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WINTER
“quality inspection             Template

& Defects in apparels”

PRESENTED BY

•ABHISHEK (        )
•DILIP SINGH (         )
•KUMAR SARVESH (            )
•RAJEEV SHARAN (           )
01
QUALITY


•Ideal condition of excellence.


•Product quality is based on a product attribute.
    •User-based quality is fitness for use,
    • manufacturing based quality is conformance to requirements,
    •value based quality is the degree of excellence at an
    acceptable price

ISO 9000:2000 Defines it as “degree to which a set of inherent
characteristics fulfill requirement.”
02
Quality inspection in apparel industries:


“Visual examination or review of raw materials, partially finished
components of garments and completely finished garments in
relation to some standards, specifications, or requirements, as
well as measuring garments to check if they meet the required
measurements.”
03
Quality inspection in apparel industries:


•done to control quality of garments.
         •Checking of fabric,
         •sewing thread,
         •button,
         •stitch,
         • zipper,
         •garments size etc
          according to required standard or specification is
         known as inspection.

•Quality inspection is important for every section of apparel
industries.
04
Steps in apparel industries to control quality




1. Raw Material Inspection;


2. In Process Inspection;


3. Final Inspection;
05
Raw Material Inspection:



•Fabric Inspection


•Sewing Thread Inspection


•Trims & Accessories check
06
Fabric Inspection

•   done through Fabric Inspection machine.
•   very important for every industries .
•   In fabric inspection their checks several things i.e. in fabric are
    there any defect available or not. In fabric, fabric defects viz.
    off shade or shade variation, hole in fabric, barre effect etc.
    can be visual after entering into the store room. For those
    defects it will be problem able for making garments making.
•   In fabric inspection, also check fabric strength, color, quantity

    To check fabric there are different system i.e. 4 point system,
    10 point system etc.
07
Fabric Inspection Machine




    Overall view of Pernick’s Tilt -A- View Machine
08
Fabric Inspection Machine




    Operational view of Pernick’s Tilt -A- View Machine
09
Fabric Inspection Machine




 Overall view of Pernick’s True- Matic Inspection Machine
10
Sewing Thread Inspection


During stitching fabric frequently brakeage of sewing thread
is one of the great problems for garments manufacturing. So
that it is necessary to check
            •thread construction,
            •sewability,
            •color,
            •imperfection,
            • finish, package
            •density,
            •winding,
            •yardage of sewing thread.
11
Sewing Thread Inspection


•In thread construction
         •thread number,
         •thread ply,
         •thread tenacity,
         •thread elongation,
         •number of twist
is necessary to check.
12
Trims & Accessories check

•Button,
•Zippers
• interlining,
• label &
•tags
also need to check so that quality can be maintain according
to required quality.

•For button,
     •button strength,
     • button color,
     • quantity etc
     are checked.
13
In Process Inspection

•   Inspecting different parts of garments before sewing are
    called in process inspection.
•   It starts from marker making, than fabric spreading, fabric
    cutting, fabric sewing, pressing or finishing checking is done
    in process.
     –   marker making
     –   fabric spreading
     –   fabric cutting
     –   sorting/ bundling
     –    fabric sewing
     –    seam defects
     –   assembly defects
     –   pressing/ finishing defects
14
Marking inspection

Factors which must be checked
• It is necessary to check all the parts of garments pattern are in
   marker.
• In marker labelling or coding of pattern should be checked
• Pattern direction should be checked.
• The entire pattern are sated correctly.
• Pattern grain line is very important thing which must be
   considered during marker making.
• During marker making every pattern pieces dimension should be
   accurate.
• During marker making fabric length and width should be
   considered.
• Marker width
• Notches & drill marks
• Knife clearance
• Checks and stripes (mittering)
Pattern Grading Defects

1. Grade Not Conforming to Specification measurements
   Finished product not measuring to specified dimension and
   component parts not fitting in relationship to notches, openings and
   seams such as armholes sleeve heads neck bands, neck openings
   and side seams inseams, waist measurements and etc.
2. Distorted Grading:
   Unbalanced patterns which would cause twisted seams, puckering,
   pleating and a general uneconomical yardage waste.
Marking defects
1.Shaded Parts:- All component pans not included in same section.
2. Pieces not Symmetrical:-Will not sew together without puckering or
   pleating.
3. Not Marked by Directional Lines:-Bias will not lit together, causing
   twisting, puckering. pleating and a general mismatching of component
   parts.
4. Skimpy marking:-Marker did not use outside perimeter of pattern.
Pattern moved after partially marked to fit into space.
5. Notches and Punch Marks:-Left out., not clearly marked or misplaced.
6. Marker Too Wide:-Parts will not catch in lay, causing skimpy garments or
   requiring results.
7 Marker Too Narrow:-Results In wasted material.
8. Mismatched Plaids-Marker did not block component parts to match.
9. Misdirected Napping:-Patterns not marked in same direction and napped
   fabrics.
17
Spreading inspection

Factors which must be checked
• Fabric Nature
• Ply alignment
• Ply tension/slackness
• Bowing
• Splicing
• Grain-line
• Shade variation
• Selvedge alignment & tightness
• Fabric width
• Checks
• Static electricity
Spreading Defects

1. Uneven Spreading:- Front edge of lay is not even, resulting in front or back
    edge of marker not catching all ply.
2·. Narrow Material:- Bolts or rolls of material too narrow to cover marker
    width.
3. Missed Sectional Breaks:- Sectional marker breaks too long or too short.
    Parts in lay will be short or material wasted.
4. Improper Tension:- Cloth spread too tight or too loose, causing parts not to
    fit in sewing or distorting dimensions of garments.
5. Mismatching Plaids:- Material spread too loose or too tight causing plaid
    lines to run diagonally or bow.
6. Misdirected Napping:- Air pockets not removed. Napped material reversed
    in spreading.
7. Improper Matching of Face of Material:-Not spread face down, face up or
    face to face as required.
19
Cutting inspection

Factors/defects which must be checked
• Frayed edge
• Fuzzy, ragged or serrated edges
• Ply to ply fusion
• Single edge fusion
• Pattern precision
• Notches & drillers
• Cutting Equipment precision
Cutting Defects
1.Marker or Perforator:- Not stapled or stencilled on lay to catch both edges
    causing parts to miss in cutting. Too tight or too loose, distorting dimensions of
    garment. Perforated stencil ,not powdered or inked, sufficiently to show distinct
    lines, notches and punch marks.
2. Misplaced Piece Rate Tickets or Bundle Members:-Attached to, or marked on,
    wrong bundles, causing mixed sizes or land shades.
3. Drill Marks:- Drill marks misplaced, not perpendicular, omitted or wrong side drill
    used.
4. Opening Slits:- Cut under above to the side or at incorrect angle. Not cut
    through entire bundle or omitted.
5. Improper Cutting:- Not following marker lines, resulting in distorted parts. Letting
    knife lean causing top and bottom ply to be of different sizes.
6. Notches:- Misplaced, too deep, too shallow or omitted.
7. Oil Spots:- Equipment improperly oiled or cleaned.
8. Improper Knife Sharpening:-Causing ragged, frayed or fused edges on
    bundles.
9. Knife or Scissor Cut:-Piece damaged by over run in cutting previous piece.
21
Sorting/ Bundling inspection

•   It is necessary to check numbering, sorting, and bundling is
    done accurately.


Defects.
1. Not Stacked in Numerical Order: Bundle numbers not in
order on rack skid or box.
2. Matching Linings: Wrong size or wrong material.
22
Sewing inspection

•   Most large & important section.
•   Necessary to check all the machine operators work.
•   Some common faults and problems must be considered
     –   Sewing defects
     –   Seaming defects
     –   Assembly defects
     –   Pressing or Finishing defects
23
Sewing inspection

Stitching Defects
•   Needle damage
•   Skipped stitch
•   Thread breaks
•   Seam pucker
•   Wrong stitch density
•   Uneven stitch
•   Staggered stitch
•   Improperly formed stitch
24
Stitching Defect                 Cause
Sewing inspection
Machine do not run               Not plugged in or turned on
                                 Outlet switch off.
                                 Circuit breakdown.
Machine do not stitch properly   Machine dirty.


                                 Machine incorrectly threaded


                                 Needle needs replacement.
Machine does not feed            Insufficient or too much
properly                         pressure on pressure foot
                                 Stitch length too short.
25
Stitching Defect        Cause
SkipSewing inspection
     stitching          Machine incorrectly threaded.
                        Machine dirty
                        Needle damage/needle set or
                        threaded incorrectly.
                        Needle makes hole too large or
                        too short
                        Needle too much fine for thread
                        Thread tension too tight/ thread
                        stretches when heated.
                        Machine timing needs adjustment

                        Fabric not held properly.
27
Stitching Defect
     Sewing inspection          Cause

Skip stitching (overedge        Loopers are incorrectly set.
machines)
                                Needle to looper relation incorrect.

