Unit 13   arguments of the verb, subject, object and indirect object
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Unit 13 arguments of the verb, subject, object and indirect object

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    Unit 13   arguments of the verb, subject, object and indirect object Unit 13 arguments of the verb, subject, object and indirect object Presentation Transcript

    • Describe the event in the picture John slept .  Sleeping requires one participant .
    • Describe the event in the picture Mary devoured the pasta .  Devouring requires two participants .
    • Describe the event in the picture John gave a present to Bill .  Giving requires three participants .
    • Describe the event in the picture Mom kissed the baby .  Kissing requires two participants .
    • Describe the event in the picture John told a secret to Bill .  Telling requires three participants .
    • Describe the event in the picture John laughed .  Laughing requires one participant .
    • Describe the event in the picture John hit Bill .  Hitting requires two participants .
    • Describe the event in the picture Mary sent a letter to Bill .  Sending requires three participants .
    • Describe the event in the picture Sam kicked the ball .  Kicking requires two participants .
    • Describe the event in the picture Sam cried .  Crying requires one participant .
    • Describe the event in the picture Sam hugged Susan .  Hugging requires two participants .
    • Describe the event in the picture Bill taught math to his class .  Teaching requires three participants .
    • Arguments
      • Necessary participants of an event are called:
      • Arguments
      • We say that a verb selects its arguments .
      • A verb may select either 1 , 2 or 3 arguments .
    • One argument
      • If an event involves one participant , then the corresponding verb will select one argument .
      • Examples:
      • 1. The baby cried .
      • 2. John slept .
      • Cry : verb; 1
      • NP
      • Sleep : verb; 1
      • NP
      •  When there is only one argument , that argument must be the subject of the sentence
      Argument Structure:
    • Two arguments
      • If the event involves two participants , then the corresponding verb selects two arguments .
      • Examples:
      • 1. The soccer player kicked the ball .
      • 2. John hugged his sister .
      • kick : verb; 1 2
      • NP NP
      • hug : verb; 1 2
      • NP NP
      •  When there are two arguments , the first will be the subject , and the second the object
      Argument Structure:
    • Three arguments
      • If the event involves three participants , then the corresponding verb selects three arguments .
      • Examples:
      • 1. Sam gave a gift to Mary .
      • 2. John sent a text to his sister .
      • give : verb; 1 2 3
      • NP NP PP
      • send : verb; 1 2 3
      • NP NP PP
      • When there are three arguments , one will be subject , another object , and another Indirect Object
      Argument Structure:
    • Indirect Objects
      •  Indirect objects occur only if the sentence already has a subject and an object .
      •  The indirect object is the receiver of the object .
      •  Indirect objects start either with the preposition “ to ” or “ for ”.
      • However, note the following phenomenon…
    • Indirect Objects
      • 1. John gave a gift to Nancy .
      • 2. John gave Nancy a gift .
      • 3. The teacher read a story to her students .
      • 4. The teacher read her students a story .
      • 5. Bill sent an e-mail to Susan .
      • 6. Bill sent Susan an e-mail .
      • The indirect object stays the indirect object regardless of its position in the sentence.
      • So there are TWO possible argument structures here :
      give : verb; 1 2 3 NP NP NP give : verb; 1 2 3 NP NP PP
    • Indirect Objects
      • This can be used as a test to check if a sentence has an indirect object –
      • If a verb has TWO different argument structures as follows:
      • verb; 1 2 3 verb; 1 2 3
      • NP NP PP AND NP NP NP
      • then that verb has an indirect object .
    • Do the following sentences have indirect objects?
      • She emailed the message to the class.
      • They explained the problem to Sam.
      • Sam thanked his parents for their help.
      • We drove Bill to the mall.
      • They took the train to New York.
      • He showed his presentation to the class.
      • They left a message for their friends.
      • John worked there for nearly a decade.
    • Subjects , Objects and Indirect Objects
      •  Subjects answer a “ who ” or “ what ” question regarding information that comes before the verb.
      • Example: Bill met Sam.  Who met Sam?
      •  Objects answer a “ who/m ” or “ what ” question regarding information the comes after the verb.
      • Example: Bill met Sam .  Whom did Bill meet?
      •  Indirect Objects answer a “ for whom ” or “ to whom ” question.
      • Example: Bill gave Mary the check. 
      • To whom did Bill give the check?
    • I. Indicate the argument structure of each verb. II. Identify the subject, object and indirect object.
      • Poor John fell.
      • The children ate their lunch.
      • Sam sold his bike to Bill.
      • John bought his wife a nice present.
      • Susie sneezed.
