faults. Then mark it so that, these faulty portion of the fabric can be rejected during spreading and cutting. Then the fabric is being stored for relaxation . Fig: Finished Fabric Inspection
  33. 33. Fabric inspection 1. GSM Check 2. Dia Check 3. Fault Check 4. Point Calculation 5. Four point system calculation 6. Prepared fabric inspection report 7. Prepared weight sheet 8. Send to store (With Weight Sheet)
  34. 34. Fabric Relaxation: When the fabric comes from the dyeing and finishing, the fabric remains a slightly hot. In dryer, stenter and compactor heat is applied on fabric. So moisture is removed from the fabric and it is not in actual condition. But if we keep the fabric in normal temperature and pressure for a certain time, the fabric absorbs moisture from the atmosphere and regains its original nature. This process is called fabric relaxation. Another cause of fabric relaxation is to maintain the dimensional stability of produced garments. When the fabric is being processed in different finishing machines, it goes under certain heat and pressure to give it proper shape. But when the heat and pressure is being withdrawn, the shape may change. So, if the dimension is became stabilized before cutting, no chance of strain in garments. So relaxation is very before cutting . Fig: Fabric Relaxation
  35. 35. Cutting Introduction: Cutting section is the most important and risky section in garment industry. For a little mistake full order may be cancelled. With the false measurement a big portion of garment may employed. With very care this section is handled. In Sea Moss Knitwear Ltd. there consists 3 cutting table. From the sample section marker comes out. For stripe & variegated rib fabric there is no marker use because if use the marker for stripe fabric, frequently don’t match the stripe of one side to the other. This is a buyer requirement to match the stripe. Manually the stripe fabric is spreader out on the cutting table. Only marker is used for the solid dyed fabric. Normally big marker length is 5.5 yards & thickness of lay is 4 inch. Straight Knife Cutting Machine: In Echo Tex Ltd. all the fabric is cut down with the Straight Knife Cutting Machine by the help of skilled operator. Here use a blade which is very sharp and change this on the basis of fabric quantity & composition, normally in every after 4 days. Here, in the below give a short description on this machine: FLOW SEQUENCE OF CUTTING
  36. 36. Fabric inspection Fabric send to store Fabric received from store Marker making Fabric spreading Setting marker on the fabric lay Fabric cutting Numbering Prepared the bundling card Bundling Quality inspection & front part- back part are fold together store FABRIC SPREADING:
  37. 37. The appropriate type of spreading surface is determined by the fabric type, spreading equipment, cutting method, cutting equipment, and the firm’s quality standards. Spreading requires a flat, smooth surface. If the spreading surface doubles as a cutting surface, it also must be level. Spreading and cutting may be done on the same surface, but automated cutting often requires spreading and cutting to be done in adjacent but separate locations. Spreading and cutting surfaces are available in standard widths that correspond to fabric width. Narrow fabric can be spread on a wider table. A spreading surface needs to be about 10 inches wider than the fabric. Spreading tables may have tracks or rails placed along one or both sides of a tabletop or just a few inches off the floor. This track helps guide and control the spreader as it moves up and down the length of the table. With some types of equipment, the table tracks are geared to synchronize the movement of the spreading machine with fabric unrolling, in order to regulate tension.
  38. 38. Fig: Straight Knife Cutting Machine Machine Name : K.M. Company Cloth Cutting Machine Model : KM KS-AUV Producer : Made By K.M. Cutting Machine Co, JAPAN Price : US $189.00 Type : Heavy Duty Industrial Cloth Cutting Machine Self Sharpening. Dimension : 8" W x 11" L x 24" H (weight 33.5Lb) Current : A. C (3.3/2.6 amps) Speed : 3000/ 3600
  39. 39. Fig: Main Motor Portion Fig: Blade Portion Short Note: Machine power up, Motor run smooth and powerful. Blade moved as it should, The sharpening mechanism came down. Machine is very well made, looks like a top of the line product. Is has a very good appearance and seems to be working fine. Advantages:  As it is comparatively cheaper, easy moveable and maximum lay height could be cut, used extensively in garment industries.  Could cut fabric at more curved line than the round knife.  Cutting could be done for up to 10 inch depth of the lay.  Quick fabric cutting.  Components could be cut out directly from the fabric lay.  Grinding could be done during cutting.  Could be cut at any angle.