                                Wrong type thread.


Skip stitching (blindstitch     Stitch-depth too shallow.
machines)
Wavy seams                      Stitch length too short.

                                Pressure too heavy or light

Wavy seams (overedge machine)   Differential feed needs increasing
28
Stitching Defect    Cause
puckering inspectionLight weight fabric, wash & wear, tightly woven.
     Sewing

                      Seam on straight grain.
                      Fabric not held properly.
                      Thread tension too tight.
                      Needle needs replacing.
                      Thread wrong size for needle/ threads are
                      different on bobbin & needle.
                      Too heavy pressure on foot.
                      Wrong stitch length.
                      Wrong seam class choice for material.
Puckering (overedge   Differential feed needs to be reduced.
machines)
29
Stitching Defect      Cause
     Sewing inspectionPressure on foot incorrect.
Plies feed unevenly
                       Plies lock or stitch together.
                       Pressure foot sticks to material.
                       Garment sections are of different length.
                       Garment sections are cut on different grains.
                       Feed dog at incorrect height or badly worn.
                       Inappropriate pressure-foot.
                       Inappropriate needle plate.
                       Operator not feeding upper layer properly.
                       Wrong machine- use a needle-feed machine if
                       available.
30
Stitching     Cause
Defect
     Sewing inspection
Unbalanced Different thread on needle & bobbin.
tension
              Thread slipped out of tension disc.
              Thread not feeding off cone or spool properly
              Machine dirty.
              Machine incorrectly threaded
              Needle needs replacement/ set incorrectly
              Poor quality of thread (too dry, coarse, fine etc).
              Thread catches on rough surfaces of thread guide, throat
              plate or thread spindle.
              Bent, rusted, or incorrect bobbin/ improperly or unevenly
              wound bobbin/ bobbin has several layers of
              thread/bobbin thread out/ bobbin case screw has worked
              out.
31
Stitching Defect     Cause
 Sewing inspection
Unbalanced tension   Looper tension needs adjustment
(overedge machine)
Uneven stitches      Thread does not feed smoothly/ thread
                     has wrong twist/ thread incorrectly
                     threaded between tension discs.
                     Pressure too light.


                     Burns or rough spots along the path of
                     thread.
                     Operator not feeding properly
32
Stitching Defect Cause
Sewing inspection
Cracked seam     Machine dirty.
                  Lint between the tension discs, guides or
                  eyelets
                  Bobbin or looper thread tension too tight.
                  Needle too small or wrong point.
                  Inappropriate stitch length for material.

                  Too tight tension.
                  Thread not moving smoothly through guides or
                  eyelets. Thread too large or machine has rough
                  spots or burns.
Cracked seam      Looper thread tension too tight.
(overedge
machine)
33
Stitching Defect Cause
Thread Sewing inspection
        breakage Poor quality thread/ wrong size of thread.
                   Tension too tight.
                   Needle set improperly.
                   Machine dirty.
                   Machine incorrectly threaded
                   Needle needs replacement.
                   Pressure bar not down.
                   Take-up lever not in raised position at the beginning of
                   stitch.
                   Burns on needle eye, throat plate, guides or thread
                   spindle.
                   Operator pulling fabric during tension/ did not release
                   tension before removal of material.
34
Stitching Defect      Cause
 Sewing inspection
Thread breakage       Needle & looper need adjustment
(overedge machine)
Seam grin             Stitch bight too narrow.

                      Stitch length too short.
                      Thread not set into tension discs
                      properly
                      Tension on needle thread too
                      loose.
Seam grin (overlock   Wrong stitch type
machine)
                      Tension needs adjustment.
35
Stitching      Cause
Sewing inspection
Defect
Machine jam   Machine dirty.
              Machine incorrectly threaded

              Needle set incorrectly or damaged.
              Static electricity pulls fabric into needle hole
              Pressure bar not down.

              Needle plate hole too large.
              Threads not held at beginning.
              Bobbin inserted incorrectly.
              Pressure foot wrong type and not holding
              fabric firmly.
36
Stitching Defect Cause
Unthreading inspection
     Sewing of    Thread end too short.
needle
                  Take-up lever not in its highest position.

                  Thread ends not held at beginning of stitch
                  Operator did not chainstitch.
Overedge          Knives blunt.
machine ragged    Knives incorrectly set.
edges, trimmed    Wrong choice of thread for fabric
edges are
uneven
Machine noisy     Machine dirty
                  Damaged machine.
                  Needle dull, bent or set incorrectly
37
Stitching Defect
     Sewing inspection Cause
Needle breakage      Needle needs replacement/ set incorrectly.
                     Pressure foot too loose.
                     Bobbin or bobbin-case incorrectly set.
                     Operator stitching over pins or zippers.
                     Operator pulling fabric while stitching or without
                     raising pressure foot.
                     Upper tension too tight.
                     Incorrect size of needle or thread for material.
                     Fabric too thick.
Needle breakage      Needle hitting looper.
(overedge machine)
38
Stitching Defect       Cause
     Sewing inspection Machine dirty.
Bobbin thread
breakage (lockstitch
                       Improperly threaded machine.
machine)
                       Bobbin or bobbin-case incorrectly set.
                       Bobbin tension too tight.
                       Bobbin too full.
                       Thread unevenly wound on bobbin
                       Bobbin screw worked out and catching the
                       thread.
                       Spring on bobbin-case worn to a sharp groove.
                       Burns on throat plate or rotary hook.
                       Bobbin pigtail caught in bobbin-case
39
Pressing Defect       Cause
Iron does not heat.   Iron not plugged in or turned on.
                      Boiler not turned on.
                      Circuit breaker or outlet off.
                      Temperature control set too low
Iron spits            Iron did not heat completely before use.
                      Temperature control set too low.
                      Steam control malfunctioned.
40
Sewing inspection

Seaming defects:
•   Uneven width
•   Fault stitch line
•   Back stitch must be given properly
•   Twisting
•   Check or strip matching
•   Seam matching
•   Wrong stitch face side or back side;
•   Thread color shade variation.
Restitched Seams / Broken Stitches
                                              MINIMIZING THREAD
    Excessive Restitched Seams                BREAKAGE:
                                              1) Use a better quality sewing
                                              thread. This may include going to a
                                              higher performance thread
                                              designed to minimize sewing
                                              interruptions. (See the Thread
                                              Selection Guide and/or
                                              Minimizing Thread Breakage &
                                              Skipped Stitches);
                                               2) Insure proper machine
                                              maintenance and sewing machine
                                              adjustments;
DESCRIPTION: Where a "splice"                 3) Make sure sewing machines are
occurs on the stitch line. If this occurs     properly maintained and adjusted
on Topstitching, then the seam does not       for the fabric and sewing operation.
appear to be 1st quality merchandise.         (See Machine Maintenance
Caused by 1) thread breaks or thread          Checklist.);
run-out during sewing; or 2) cut or broken    4) Observe sewing operators for
stitches during a subsequent treatment of     correct material handling
the finished product (i.e., stone washing).   techniques.
•Open Seam - Seam Failure - Stitch




                                          MINIMIZING SEAM FAILURES -
                                          STITCH:
                                          1) Use a better quality sewing thread.
                                              This may include going to a higher
• DESCRIPTION: Where the                      performance thread designed to give
  threads in the seam have                    greater seam performance. (See the
  ruptured leaving a hole in the stitch       Thread Selection Guide.);
  line.                                   2) Use the proper size thread for the
Caused by                                     application;
                                          3) For knit fabrics, check for "Stitch
• 1) Improper stitch for application;
                                          Cracking". Stitch Cracking can be
• 2)Inadequate thread strength for        caused by any of the following: not
  seam;                                   enough stitches per inch; improper seam
• 3) Not enough stitches per inch.        width or needle spacing for application;
                                          improper stitch balance; and improper
                                          thread selection.
Open Seam - Seam Failure - Fabric

                                Bartacks Used to Reinforce Fly Seam




                             MINIMIZING SEAM FAILURES -
                             FABRIC:
                              1)Reinforce stress points with
                             Bartacks. Make sure the bartacks are
• DESCRIPTION:               the proper length and width for the
  Where the stitch           application;
  line is still intact but    2) Check to make sure the patterns
  the yarns in the fabric    have been designed for proper fit;
  have ruptured.             3) Make sure the ideal seam
                             construction is being used;
                             4) Contact your fabric supplier.
Seam Failure - Seam Slippage