      • I read an amazing new book.
      • Bill asked the bank clerk for his new credit card.
      • Sue cooked dinner for her family.
      • The nice boy sent his family Christmas cards.
      • Sam heard the news last night.
    • Homework
      • Read and do all the exercises of lessons 38, 39, 40 and 41.
    • Optional arguments
      • Some verbs select arguments that may either be expressed overtly or not.
      •  These are called Optional Arguments .
      • Examples :
      • 1. Sam ate . / Sam ate an apple .
      • 2. John smokes . / John smokes cigars .
      • eat : verb; 1 (2)
      • NP NP
      • smoke : verb; 1 (2)
      • NP NP
      Argument Structure:
    • Optional arguments
      • 1. Sam drank all night. / Sam drank water .
      • 2. John studied all day. / John studies linguistics .
      • 3. John wrote a letter . / John wrote a letter to Sue .
      • study : verb; 1 (2)
      • NP NP
      • drink : verb; 1 (2)
      • NP NP
      • write : verb; 1 2 (3)
      • NP NP PP
      Argument Structure:
    • Two argument structures
      • Some verbs have two possible argument structures .
      • You have already seen this happen in 3-argument verbs, but this happens in other verbs as well.
      • Example :
      • 1. John knows the answer .
      • 2. John knows [that his answer is correct].
      • know : verb; 1 2
      • NP NP
      • NP S
      •  The argument structure depends on the sentence!
      Argument Structure:
    • Two Argument Structures
      • Another example :
      • 1. John believes Mary .
      • 2. John believes [ that the world is round ].
      • believe : verb; 1 2
      • NP NP
      • NP S
      •  The object of verbs like “ know ” or “ believe ” can be either a NP or a S.
      Argument Structure:
    • Challenge Question
      • Think of more verbs that can have for an object either a NP or a S.
    • I. Indicate the argument structure of each verb. II. Identify the subject, object and indirect object.
      • 1. We were tossing her the ball.
      • 2. He frequently eats his dinner early in the evening.
      • 3. Members of the university use that library.
      • 4. Sylvia had sent the bill to the financial officer.
      • 5. John will lend you his umbrella.
      • 6. She told the interviewer a fascinating story.
      • 7. The audience was anticipating the big finish.
      • 8. He has been showing his new car to everyone.
      • 9. Elizabeth greeted her father cheerfully.
      • 10. They should never have ignored his advice.
    • I. Indicate the argument structure of each verb. II. Identify the subject, object and indirect object.
      • 1. Tim bought some gifts for his sister yesterday.
      • 2. The newspaper burned rapidly.
      • 3. Most farmers raise crops in the valley.
      • 4. The detective’s questioning upset George.
      • 5. Mr. Elliot often wears striped pants.
      • 6. Those loud tourists are bothering me.
      • 7. She packed her bag tightly.
      • 8. June became a teacher last year.
      • 9. Sam thanked his audience for their applause.
    • Arguments of Adjectives
      • John is happy.
      • What is the argument structure of the verb “ be ”?
      • “ Be ” alone doesn’t have much content. Instead let’s ask:
      • What is the argument structure of “ happy ”?
      • “ Happy ” requires one participant – someone who is happy.
      • Argument Structure: happy : adjective; 1
      • NP
    • Arguments of Adjectives
      • Sam was hungry.
      • “ Be ” alone doesn’t have much content. Instead let’s ask:
      • What is the argument structure of “ hungry ”?
      • “ Hungry ” requires one participant – someone who is hungry.
      • Argument Structure: hungry : adjective; 1
      • NP
    • Arguments of Nouns
      • Bill is the president.
      • What is the argument structure of “ president ”?
      • “ president ” requires two participants –
      • I. Someone who is president
      • II. Something which he/she is a president of .
      • Argument Structure: president : noun; 1 (2)
      • NP PP
      • Example : Bill is the president of the U.S.
    • Arguments of Prepositions
      • Sue is at the office.
      • What is the argument structure of “ at ”?
      • “ at ” requires two participants –
      • I. Someone/something which is at.
      • II. S omewhere that he/she/it is at.
      • Argument Structure: at : preposition; 1 2
      • NP NP
    • Challenge Question
      • Are there prepositions that must select three arguments?
    • Transitivity
      • Transitivity is determined based on what you see in the sentence!!!
      • If the verb in the sentence has only a subject, then that verb in that sentence is Intransitive.
      • If the verb in the sentence has a subject and an object, then that verb in that sentence is Transitive.
      • If the verb in the sentence has a subject, an object and an indirect object, then that verb in that sentence is Di-transitive.