Lesson 2   tendons, ligaments, cartilage and joints
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Lesson 2 tendons, ligaments, cartilage and joints

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Lesson 2 tendons, ligaments, cartilage and joints Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Today’s aim: Body StructureTendons, cartilage, ligame nts, Joints & Muscles
  • 2. Tendon – a connective tissue attaching muscle to bone. When a muscle contracts to move a joint, it is the tendon which pulls on the bone.
  • 3. Ligaments - are strong bands which connect bones to bones at the joint. Theyre elasticated to allow the movement of that joint, but are strong enough to stop movement outside the normal range.
  • 4. Cartilage - is a soft cushioning substance which coversthe ends of the bones. It acts as a shock absorber and reduces the rubbing of the bone surfaces.
  • 5. JointsWhere two or three bones meet, we have joints.1.Hinge joints are found at the elbowand at the knee and allow movement in one dimension, or direction.2.Ball and socket joints are found at the shoulder and the hip and allow movement in three directions.
  • 6. MusclesThe muscles of the body allow movement to occur at joints. To allow movement at a joint muscles works in pairs. Examples of this can be found in the elbows and knees. Elbow – bicep and tricep Knees – hamstring and quad These muscles contract and relax to create movement.
  • 7. Foundation Level QuestionJumping is an important movement in many activities. (i) Choose a team activity. Team activity _________________From this activity name a skill/technique where jumping is important. Skill/technique _____________________ Muscles work in pairs. (ii) Name the two muscles in the upper leg that work as a pair to allow movement. First muscle __________________________ Second muscle________________________ (iii) Explain how the muscles of the upper leg work together when jumping _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________
  • 8. Foundation answers• Team activity = Basketaball• Skill/ technique = Rebounding• 1st muscle = hamstring• 2nd muscle = quad• Exlanation of how the muscles work together when jumping = one muscle contracts while the other relaxes.
  • 9. General Level Question (i)Name two ball and socket joints.Ball and socket joint 1 _____________________Ball and socket joint 2 _____________________ (ii) Describe the range of movement of a ball and socket joint _________________________________________________ (iii) Name a hinge joint.Hinge joint _________________________________ (iv) Describe how a hinge joint moves._________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________
  • 10. Answers to General level questions• Ball and socket joint = Hip and shoulder• Movement = 360 or all directions• Hinge joint = elbow or knee• Describe how a hinge joint moves = It bends and straightens, opens and closes, moves back and forward
  • 11. JointsWhere two or three bones meet, we have joints. 1. Hinge joints are found at the elbow and at the knee and allow movement in one dimension, or direction.
  • 12. Ball and Socket 2. Ball and socket joints are found at theshoulder and the hip and allow movement in three directions.
  • 13. MusclesThe muscles of the body allow movement to occur at joints. To allow movement at a joint muscles works in pairs. Examples of this can be found in the elbows and knees.
  • 14. Muscles controlling the elbow• The muscles which control the movement of the elbow, are the triceps and the biceps. The bicep contracts or shortens, pulling the lower arm up, and causing the elbow to bend. At this time the tricep relaxes or lengthens. To straighten the elbow it is then the tricep which contracts or shortens in order to pull the lower arm down, and at this time the bicep relaxes.
  • 15. Muscles controlling the knee• If we look at the knee we can see the hamstring and the quad controlling the movement. The hamstring contracts, pulling the lower leg up and causing the knee to bend. At this time, the quad relaxes. To straighten the knee, the quad contracts, and pulls the lower leg down. At this time the hamstring is relaxed.
  • 16. Name the joint1. Backhand push in table tennis2. Overhead clear in badminton3. Splits in gymnastics4. Rebounding in Basketball5. Backhand serve in badminton6. Set shot in Basketball7. Kicking in football8. Over arm throw in basketball
  • 17. Foundation Level QuestionJumping is an important movement in many activities. (i) Choose a team activity. Team activity _________________From this activity name a skill/technique where jumping is important. Skill/technique _____________________ Muscles work in pairs. (ii) Name the two muscles in the upper leg that work as a pair to allow movement. First muscle __________________________ Second muscle________________________ (iii) Explain how the muscles of the upper leg work together when jumping _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________
  • 18. General Level Question (i)Name two ball and socket joints.Ball and socket joint 1 _____________________Ball and socket joint 2 _____________________ (ii) Describe the range of movement of a ball and socket joint _________________________________________________ (iii) Name a hinge joint.Hinge joint _________________________________ (iv) Describe how a hinge joint moves._________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________
  • 19. Credit Questions• Explain how the knee bends and straightens when rebounding the ball in basketball. Describe the muscles, ligaments, tendons and joints• When performing a bicep curl, explain how the 2 muscles work together (bicep and tricep) to create movement up and down. Describe the contracting and relaxing
  • 20. Q. Explain how the knee bends and straightens when rebounding the ball in basketball. Describe the muscles, ligaments, tendons and joints.• A. When bending your knees, the hamstring muscle pulls (contracts) while the quad relaxes. When straightening the leg, the quad muscle pulls and the hamstring relaxes. The muscle pulls on the tendon which is attached to the skin bone to extend the knee joint and straighten the leg.
  • 21. Q. When performing a bicep curl, explain how the 2 muscles work together (bicep and tricep)to create movement up and down. Describe the contracting and relaxing• A. As you bring your arm up, your bicep contracts while your tricep relaxes. As you bring your arm down, your bicep relaxes and your tricep relaxes.