                                          Seam Slippage on Rayon Fabric



                                          MINIMIZING SEAM FAILURES –
•   DESCRIPTION: Where the yarns
                                          SEAM SLIPPAGE:
    in the fabric pull out of the seam
                                          1) Consider changing the seam
    from the edge. This often occurs on
                                          construction to a French seam
    fabrics constructed of continuous
                                          construction;
    filament yarns that are very smooth
                                          2)Increase the seam width or width
    and have a slick surface. Also
                                          of bite;
    caused by loosely constructed
                                          3)Optimize the stitches per inch; 4)
    fabrics.
                                          Contact your fabric supplier.
Needle Cutting on Knits




                                              MINIMIZING NEEDLE CUTTING
                                              ON KNITS:
                                              1)Make sure the proper thread
                                              size and needle type and size
                                              are being used for the fabric
•   DESCRIPTION: Where needle holes           2) Make sure the fabric has
    appear along the stitch line that will    been properly stored to prevent
    eventually turn into a "run". Generally   drying out and has been finished
    caused by the needle damaging the         properly;
    fabric as it is penetrating the seam.     3) Check with your fabric
                                              manufacturer.
•Excessive Seam Puckering - Wovens


DESCRIPTION: Where the seam does
   not lay flat and smooth along the
   stitchline.
Caused by one of the following:
1) Feed Puckering - where the plies of
    fabric in the seam are not being
    aligned properly during sewing;
2) Tension Puckering - where the thread
    has been stretched and sewn into the
    seam. The thread then causes the
    seam to draw back and pucker;
3) Yarn Displacement or structural
    jamming - caused by sewing seams
    with too large of thread that causes
    the yarns in the seam to be displaced,
    giving a puckered appearance.
MINIMIZING EXCESSIVE SEAM PUCKERING:
1)Use the correct thread type and size for the fabric. In many cases, a
   smaller, higher tenacity thread is required to minimize seam
   puckering but maintain seam strength
2) Sew with minimum sewing tension to get a balanced stitch;
3) Make sure machines are set up properly for the fabric being sewn;
4) Check for proper operator handling techniques.
•Puckered Seams -
Knits & Stretch
Woven




                        SOLUTIONS:
                        1) If sewing machines are equipped with
                           differential feed, set them properly for the
                           fabric;
                        2) Use minimum presser foot pressure during
                           sewing; and
                        3) Observe operator for correct handling
DESCRIPTION: Where         techniques. Too much stretching of the fabric
the seam does not lay      by the sewing operator will cause this
flat after stitching.      problem.
•Excessive Seam Grin




DESCRIPTION:       Where    the
stitch balance is not properly
adjusted (stitch too loose) and   SOLUTIONS: To correct, readjust the
you can see the seam opening      sewing machine thread tensions so that
up. To check for Seam Grin,       the proper stitch balance is achieved.
apply normal seam stress across   Too much tension will cause other
the seam and then remove the      problems including seam failures ("Stitch
stress. If the seam remains       Cracking"), excessive thread breakage,
opened, then the seam has too     and skipped stitches.
much "grin through".
•Improper Stitch Balance - 301 Lockstitch


                                 SOLUTIONS:
                                 1) Use a quality thread with
                                 Consistent frictional
                                 characteristics;
                                 2) Properly balance the stitch so
                                 that the needle and bobbin
                                 threads meet in the middle of
DESCRIPTION: Where loops         the seam. Always start by
are seen either on the           checking the bobbin thread
bottomside or topside of the     tension to make sure it is set
seam. This is particularly       correctly, so that the minimum
evident with different colored   thread tension is required to get
needle and bobbin threads.       a balanced stitch.
Also, where the stitch is too
loose.
•Improper Stitch Balance - 401 Chainstitch




DESCRIPTION: Where           SOLUTIONS:
the loops on the             1) Use a quality thread with
                                consistent frictional characteristics;
bottomside of the seam are
                             2) Properly balance the stitch so that
inconsistent and do not         when the looper thread is
appear uniform.                 unraveled, the needle loop lays
                                over half way to the next needle
                                loop on the underside of the seam
•Improper Stitch
Balance - 504
Overedge Stitch




                               SOLUTIONS:
DESCRIPTION: Where the         1) Use a quality thread with consistent
needle loop is not pulled up      frictional characteristics
to the underside of the seam   2) Properly balance the stitch so that when the
and the"purl" is not on the       looper thread is unraveled, the needle loop
edge of the seam.                 lays over half way to the next needle loop on
                                  the underside of the seam.
•Ragged/Inconsistent Edge - Overedge Or
Safety stitch Seams

DESCRIPTION: Where the edge
of the seam is either extremely
"ragged" or "rolls" inside the stitch.


SOLUTIONS:
 1) Make sure the sewing machine
knives are sharpened and changed
often;
 2) The knives should be adjusted
properly in relationship to the "stitch
tongue" on the needle plate to obtain
the proper seam width or width bite.
In the photo, the trimming knives
have been set wider than the "stitch
tongue" on the needle plate causing
the "ropy" appearance.
56
Sewing inspection

Assembly defects:
•   Finished component of not accurate size.
•   Garments not accurate in size.
•   If any design skip to join.
•   Component is not joining in right place.
•   If lining is tight or loose.
•   If parts direction is wrong.
57
Sewing inspection

Pressing or Finishing:
•   Fabric burn or burn spot attach with body.
•   Any types of water spot.
•   Color shading occurs because of hot ironing.
•   Button is insecure or broken.
•   Garments are folding accurately.
•   Pocket is pressed smoothly and except fold.
•   Garments shape is accurate.

“Stains, Wrinkles, Correct labels, Any thing that detracts from
overall appearance”
58
Sewing inspection

Folding defects

•    garment is not folded to specification
•    garment not folded with proper material like cardboard,
    tissues or other material.
•    incorrect pins or folds
•    garment not buttoned
•    label not showing
59
Final Inspection

•   In final inspection generally inspect fully complete garments.
    Before final inspection there has no chance to check complete
    garments. It is important from the buyer to finally check. In
    final inspection normally garments size, form fitting, fabric
    faults are check.
60
DEFECT ZONES

•   A zone- the defects of the garment which is visible when it
    is packed.
•   B zone- the defects of the garment which is visible when
    garment is opened flat.
•   C zone- the defects which can be seen when the garment is
    turned.

     – A defect in “A” zone is considered more serious than a
       defect in “B” zone
     – A defect in “B” zone is considered more serious than a
       defect in “C” zone
     and will be categorised accordingly.

                                          Critical defects list
61
Garment No-01 (Shirt)
62
DEFECT ZONES
Shirt inspection check list
                                                                                  63
 No   Location           Inspect for

 01   Collar             Both points are same or not, strip or check is match accurately,
                         stitch, collar flat or not.
 02   Size               Size label is in correct place, and every parts size is correct or not.
 03   Button & button Placed in right place or not, evenness of gap between one button to
      hole            other, stitch is done correctly, are there any broken button or not.
 04   Pocket             Pocket upper edge horizontal or not, pocket position, size, stitch,
                         stripe or check is match, flat or not.
 05   Hem                Stitch, are there any puckering occur or not, edge free from stitch.

 06   Yoke & shoulder    Stitch, puckering problem, skipped stitch.

 07   Side seam          Pattern matching, stitch, free from raw edge.
 08   Cuffs              Strips or check matching, top stitch, flat or not.