  40. 40. Disadvantages:  Knife deflection may result due to heavy weight of the motor.  Higher the depth of the lay, higher will be the deflection.  Possibility of accident is higher. Quality Department of cutting section: A.Q.M/Q.M (Quality manager) C.Q.C (Shade maintain) C.Q.C (Spreading inspection) C.Q.C (Cut part inspection with pattern) Bundle card and numbering inspection C.Q.I (Cut panel inspection 100%) C.Q.I (Embroidery) C.Q.I (Cut fabric fault change)
  41. 41. Equipment need in cutting section: Name of equipment Specification Gerber auto cutter Blade length=10 inch Straight knife cutting m/c Length=8-10 inch, width=2 inch Spreading Table Length up to 100 metter Globs Mask Fabric cutting methods are as follows: Fig: Scissor Manual Method Computerized Method Scissor Knife Cutting Round knife water jet Band knife Laser cutting Straight knife Plasma torch cutting
  42. 42. Fig: Metal Hand Gloves Summary Working Procedure in Cutting Section:  Follow production planning.  Sample collect from sample section with pattern and garments approved.  Lay order sheet/ratio sheet fill up by cutting section (fabric width, Item, Coloretc.).  Lay order sheet fill up ok then send to cad section for marker making.  Marker making ok.  Fabric requisition from cutting section to store for cutting according to plan.  Fabric is coming in cutting table as per marker and cutting plan. Fabric matches to trim card by merchandiser approved fabric width & length as per
  43. 43.  Then layering starts manual & machines all fabric. Pocketing and interlining.  After lay then spread marker upon on the fabric.  Marker check by pattern in quality people.  Keep all document make & style. Color. And size wise send report to store & sewing line.  Before cutting cutter man attach clamp. Gum tap on the layer.  If marker have drill mark then need to drill.  Cutting start by cutter man.  Then group and ratio wise stricken.  As per lay order sheet make bundle chart and send to i.e. Section for bundle card printing.  As per bundle chart wise numbering.  Then panel check.  If have any fault need to replace cut bundle roll and shad wise then bundle and send to line by input girl.  If have any fusing, embroidery than send to this section.
  44. 44. When the cutting process is complete, the entire garment components are inspected for required production. Spreading and Cutting Stage Problem: Effect Cause Lack of Sufficient fabric Relaxation Operators are not allowing sufficient time for relaxation Too many no of plies during spreading Ply height was found to be more than 7” Excessive dragging during spreading Higher dragging tension maintained between spreader roller to lay Blunt knife edges Edges of knife are not sharp and it leads to uneven shaping Sticker Tagging: After complete the cutting, the fabric is tagging by the sticker. The sticker tagging is an important part in this section. Due to fabric numbering or batching the sticker is tag on the cutting fabric surface.
  45. 45. s. Bundling: After cutting the fabric lay and tagging the sticker, all the garments components in stack form is shorted out as per size and color. To avoid mistake in sorting, it is better to use code number on each pattern.
  46. 46. Fig: Sorting / Bundling When sorting / bundling are complete, all the garment components are sending to the sewing section.
  47. 47. LIMITATIONS OF CUTTING SECTION  Input problem.  Scissor man cuts the tubular fabric to spread randomly and send to cutting floor and then find out the desired fabric to lay on the table.  There is may be no group for any table  Quality inspection & front part & back part are fold together. The faulty body parts are rejected but the rest ok body is not match by the same batch.  Cutting quality man may not be trained  Check, Varigated rib fabric lay quantity may be excess. As a result reject percentage may be increased.  Fabric spreading  There is may be no identification number to the rest of the cutting piece of the lay  There is no individual marker man for any unit.  Three cutting man cuts the fabric according to the marker.  Four man working with numbering m/c to sort out the cut fabric.  Two man preparing the bundle cards by writing on a piece of fabric  In this stage four men bundled the parts according to serial number.