 09   Finished           Threads edge comes out or not, are there any oil spot or not, fabric
      appearance         fault, color matching, strip matching.
Causes & Remedies
                                                                                  64
Location      Defects                           Causes                  Remedies

Collar        Both points are not aligned.      Pattern mistake         Proper pattern marking
              strip or check is not match       Pattern mistake         Proper mitering
              accurately/stitch
              collar flat or not                Improper Stitch/seam    Proper folding &
                                                                        stitching
Size          Incorrect size parts              Improper ticketing &    Proper ticketing &
                                                bundling                bundling
Button &      Not placed in right place         Improper marking        Proper marking
button hole
              unevenness of gap between         Improper measuring &    Proper marking
              one button to other               marking
              stitch is done correctly/ extra   Improper stitching/     Proper setting of
              thread                            machine settings        machines
              broken button                     Improper inspection     Replace

Sleeve        Unequal size                      Improper                Proper measurement,
                                                measurement/stitching   marking, & stitch.
Location     Defects                         Causes                     Remedies

Pocket       Improper positioning & stitch   Improper marking/stitch    Proper marking &
                                                                        stitch
Hem          puckering, raw edge.            Improper machine           Proper settings, fabric
                                             settings/ fabric           type & stitch
                                             type/stitch
Yoke &       Stitch, puckering problem,      Machine setting/           Proper machine
shoulder     skipped stitch.                 workmanship                setting &
                                                                        workmanship
Side seam    Improper pattern matching,      Improper pattern/stitch    Proper marking &
             stitch, raw edge                                           stitch (by aligning
                                                                        edges)
Cuffs        Strips or check not matching    Improper marking.          Proper marking

             Improper top stitch, not flat   Slippage of back side or   Folders may be used
                                             improper stitch
Finished     Extra threads edge              Floatation on seam         Cut it.
appearance
             strip matching                  Improper                   Spread & mark
                                             spreading/marking          properly
             fabric fault                    Improper fabric            Splicing or other fault
                                             Inspection etc.            recovery processes
             Shade variation                 Improper spreading         Shade sorting during
                                                                        spreading
Inspection of Sample (Shirt)                                 66
A zone Defects
1.Collar




Defects             Causes                 Remedies
uneven (edges are   Improper marking       Marking should be accurate
not on a straight   Operator’s fault       with proper techniques of
horizontal line)                           stitching
                    Cutting faults         Appropriate equipments

Unequal             Improper marking       Proper marking with skilled
dimensions                                 stitching.
                    Overstretched fabric   Accurate tension over fabric
Inspection of Sample (Shirt)                                     67
A zone Defects
2. Front placket




Defects               Causes                 Remedies
baggy (fullness) at   Improper marking       Marking should be accurate(in
collar.               Operator’s fault       terms of measurement & relative
                                             positioning of button &
                      Button holes are not   buttonholes) with proper
                      according to button    techniques of stitching
                      placement
Inspection of Sample (Shirt)                                    68
 A zone Defects
 3. Labels




Defects               Causes             Remedies
Not placed at (with   Improper marking   Marking should be accurate(in
the reference of      Operator’s fault   terms of measurement & relative
centre back)                             positioning of labels & tags) with
                                         proper techniques of stitching
Inspection of Sample (Shirt)                               65
A zone Defects
4. Pocket




Defects            Causes                Remedies
Mitering defects   Improper marking      Marking should be accurate
                   Operator’s fault      with proper techniques of
                                         stitching.
                   Cutting faults        Appropriate equipments

Extra thread       Improper inspection   Proper inspection & extra
                                         thread should be trimmed.
                   Floated on seam       Appropriate equipments
                                         should be used to avoid this.
Inspection of Sample (Shirt)                                70
A zone Defects
5. Button holes




Defects           Causes                  Remedies
Extra thread      Improper inspection     Inspection should be proper.
                  Floated on the seam     Appropriate equipments
                                          should be used to avoid this.
Improper stitch   Inaccurate setting of   Machine setting should be
                  machine                 accurate.

                  Wrong type of thread    Thread should be inspected
                                          in terms of tenacity, count,
                                          ply, twist etc.
Inspection of Sample (Shirt)   71
B zone Defects
Inspection of Sample (Shirt)                                       72
 B zone Defects
 1. Armhole




Defects           Causes             Remedies
Misaligned        Improper pattern   Pattern should be accurately developed
seam              making & marking   with accurate marking.

                  Operators fault    Should be aligned with skilled stitching.

Improper stitch   Operators fault    Should be done with proper
(not uniformly                       workmanship.
distant with
armhole seam)
Inspection of Sample (Shirt)                                      73
 B zone Defects
 2. Yoke




Defects           Causes             Remedies
Mitering defect   Improper marking   Marking should be accurate.
Inspection of Sample (Shirt)                                   74
B zone Defects
3. Side seam




Defects           Causes             Remedies
Mitering defect   Improper marking   Marking should be accurate.
Inspection of Sample (Shirt)                                            75
 C zone Defects
 1. Armhole seam




Defects       Causes                       Remedies
Raw edge      Operator’s fault.            Stitching should be proper.
                                           Folders/templates may be used.
Roping        Pattern-making &             Patterns should be accurately
(puckering)   marking defect               developed with proper marking.
              Stitching defect             Should be done with proper skill &
              (operator’s fault-applying   workman ship
              too much tension)
              Machine fault                Properly check the settings of
                                           machine & its components.
Inspection of Sample (Shirt)                                   76
 C zone Defects
 2. Side seam slit
Defects     Causes                Remedies
Raw edge    Operator’s fault.     Stitching should be proper.




 3. Sleeve placket
Defects       Causes              Remedies
Raw edge      Operator’s fault.   Stitching should be proper.
Inspection of Sample (Shirt)                                   77
C zone Defects
4. Cuff seam




Defects          Causes               Remedies
Top stitch not   Operator’s fault.    Stitching should be proper.
covering the     Slippage of fabric   Folders/templates may be used.
back fabric of   during top stitch.
cuff seam
Analysis of garment 1 as per cutting room defects:   78
shade variation             no
Pieces not symmetrical      no
Misdirected napping         -
Improper tension while      no
spreading
Uneven spreading            no
Misplacement of marker      yes
while cutting
Improper cutting            no
Improper knife sharpening   -
Improper drill and notch    -
marks
Incorrect size cutting      no
Analysis of garment 1 as per sewing room defects:


Needle damage                          no
Skipped stitch                         yes
Thread break                           yes
Seam pucker                            yes
Wrong stitch density                   no
Uneven stitch                          no
Oil spots or stains                    no
Loose thread                           yes
Open seam                              yes
Run off                                yes
Improper thread tension                yes
Broken stitch                          yes
Notch exposed                          no
Omission of any part of garment   yes

Twisted seam                      yes

Pieces not aligned                yes

Reverse pieces                    no

Excessive fullness                no

Uneven edge                       yes

Ragged edge                       yes

Hole                              no

Misplaced components              yes

Misaligned seam                   yes
Analysis of garment 1 as per finishing room defects:


Thread not trimmed                         yes
Seam tear                                  yes
Inadequate pressing                        no
Garment not properly dried                 -
Pressing producing shine in fabric         no
Labels not showing                         no
Cuts or nicks                              no
Garment No -02 (Knitted T-Shirt)
Location      Inspect for                                     Remedies

Collar        Both points are same or not, accurately Proper marking, stitching
              stitch, collar flat or not.
Size          Size label is in correct place, and every       Proper labeling & bundling
              parts size is correct or not
Button &      Placed in right place or not, evenness of       Proper marking(measurement) & skilled
button hole   gap between one button to other, stitch is      stitching
              done correctly, are there any broken button
              or not
Pocket        Pocket upper edge horizontal or not, pocket     Proper marking for placement & skilled stitch
              position, size, stitch, stripe or check is
              match, flat or not.
Hem           Stitch, are there any puckering occur or not,   Proper tension & skill during stitch
              edge free from stitch.
shoulder      Stitch, puckering problem, skipped stitch       Proper skill stitching& use of mobilon tape
              (proper over-lock).
Side seam     Pattern matching, stitch, free from raw edge    Avoid excess tension(force) with skilled
                                                              workmanship.
Sleeve hem    Proper over-lock.                               Proper machine settings & skilled stitching

Finished      Threads edge comes out or not, are there        Can be avoided during inspection.
appearance    any oil spot or not, fabric fault, color
              matching, strip matching.
Garment no-02 (Knitted T-Shirt)
                                                            83
A zone Defects
1. Front placket




Defects            Cause                     Remedies
gathering/         Fabric stretched during   Set the machine
looseness at       stitching (too much       accurately according
placket            pressure at foot)         the knitted fabric &
                                             stitch properly
Garment no-02 (Knitted T-Shirt)
                                                               84
A zone Defects

2. Collar




Defects        Cause                             Remedies
Improper top   Fabric stretched during           Set the machine
stitch         stitching (too much pressure      accurately according the
               at foot)                          knitted fabric & stitch
                                                 properly
               due to lack of proper stitching   Align the seam properly
               (operator’s fault)                & stitch with skilled
                                                 workmanship
Garment no-02 (Knitted T-Shirt)
                                                            85
B zone Defects
1. Armhole




Defects       Cause                          Remedies
Not aligned   Fabric stretched during        Set the machine
properly      stitching (too much pressure   accurately according the
              at foot)                       knitted fabric & stitch
                                             properly
              due to lack of proper          by proper marking &
              marking/ proper stitching      aligning the seam
                                             accurately before stitch
Garment no-02 (Knitted T-Shirt)
                                                         86
C zone Defects
1.Front placket




Defects           Cause                 Remedies
Raw edges         Operator’s fault.     Properly inspect the
                                        garment & Finish the edges
                                        with overlock machines
                  Improper inspection
Garment no-02 (Knitted T-Shirt)
                                                        87
C zone Defects
2. Hem




Defects          Cause                 Remedies
Raw edges        Operator’s fault.     Properly inspect the
                                       garment & Finish the edges
                                       with overlock machines
                 Improper inspection
Garment no-02 (Knitted T-Shirt)
                                                                88
C zone Defects
3. Collar edges




Defects                  Cause                 Remedies
Raw edges (edges         Operator’s fault.     Properly inspect the
not finished properly)                         garment & Finish the edges
                                               with overlock machines
                         Improper inspection
Analysis of garment 2 as per cutting room defects:   89
shade variation             no
Pieces not symmetrical      no
Misdirected napping         no
Improper tension while      slight
spreading
Uneven spreading            no
Misplacement of marker      no
while cutting
Improper knife sharpening   no
Improper drill and notch    no
marks
Incorrect size cutting      no
Analysis of garment 2 as per sewing room defects:


Needle damage                          no
Skipped stitch                         no
Thread break                           no
Seam pucker                            yes
Wrong stitch density                   no
Uneven stitch                          no
Oil spots or stains                    no
Loose thread                           no
Open seam                              no
Run off                                no
Improper thread tension                no
Broken stitch                          no
Notch exposed                          no
Omission of any part of garment   Yes (half moon
                                  patch)
Twisted seam                      no

Pieces not aligned                yes

Reverse pieces                    no

Excessive fullness                no

Uneven edge                       yes

Ragged edge                       yes

Hole                              no

Misplaced components              no

Misaligned seam                   yes
Analysis of garment 2 as per finishing room defects:


Thread not trimmed                         yes
Seam tear                                  no
Inadequate pressing                        -
Garment not properly dried                 -
Pressing producing shine in fabric         -
Incorrect pins or folds in garment         -
Labels not showing                         no
Cuts or nicks                              no