  48. 48. SEWING SECTION Introduction : Sewing section is the crowdest section in Garment. All day long there machines are ruined according to the plan. From the cutting section the cutting parts of different garment ir brought in sewing section to sew. First of all machine is set out according to requirement. In this chapter I will try to give some flow chart of the different garment item sewing along with the machine lay out plan. Sewing: The process of joining fabric or seam is called Sewing. Elements of Sewing:  Sewing Thread,  Needle &  Sewing Machine List of machinery found in sewing lines: 1. Plain Machine (S/N) 2. Double Needle Machine (D/N) 3. Overlock Machine (O/L) 4. Interlock Machine (I/L) 5. Flat lock Machine (F/L) 6. Kanshai Machine 7. Feed of the Arm 8. Button Hole Machine 9. Button join Machine 10. Bartack Machine (B/T)
  49. 49. Thread Use In Different Machine: Machine Type Thread Type Plain/Auto Plain M/C 1 needle Thread 1 Bobbin Thread Double Needle M/c Two Needle Two bobbins Over Lock 2 Needle Thread 2 Looper Thread Cylinder Bed 3 Needle Thread 1 Spreader Thread 1 looper Thread Flat bed 3 Needle Thread 1 Spreader Thread 1 looper Thread Different Between Cylinder Bed & Flat Bed: Cylinder Bed Flat Bed 1. Hem can make Hem can not make 2. Piping mechanism is not available Piping mechanism is available 3. Top stitch can done Top stitch can not done. Different Sewing Machine Parts:
  50. 50. Single Needle Sewing Machine: Plain Machine Fig: Plain machine Machine Parts: Thread Stand Thread Clamp Thread Retainer Thread up lever guide Thread guide Tension disk Pressure screw Pressure bar Pressure feet Hand lifter Needle clamp Needle Needle plate Feed dog SPI adjustor Reverse lever Bobbin winder Pulley Oil sight window Pulley belt cover Leg lifter Foot Safety guide Motor Over Lock Sewing Machine:
  51. 51. Fig: Over Lock Machine Machine Parts: Thread Stand Thread Clamp Thread Retainer Thread guide Tension disk Pressure screw Pressure bar Pressure feet Eye protection glass Looper Needle clamp Needle Needle plate Feed dog SPI adjustor Spreader Mechanism Oil sight window Pulley belt cover Safety guide Motor
  52. 52. Cylinder Bed Machine: Fig: Cylinder Bed Machine Machine Parts: Thread Stand Thread Clamp Thread Retainer Thread guide Tension disk Pressure screw Pressure bar Pressure feet Eye protection glass Looper Needle clamp Needle Needle plate Feed dog SPI adjustor Spreader Mechanism Oil sight window Pulley belt cover Safety guide Motor
  53. 53. Flat Bed Machine: Fig: Flat Bed Machine Machine Parts: Thread Stand Thread Clamp Thread Retainer Thread guide Tension disk Pressure screw Pressure bar Pressure feet Eye protection glass Looper Needle clamp Needle Needle plate Feed dog SPI adjustor Spreader Mechanism Oil sight window Pulley belt cover Piping Mechanism(Folder) Motor
  54. 54. Flow-Sequence of Sewing Section: Cutting fabric load in sewing section Line plan according to style or design Marking Matching according to bundle no. Sewing according to Garments design or style Quality inspection during sewing Quality inspection after sewing Excess Thread cutting Remove dirt & dust from Garments surface Quality Audit Send to next process.
  55. 55. Fig : Sewing section Properties of seam: Properties of seam are assessed on the following aspects- Appearance: After sewing, the sewn area is observed for any defects, if present which affects outlook. Normally it is expected that there will be no defective view of stitches, seam pucker, or unsightly view. Performance: Performance of a seam is assessed according to following criteria-  Seam Strength: Strength of a seam should be equal to or slightly less than the fabric strength.
  56. 56.  Seam elasticity: Elasticity property of a seam should be equal to or greater than the fabric elasticity.  Durability: Durability of a seam equal to or greater than the durability of the fabric. Especially during wear and washing, the seam should not fail or damage due to frictional forces and tension.  Security: During normal use of apparels, the seam should not fail due to simple reason. Confidence of normal stability of seam is the security of the seam. If the seam fails due to normal reason the situation might be undue.  Comfort ability: Apparels, during normal use should not create any irritation or problem to body and health as well.  Fig : Sewing section Special property:
  57. 57. If clothing has any special property like water proof, fire proof, chemical resistant, etc then in manufacturing this apparel the seam should be produced in such away that the seams have also such special property. Sewing Defects:  Needle damage,  Skip stitches,  Thread Breakages,  Broken Stitches  Seam Grin  Seam Puckering  Pleated Seam  Wrong stitch density  Uneven stitch density  Staggered stitch  Improperly formed stitches FINISHING SECTION Finishing Lay Out:
  58. 58. Garments wash Loop cutting Thread trimming Alter checking Stitch others Button attach Ironing (In side) Inspection (inside & outside) Batch label attach Final ironing Joker tag attach Size tag attach Waist belt attach Hanger attach Poly packing Cartooning Shipment Trims: Trims cover all the items used in the garment except the basic fabric. There are hundreds of items used to manufacture the garments. Proper selection
  59. 59. of trims and its quality are very important for styling; otherwise the garment may be rejected or returned by the customers. Following is a part of list that covers some names of the items: Zipper/Fastener: Teeth : Nylon, Vislon, Metal Color : Tape color, Teeth color Size : #3, #5, #8, etc. Length : As per requirement 18 cm, 72 cm End : Close End (C/E), Open End (O/E) Slider : One way, Reversible. Sewing Thread:  Shade, color fastness, etc.  Tensile strength, Elasticity, Shrinkage, Moisture Regain, Abrasion Resistance, etc.  30s, 60s, 20/2, 40/9 Ne, etc. Labels:  Main label  Size label  Care label  Content  Price  Patch, etc.