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Garment inspection

  • 1. WINTER “quality inspection Template & Defects in apparels” PRESENTED BY •ABHISHEK ( ) •DILIP SINGH ( ) •KUMAR SARVESH ( ) •RAJEEV SHARAN ( )
  • 2. 01 QUALITY •Ideal condition of excellence. •Product quality is based on a product attribute. •User-based quality is fitness for use, • manufacturing based quality is conformance to requirements, •value based quality is the degree of excellence at an acceptable price ISO 9000:2000 Defines it as “degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirement.”
  • 3. 02 Quality inspection in apparel industries: “Visual examination or review of raw materials, partially finished components of garments and completely finished garments in relation to some standards, specifications, or requirements, as well as measuring garments to check if they meet the required measurements.”
  • 4. 03 Quality inspection in apparel industries: •done to control quality of garments. •Checking of fabric, •sewing thread, •button, •stitch, • zipper, •garments size etc according to required standard or specification is known as inspection. •Quality inspection is important for every section of apparel industries.
  • 5. 04 Steps in apparel industries to control quality 1. Raw Material Inspection; 2. In Process Inspection; 3. Final Inspection;
  • 6. 05 Raw Material Inspection: •Fabric Inspection •Sewing Thread Inspection •Trims & Accessories check
  • 7. 06 Fabric Inspection • done through Fabric Inspection machine. • very important for every industries . • In fabric inspection their checks several things i.e. in fabric are there any defect available or not. In fabric, fabric defects viz. off shade or shade variation, hole in fabric, barre effect etc. can be visual after entering into the store room. For those defects it will be problem able for making garments making. • In fabric inspection, also check fabric strength, color, quantity To check fabric there are different system i.e. 4 point system, 10 point system etc.
  • 8. 07 Fabric Inspection Machine Overall view of Pernick’s Tilt -A- View Machine
  • 9. 08 Fabric Inspection Machine Operational view of Pernick’s Tilt -A- View Machine
  • 10. 09 Fabric Inspection Machine Overall view of Pernick’s True- Matic Inspection Machine
  • 11. 10 Sewing Thread Inspection During stitching fabric frequently brakeage of sewing thread is one of the great problems for garments manufacturing. So that it is necessary to check •thread construction, •sewability, •color, •imperfection, • finish, package •density, •winding, •yardage of sewing thread.
  • 12. 11 Sewing Thread Inspection •In thread construction •thread number, •thread ply, •thread tenacity, •thread elongation, •number of twist is necessary to check.
  • 13. 12 Trims & Accessories check •Button, •Zippers • interlining, • label & •tags also need to check so that quality can be maintain according to required quality. •For button, •button strength, • button color, • quantity etc are checked.
  • 14. 13 In Process Inspection • Inspecting different parts of garments before sewing are called in process inspection. • It starts from marker making, than fabric spreading, fabric cutting, fabric sewing, pressing or finishing checking is done in process. – marker making – fabric spreading – fabric cutting – sorting/ bundling – fabric sewing – seam defects – assembly defects – pressing/ finishing defects
  • 15. 14 Marking inspection Factors which must be checked • It is necessary to check all the parts of garments pattern are in marker. • In marker labelling or coding of pattern should be checked • Pattern direction should be checked. • The entire pattern are sated correctly. • Pattern grain line is very important thing which must be considered during marker making. • During marker making every pattern pieces dimension should be accurate. • During marker making fabric length and width should be considered. • Marker width • Notches & drill marks • Knife clearance • Checks and stripes (mittering)
  • 16. Pattern Grading Defects 1. Grade Not Conforming to Specification measurements Finished product not measuring to specified dimension and component parts not fitting in relationship to notches, openings and seams such as armholes sleeve heads neck bands, neck openings and side seams inseams, waist measurements and etc. 2. Distorted Grading: Unbalanced patterns which would cause twisted seams, puckering, pleating and a general uneconomical yardage waste.
  • 17. Marking defects 1.Shaded Parts:- All component pans not included in same section. 2. Pieces not Symmetrical:-Will not sew together without puckering or pleating. 3. Not Marked by Directional Lines:-Bias will not lit together, causing twisting, puckering. pleating and a general mismatching of component parts. 4. Skimpy marking:-Marker did not use outside perimeter of pattern. Pattern moved after partially marked to fit into space. 5. Notches and Punch Marks:-Left out., not clearly marked or misplaced. 6. Marker Too Wide:-Parts will not catch in lay, causing skimpy garments or requiring results. 7 Marker Too Narrow:-Results In wasted material. 8. Mismatched Plaids-Marker did not block component parts to match. 9. Misdirected Napping:-Patterns not marked in same direction and napped fabrics.
  • 18. 17 Spreading inspection Factors which must be checked • Fabric Nature • Ply alignment • Ply tension/slackness • Bowing • Splicing • Grain-line • Shade variation • Selvedge alignment & tightness • Fabric width • Checks • Static electricity
  • 19. Spreading Defects 1. Uneven Spreading:- Front edge of lay is not even, resulting in front or back edge of marker not catching all ply. 2·. Narrow Material:- Bolts or rolls of material too narrow to cover marker width. 3. Missed Sectional Breaks:- Sectional marker breaks too long or too short. Parts in lay will be short or material wasted. 4. Improper Tension:- Cloth spread too tight or too loose, causing parts not to fit in sewing or distorting dimensions of garments. 5. Mismatching Plaids:- Material spread too loose or too tight causing plaid lines to run diagonally or bow. 6. Misdirected Napping:- Air pockets not removed. Napped material reversed in spreading. 7. Improper Matching of Face of Material:-Not spread face down, face up or face to face as required.
  • 20. 19 Cutting inspection Factors/defects which must be checked • Frayed edge • Fuzzy, ragged or serrated edges • Ply to ply fusion • Single edge fusion • Pattern precision • Notches & drillers • Cutting Equipment precision
  • 21. Cutting Defects 1.Marker or Perforator:- Not stapled or stencilled on lay to catch both edges causing parts to miss in cutting. Too tight or too loose, distorting dimensions of garment. Perforated stencil ,not powdered or inked, sufficiently to show distinct lines, notches and punch marks. 2. Misplaced Piece Rate Tickets or Bundle Members:-Attached to, or marked on, wrong bundles, causing mixed sizes or land shades. 3. Drill Marks:- Drill marks misplaced, not perpendicular, omitted or wrong side drill used. 4. Opening Slits:- Cut under above to the side or at incorrect angle. Not cut through entire bundle or omitted. 5. Improper Cutting:- Not following marker lines, resulting in distorted parts. Letting knife lean causing top and bottom ply to be of different sizes. 6. Notches:- Misplaced, too deep, too shallow or omitted. 7. Oil Spots:- Equipment improperly oiled or cleaned. 8. Improper Knife Sharpening:-Causing ragged, frayed or fused edges on bundles. 9. Knife or Scissor Cut:-Piece damaged by over run in cutting previous piece.
  • 22. 21 Sorting/ Bundling inspection • It is necessary to check numbering, sorting, and bundling is done accurately. Defects. 1. Not Stacked in Numerical Order: Bundle numbers not in order on rack skid or box. 2. Matching Linings: Wrong size or wrong material.
  • 23. 22 Sewing inspection • Most large & important section. • Necessary to check all the machine operators work. • Some common faults and problems must be considered – Sewing defects – Seaming defects – Assembly defects – Pressing or Finishing defects
  • 24. 23 Sewing inspection Stitching Defects • Needle damage • Skipped stitch • Thread breaks • Seam pucker • Wrong stitch density • Uneven stitch • Staggered stitch • Improperly formed stitch
  • 25. 24 Stitching Defect Cause Sewing inspection Machine do not run Not plugged in or turned on Outlet switch off. Circuit breakdown. Machine do not stitch properly Machine dirty. Machine incorrectly threaded Needle needs replacement. Machine does not feed Insufficient or too much properly pressure on pressure foot Stitch length too short.
  • 26. 25 Stitching Defect Cause SkipSewing inspection stitching Machine incorrectly threaded. Machine dirty Needle damage/needle set or threaded incorrectly. Needle makes hole too large or too short Needle too much fine for thread Thread tension too tight/ thread stretches when heated. Machine timing needs adjustment Fabric not held properly.
  • 27.
  • 28. 27 Stitching Defect Sewing inspection Cause Skip stitching (overedge Loopers are incorrectly set. machines) Needle to looper relation incorrect. Wrong type thread. Skip stitching (blindstitch Stitch-depth too shallow. machines) Wavy seams Stitch length too short. Pressure too heavy or light Wavy seams (overedge machine) Differential feed needs increasing
  • 29. 28 Stitching Defect Cause puckering inspectionLight weight fabric, wash & wear, tightly woven. Sewing Seam on straight grain. Fabric not held properly. Thread tension too tight. Needle needs replacing. Thread wrong size for needle/ threads are different on bobbin & needle. Too heavy pressure on foot. Wrong stitch length. Wrong seam class choice for material. Puckering (overedge Differential feed needs to be reduced. machines)
  • 30. 29 Stitching Defect Cause Sewing inspectionPressure on foot incorrect. Plies feed unevenly Plies lock or stitch together. Pressure foot sticks to material. Garment sections are of different length. Garment sections are cut on different grains. Feed dog at incorrect height or badly worn. Inappropriate pressure-foot. Inappropriate needle plate. Operator not feeding upper layer properly. Wrong machine- use a needle-feed machine if available.
  • 31. 30 Stitching Cause Defect Sewing inspection Unbalanced Different thread on needle & bobbin. tension Thread slipped out of tension disc. Thread not feeding off cone or spool properly Machine dirty. Machine incorrectly threaded Needle needs replacement/ set incorrectly Poor quality of thread (too dry, coarse, fine etc). Thread catches on rough surfaces of thread guide, throat plate or thread spindle. Bent, rusted, or incorrect bobbin/ improperly or unevenly wound bobbin/ bobbin has several layers of thread/bobbin thread out/ bobbin case screw has worked out.
  • 32. 31 Stitching Defect Cause Sewing inspection Unbalanced tension Looper tension needs adjustment (overedge machine) Uneven stitches Thread does not feed smoothly/ thread has wrong twist/ thread incorrectly threaded between tension discs. Pressure too light. Burns or rough spots along the path of thread. Operator not feeding properly
  • 33. 32 Stitching Defect Cause Sewing inspection Cracked seam Machine dirty. Lint between the tension discs, guides or eyelets Bobbin or looper thread tension too tight. Needle too small or wrong point. Inappropriate stitch length for material. Too tight tension. Thread not moving smoothly through guides or eyelets. Thread too large or machine has rough spots or burns. Cracked seam Looper thread tension too tight. (overedge machine)
  • 34. 33 Stitching Defect Cause Thread Sewing inspection breakage Poor quality thread/ wrong size of thread. Tension too tight. Needle set improperly. Machine dirty. Machine incorrectly threaded Needle needs replacement. Pressure bar not down. Take-up lever not in raised position at the beginning of stitch. Burns on needle eye, throat plate, guides or thread spindle. Operator pulling fabric during tension/ did not release tension before removal of material.
  • 35. 34 Stitching Defect Cause Sewing inspection Thread breakage Needle & looper need adjustment (overedge machine) Seam grin Stitch bight too narrow. Stitch length too short. Thread not set into tension discs properly Tension on needle thread too loose. Seam grin (overlock Wrong stitch type machine) Tension needs adjustment.
  • 36. 35 Stitching Cause Sewing inspection Defect Machine jam Machine dirty. Machine incorrectly threaded Needle set incorrectly or damaged. Static electricity pulls fabric into needle hole Pressure bar not down. Needle plate hole too large. Threads not held at beginning. Bobbin inserted incorrectly. Pressure foot wrong type and not holding fabric firmly.
  • 37. 36 Stitching Defect Cause Unthreading inspection Sewing of Thread end too short. needle Take-up lever not in its highest position. Thread ends not held at beginning of stitch Operator did not chainstitch. Overedge Knives blunt. machine ragged Knives incorrectly set. edges, trimmed Wrong choice of thread for fabric edges are uneven Machine noisy Machine dirty Damaged machine. Needle dull, bent or set incorrectly
  • 38. 37 Stitching Defect Sewing inspection Cause Needle breakage Needle needs replacement/ set incorrectly. Pressure foot too loose. Bobbin or bobbin-case incorrectly set. Operator stitching over pins or zippers. Operator pulling fabric while stitching or without raising pressure foot. Upper tension too tight. Incorrect size of needle or thread for material. Fabric too thick. Needle breakage Needle hitting looper. (overedge machine)
  • 39. 38 Stitching Defect Cause Sewing inspection Machine dirty. Bobbin thread breakage (lockstitch Improperly threaded machine. machine) Bobbin or bobbin-case incorrectly set. Bobbin tension too tight. Bobbin too full. Thread unevenly wound on bobbin Bobbin screw worked out and catching the thread. Spring on bobbin-case worn to a sharp groove. Burns on throat plate or rotary hook. Bobbin pigtail caught in bobbin-case
  • 40. 39 Pressing Defect Cause Iron does not heat. Iron not plugged in or turned on. Boiler not turned on. Circuit breaker or outlet off. Temperature control set too low Iron spits Iron did not heat completely before use. Temperature control set too low. Steam control malfunctioned.
  • 41. 40 Sewing inspection Seaming defects: • Uneven width • Fault stitch line • Back stitch must be given properly • Twisting • Check or strip matching • Seam matching • Wrong stitch face side or back side; • Thread color shade variation.
  • 42. Restitched Seams / Broken Stitches MINIMIZING THREAD Excessive Restitched Seams BREAKAGE: 1) Use a better quality sewing thread. This may include going to a higher performance thread designed to minimize sewing interruptions. (See the Thread Selection Guide and/or Minimizing Thread Breakage & Skipped Stitches); 2) Insure proper machine maintenance and sewing machine adjustments; DESCRIPTION: Where a "splice" 3) Make sure sewing machines are occurs on the stitch line. If this occurs properly maintained and adjusted on Topstitching, then the seam does not for the fabric and sewing operation. appear to be 1st quality merchandise. (See Machine Maintenance Caused by 1) thread breaks or thread Checklist.); run-out during sewing; or 2) cut or broken 4) Observe sewing operators for stitches during a subsequent treatment of correct material handling the finished product (i.e., stone washing). techniques.
  • 43.
  • 44. •Open Seam - Seam Failure - Stitch MINIMIZING SEAM FAILURES - STITCH: 1) Use a better quality sewing thread. This may include going to a higher • DESCRIPTION: Where the performance thread designed to give threads in the seam have greater seam performance. (See the ruptured leaving a hole in the stitch Thread Selection Guide.); line. 2) Use the proper size thread for the Caused by application; 3) For knit fabrics, check for "Stitch • 1) Improper stitch for application; Cracking". Stitch Cracking can be • 2)Inadequate thread strength for caused by any of the following: not seam; enough stitches per inch; improper seam • 3) Not enough stitches per inch. width or needle spacing for application; improper stitch balance; and improper thread selection.
  • 45. Open Seam - Seam Failure - Fabric Bartacks Used to Reinforce Fly Seam MINIMIZING SEAM FAILURES - FABRIC: 1)Reinforce stress points with Bartacks. Make sure the bartacks are • DESCRIPTION: the proper length and width for the Where the stitch application; line is still intact but 2) Check to make sure the patterns the yarns in the fabric have been designed for proper fit; have ruptured. 3) Make sure the ideal seam construction is being used; 4) Contact your fabric supplier.
  • 46. Seam Failure - Seam Slippage Seam Slippage on Rayon Fabric MINIMIZING SEAM FAILURES – • DESCRIPTION: Where the yarns SEAM SLIPPAGE: in the fabric pull out of the seam 1) Consider changing the seam from the edge. This often occurs on construction to a French seam fabrics constructed of continuous construction; filament yarns that are very smooth 2)Increase the seam width or width and have a slick surface. Also of bite; caused by loosely constructed 3)Optimize the stitches per inch; 4) fabrics. Contact your fabric supplier.
  • 47. Needle Cutting on Knits MINIMIZING NEEDLE CUTTING ON KNITS: 1)Make sure the proper thread size and needle type and size are being used for the fabric • DESCRIPTION: Where needle holes 2) Make sure the fabric has appear along the stitch line that will been properly stored to prevent eventually turn into a "run". Generally drying out and has been finished caused by the needle damaging the properly; fabric as it is penetrating the seam. 3) Check with your fabric manufacturer.
  • 48. •Excessive Seam Puckering - Wovens DESCRIPTION: Where the seam does not lay flat and smooth along the stitchline. Caused by one of the following: 1) Feed Puckering - where the plies of fabric in the seam are not being aligned properly during sewing; 2) Tension Puckering - where the thread has been stretched and sewn into the seam. The thread then causes the seam to draw back and pucker; 3) Yarn Displacement or structural jamming - caused by sewing seams with too large of thread that causes the yarns in the seam to be displaced, giving a puckered appearance.
  • 49. MINIMIZING EXCESSIVE SEAM PUCKERING: 1)Use the correct thread type and size for the fabric. In many cases, a smaller, higher tenacity thread is required to minimize seam puckering but maintain seam strength 2) Sew with minimum sewing tension to get a balanced stitch; 3) Make sure machines are set up properly for the fabric being sewn; 4) Check for proper operator handling techniques.
  • 50. •Puckered Seams - Knits & Stretch Woven SOLUTIONS: 1) If sewing machines are equipped with differential feed, set them properly for the fabric; 2) Use minimum presser foot pressure during sewing; and 3) Observe operator for correct handling DESCRIPTION: Where techniques. Too much stretching of the fabric the seam does not lay by the sewing operator will cause this flat after stitching. problem.
  • 51. •Excessive Seam Grin DESCRIPTION: Where the stitch balance is not properly adjusted (stitch too loose) and SOLUTIONS: To correct, readjust the you can see the seam opening sewing machine thread tensions so that up. To check for Seam Grin, the proper stitch balance is achieved. apply normal seam stress across Too much tension will cause other the seam and then remove the problems including seam failures ("Stitch stress. If the seam remains Cracking"), excessive thread breakage, opened, then the seam has too and skipped stitches. much "grin through".
  • 52. •Improper Stitch Balance - 301 Lockstitch SOLUTIONS: 1) Use a quality thread with Consistent frictional characteristics; 2) Properly balance the stitch so that the needle and bobbin threads meet in the middle of DESCRIPTION: Where loops the seam. Always start by are seen either on the checking the bobbin thread bottomside or topside of the tension to make sure it is set seam. This is particularly correctly, so that the minimum evident with different colored thread tension is required to get needle and bobbin threads. a balanced stitch. Also, where the stitch is too loose.
  • 53.
  • 54. •Improper Stitch Balance - 401 Chainstitch DESCRIPTION: Where SOLUTIONS: the loops on the 1) Use a quality thread with consistent frictional characteristics; bottomside of the seam are 2) Properly balance the stitch so that inconsistent and do not when the looper thread is appear uniform. unraveled, the needle loop lays over half way to the next needle loop on the underside of the seam
  • 55. •Improper Stitch Balance - 504 Overedge Stitch SOLUTIONS: DESCRIPTION: Where the 1) Use a quality thread with consistent needle loop is not pulled up frictional characteristics to the underside of the seam 2) Properly balance the stitch so that when the and the"purl" is not on the looper thread is unraveled, the needle loop edge of the seam. lays over half way to the next needle loop on the underside of the seam.
  • 56. •Ragged/Inconsistent Edge - Overedge Or Safety stitch Seams DESCRIPTION: Where the edge of the seam is either extremely "ragged" or "rolls" inside the stitch. SOLUTIONS: 1) Make sure the sewing machine knives are sharpened and changed often; 2) The knives should be adjusted properly in relationship to the "stitch tongue" on the needle plate to obtain the proper seam width or width bite. In the photo, the trimming knives have been set wider than the "stitch tongue" on the needle plate causing the "ropy" appearance.
  • 57. 56 Sewing inspection Assembly defects: • Finished component of not accurate size. • Garments not accurate in size. • If any design skip to join. • Component is not joining in right place. • If lining is tight or loose. • If parts direction is wrong.
  • 58. 57 Sewing inspection Pressing or Finishing: • Fabric burn or burn spot attach with body. • Any types of water spot. • Color shading occurs because of hot ironing. • Button is insecure or broken. • Garments are folding accurately. • Pocket is pressed smoothly and except fold. • Garments shape is accurate. “Stains, Wrinkles, Correct labels, Any thing that detracts from overall appearance”
  • 59. 58 Sewing inspection Folding defects • garment is not folded to specification • garment not folded with proper material like cardboard, tissues or other material. • incorrect pins or folds • garment not buttoned • label not showing
  • 60. 59 Final Inspection • In final inspection generally inspect fully complete garments. Before final inspection there has no chance to check complete garments. It is important from the buyer to finally check. In final inspection normally garments size, form fitting, fabric faults are check.