  60. 60. Button:  Horn and  Metal buttons are very common in use.  ELASTIC:  Cotton  Polyester, etc. Eyelet:  Antique  Matching, etc. Velcro:  Hook and Pile String/Cord:  Cotton  Polyester, etc. Tags:  Price tags  Hang tags, etc. Polybag: Strength, Chemical mixture, Thickness (micron/mm; 1mm = 1000 micron).
  61. 61. Blister Bag:  0.05 mm in thickness;  Loaded capacity is higher than poly bag. Carton:  3 ply  5 ply  7 ply Size (L, W, and H). Sticker:  Hook and Pile. Plastic Clip: Tag pin: Scotch Tape: Hanger: Gum Tape etc. COMPLIANCE ISSUE
  62. 62. Compliance: Compliance means comply something i.e. yield to the wishes another. The main aim of compliance is to ensuring the all labor rights and facilities according to buyer code of conduct. Different compliance issues which they are obeyed:  Admin & HR dept.:  Personnel policies: o Recruitment policy o Leave and holiday policy  Attendance and leave register card: o Their weekly working hour not more than 66 hours including overtime in a week. o They have the approved manpower list.  Health & hygiene:  First aid ensures.  Medicine registers.  Maternity and pregnancy register.  Pure drinking water  Towel for hand dry.  Safety:  Safety committee  Fire fighting committee  Rescue committee  Broken needle register  Needle detector  Fire alarm & switch  Evacuation plan  Welfare:  Welfare committee  Day care centre  Canteen facility
  63. 63.  Salary and wages:  Fix wages in considering minimum wages which is declared by the government.  Salary and wages given before 7th day of month.  Physical security:  They have separate cargo entrance area (receiving and unloading) from the front side.  They do not keep any partially filled/ completed cartons on the floor at the end of any working day. They keep it to finished goods store.  Education and training program: They arrange security training program on regular basis for all employee of the factory. Compliance item: Some example of compliances item are given below:  First aid box  Water pot  Toilet  Wash basin  Complain box  Evacuation plan
  64. 64.  Exhaust fan  Emergency exit/light/ light set  Smoke detector  Fire extinguisher  Hose cabinet  Manila rope  Gas musk CONCLUSION
  65. 65. Technical education and its adoption in practical field we involved inextricably, without the implementation of the knowledge gathered in technical education its success is bound to suffer. Therefore, this one and half long industrial attachment as a partial fulfillment of our B.Sc in Textile Engineering course helped us to accomplish the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge by providing an elementary idea about industrial environment processing machines, tools and equipments, production system and maintenance, administration and management system. The completion of the two months Industrial Attachment at Sea Moss Knitwear Ltd. we have got the impression that factory is one of the most modern export oriented knit composite complex in Bangladesh. Though it was established few years ago, it has earned ‘very good reputation’ for its best performance over many other export oriented textile mills. We have also understood that Sea Moss Knitwear Ltd. cares a lot about there quality. During our Training period we have rarely seen faulty dyeing. If there was any problem it was quickly removed with the help of experienced and skilled production manager. During this period we have never seen any striping of color from fabric; though for this we couldn’t learn how stripping is done but it we think it is good for industry. The quality of dyed fabric is very good. In testing lab we have seen the most dyed batch has wash fastness 4-5. After dyeing the strength was well over of buyer’s requirement. Above all this quality was maintained with using least amount of chemicals. There are some suggestions from us within our limited knowledge Some Suggestions: - More skilled labor should be used in a project and the overall efficiency will increase.
  66. 66. - The m/c stoppage time should be analyzed and minimized. The maintenance should be carried out when the m/c is out of action (wherever possible) and routine maintenance should be carried out regularly. - There should be a spinning project then Sea Moss Knitwear Ltd. will not have to buy yarn from outside hence a lot money will be saved. - The job environment of production office should be much better. - Merchandising section should be much responsible about the whole order. Limitations of the Report: - It was limited time. In spite of willing to study more details it was not possible to do so. - Some of the points in different chapter are not described as these were not available. - The whole process is not possible to bind in such a small frame as this report, hence our effort spent on summarizing them. Lastly: I tried our best to gather all necessary information but it is true that within this short period it is quite impossible to achieve 100% success but as a whole this industrial training was a satisfactory one and once again wed would like to thank the authority of Sea Moss Knitwear Ltd. as well as our honorable teachers far their altruistic help and advice. We are fortunate enough that we have got an opportunity to have training in this mill. During the training period we have received enough co-operation and association from the authority and found all personnel. All stuffs and officers were very sincere and devoted their duties to achieve their goal.