  • 61. 60 DEFECT ZONES • A zone- the defects of the garment which is visible when it is packed. • B zone- the defects of the garment which is visible when garment is opened flat. • C zone- the defects which can be seen when the garment is turned. – A defect in “A” zone is considered more serious than a defect in “B” zone – A defect in “B” zone is considered more serious than a defect in “C” zone and will be categorised accordingly. Critical defects list
  • 64. Shirt inspection check list 63 No Location Inspect for 01 Collar Both points are same or not, strip or check is match accurately, stitch, collar flat or not. 02 Size Size label is in correct place, and every parts size is correct or not. 03 Button & button Placed in right place or not, evenness of gap between one button to hole other, stitch is done correctly, are there any broken button or not. 04 Pocket Pocket upper edge horizontal or not, pocket position, size, stitch, stripe or check is match, flat or not. 05 Hem Stitch, are there any puckering occur or not, edge free from stitch. 06 Yoke & shoulder Stitch, puckering problem, skipped stitch. 07 Side seam Pattern matching, stitch, free from raw edge. 08 Cuffs Strips or check matching, top stitch, flat or not. 09 Finished Threads edge comes out or not, are there any oil spot or not, fabric appearance fault, color matching, strip matching.
  • 65. Causes & Remedies 64 Location Defects Causes Remedies Collar Both points are not aligned. Pattern mistake Proper pattern marking strip or check is not match Pattern mistake Proper mitering accurately/stitch collar flat or not Improper Stitch/seam Proper folding & stitching Size Incorrect size parts Improper ticketing & Proper ticketing & bundling bundling Button & Not placed in right place Improper marking Proper marking button hole unevenness of gap between Improper measuring & Proper marking one button to other marking stitch is done correctly/ extra Improper stitching/ Proper setting of thread machine settings machines broken button Improper inspection Replace Sleeve Unequal size Improper Proper measurement, measurement/stitching marking, & stitch.
  • 66. Location Defects Causes Remedies Pocket Improper positioning & stitch Improper marking/stitch Proper marking & stitch Hem puckering, raw edge. Improper machine Proper settings, fabric settings/ fabric type & stitch type/stitch Yoke & Stitch, puckering problem, Machine setting/ Proper machine shoulder skipped stitch. workmanship setting & workmanship Side seam Improper pattern matching, Improper pattern/stitch Proper marking & stitch, raw edge stitch (by aligning edges) Cuffs Strips or check not matching Improper marking. Proper marking Improper top stitch, not flat Slippage of back side or Folders may be used improper stitch Finished Extra threads edge Floatation on seam Cut it. appearance strip matching Improper Spread & mark spreading/marking properly fabric fault Improper fabric Splicing or other fault Inspection etc. recovery processes Shade variation Improper spreading Shade sorting during spreading
  • 67. Inspection of Sample (Shirt) 66 A zone Defects 1.Collar Defects Causes Remedies uneven (edges are Improper marking Marking should be accurate not on a straight Operator’s fault with proper techniques of horizontal line) stitching Cutting faults Appropriate equipments Unequal Improper marking Proper marking with skilled dimensions stitching. Overstretched fabric Accurate tension over fabric
  • 68. Inspection of Sample (Shirt) 67 A zone Defects 2. Front placket Defects Causes Remedies baggy (fullness) at Improper marking Marking should be accurate(in collar. Operator’s fault terms of measurement & relative positioning of button & Button holes are not buttonholes) with proper according to button techniques of stitching placement
  • 69. Inspection of Sample (Shirt) 68 A zone Defects 3. Labels Defects Causes Remedies Not placed at (with Improper marking Marking should be accurate(in the reference of Operator’s fault terms of measurement & relative centre back) positioning of labels & tags) with proper techniques of stitching
  • 70. Inspection of Sample (Shirt) 65 A zone Defects 4. Pocket Defects Causes Remedies Mitering defects Improper marking Marking should be accurate Operator’s fault with proper techniques of stitching. Cutting faults Appropriate equipments Extra thread Improper inspection Proper inspection & extra thread should be trimmed. Floated on seam Appropriate equipments should be used to avoid this.
  • 71. Inspection of Sample (Shirt) 70 A zone Defects 5. Button holes Defects Causes Remedies Extra thread Improper inspection Inspection should be proper. Floated on the seam Appropriate equipments should be used to avoid this. Improper stitch Inaccurate setting of Machine setting should be machine accurate. Wrong type of thread Thread should be inspected in terms of tenacity, count, ply, twist etc.
  • 72. Inspection of Sample (Shirt) 71 B zone Defects
  • 73. Inspection of Sample (Shirt) 72 B zone Defects 1. Armhole Defects Causes Remedies Misaligned Improper pattern Pattern should be accurately developed seam making & marking with accurate marking. Operators fault Should be aligned with skilled stitching. Improper stitch Operators fault Should be done with proper (not uniformly workmanship. distant with armhole seam)
  • 74. Inspection of Sample (Shirt) 73 B zone Defects 2. Yoke Defects Causes Remedies Mitering defect Improper marking Marking should be accurate.
  • 75. Inspection of Sample (Shirt) 74 B zone Defects 3. Side seam Defects Causes Remedies Mitering defect Improper marking Marking should be accurate.
  • 76. Inspection of Sample (Shirt) 75 C zone Defects 1. Armhole seam Defects Causes Remedies Raw edge Operator’s fault. Stitching should be proper. Folders/templates may be used. Roping Pattern-making & Patterns should be accurately (puckering) marking defect developed with proper marking. Stitching defect Should be done with proper skill & (operator’s fault-applying workman ship too much tension) Machine fault Properly check the settings of machine & its components.
  • 77. Inspection of Sample (Shirt) 76 C zone Defects 2. Side seam slit Defects Causes Remedies Raw edge Operator’s fault. Stitching should be proper. 3. Sleeve placket Defects Causes Remedies Raw edge Operator’s fault. Stitching should be proper.
  • 78. Inspection of Sample (Shirt) 77 C zone Defects 4. Cuff seam Defects Causes Remedies Top stitch not Operator’s fault. Stitching should be proper. covering the Slippage of fabric Folders/templates may be used. back fabric of during top stitch. cuff seam
  • 79. Analysis of garment 1 as per cutting room defects: 78 shade variation no Pieces not symmetrical no Misdirected napping - Improper tension while no spreading Uneven spreading no Misplacement of marker yes while cutting Improper cutting no Improper knife sharpening - Improper drill and notch - marks Incorrect size cutting no
  • 80. Analysis of garment 1 as per sewing room defects: Needle damage no Skipped stitch yes Thread break yes Seam pucker yes Wrong stitch density no Uneven stitch no Oil spots or stains no Loose thread yes Open seam yes Run off yes Improper thread tension yes Broken stitch yes Notch exposed no
  • 81. Omission of any part of garment yes Twisted seam yes Pieces not aligned yes Reverse pieces no Excessive fullness no Uneven edge yes Ragged edge yes Hole no Misplaced components yes Misaligned seam yes
  • 82. Analysis of garment 1 as per finishing room defects: Thread not trimmed yes Seam tear yes Inadequate pressing no Garment not properly dried - Pressing producing shine in fabric no Labels not showing no Cuts or nicks no
  • 83. Garment No -02 (Knitted T-Shirt) Location Inspect for Remedies Collar Both points are same or not, accurately Proper marking, stitching stitch, collar flat or not. Size Size label is in correct place, and every Proper labeling & bundling parts size is correct or not Button & Placed in right place or not, evenness of Proper marking(measurement) & skilled button hole gap between one button to other, stitch is stitching done correctly, are there any broken button or not Pocket Pocket upper edge horizontal or not, pocket Proper marking for placement & skilled stitch position, size, stitch, stripe or check is match, flat or not. Hem Stitch, are there any puckering occur or not, Proper tension & skill during stitch edge free from stitch. shoulder Stitch, puckering problem, skipped stitch Proper skill stitching& use of mobilon tape (proper over-lock). Side seam Pattern matching, stitch, free from raw edge Avoid excess tension(force) with skilled workmanship. Sleeve hem Proper over-lock. Proper machine settings & skilled stitching Finished Threads edge comes out or not, are there Can be avoided during inspection. appearance any oil spot or not, fabric fault, color matching, strip matching.
  • 84. Garment no-02 (Knitted T-Shirt) 83 A zone Defects 1. Front placket Defects Cause Remedies gathering/ Fabric stretched during Set the machine looseness at stitching (too much accurately according placket pressure at foot) the knitted fabric & stitch properly
  • 85. Garment no-02 (Knitted T-Shirt) 84 A zone Defects 2. Collar Defects Cause Remedies Improper top Fabric stretched during Set the machine stitch stitching (too much pressure accurately according the at foot) knitted fabric & stitch properly due to lack of proper stitching Align the seam properly (operator’s fault) & stitch with skilled workmanship
  • 86. Garment no-02 (Knitted T-Shirt) 85 B zone Defects 1. Armhole Defects Cause Remedies Not aligned Fabric stretched during Set the machine properly stitching (too much pressure accurately according the at foot) knitted fabric & stitch properly due to lack of proper by proper marking & marking/ proper stitching aligning the seam accurately before stitch
  • 87. Garment no-02 (Knitted T-Shirt) 86 C zone Defects 1.Front placket Defects Cause Remedies Raw edges Operator’s fault. Properly inspect the garment & Finish the edges with overlock machines Improper inspection
  • 88. Garment no-02 (Knitted T-Shirt) 87 C zone Defects 2. Hem Defects Cause Remedies Raw edges Operator’s fault. Properly inspect the garment & Finish the edges with overlock machines Improper inspection
  • 89. Garment no-02 (Knitted T-Shirt) 88 C zone Defects 3. Collar edges Defects Cause Remedies Raw edges (edges Operator’s fault. Properly inspect the not finished properly) garment & Finish the edges with overlock machines Improper inspection
  • 90. Analysis of garment 2 as per cutting room defects: 89 shade variation no Pieces not symmetrical no Misdirected napping no Improper tension while slight spreading Uneven spreading no Misplacement of marker no while cutting Improper knife sharpening no Improper drill and notch no marks Incorrect size cutting no
  • 91. Analysis of garment 2 as per sewing room defects: Needle damage no Skipped stitch no Thread break no Seam pucker yes Wrong stitch density no Uneven stitch no Oil spots or stains no Loose thread no Open seam no Run off no Improper thread tension no Broken stitch no Notch exposed no
  • 92. Omission of any part of garment Yes (half moon patch) Twisted seam no Pieces not aligned yes Reverse pieces no Excessive fullness no Uneven edge yes Ragged edge yes Hole no Misplaced components no Misaligned seam yes
  • 93. Analysis of garment 2 as per finishing room defects: Thread not trimmed yes Seam tear no Inadequate pressing - Garment not properly dried - Pressing producing shine in fabric - Incorrect pins or folds in garment - Labels not showing no Cuts or nicks no