Phrase Structure Rules

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Phrase Structure Rules

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Phrase Structure Rules

  1. 1. PhraseStructure Rules, trees<br />Constituents<br />Recursion<br />Conjunctions<br />http://faculty.washington.edu/wassink/LING200/lect14_syntax2.pdf<br />
  2. 2. PhraseStructure<br />Everywordbelongsto a lexical category<br />2) Lexical categoriesformheads of phrases<br />3) Thewayphrases are formedisgovernedby rules: phrasestructure rules<br />
  3. 3. Phrase Structure Rules<br /><ul><li>Rules that determine…
  4. 4. …………what goes into a phrase (constituents)
  5. 5. …………how the constituents are ordered
  6. 6. Constituent: a word or group of words that function as a unit and can make up larger grammatical units</li></li></ul><li>Noun Phrase NP<br />John N<br />the boy Det N<br />a little boy Det Adj N<br />a boy in a box Det N PP<br />Phrase Structure Rule for NPs:<br />NP (Det) (Adj) N (PP)<br />Where ( ) indicate optionality<br />
  7. 7. PhraseStructureTrees<br /> NP NPNPNP<br /> N Det N DetAdj N Det N PP<br />Johntheboya littleboya boyP NP<br />in Det N<br />a box <br />
  8. 8. Prepositional Phrase (PP)<br /><ul><li>in P
  9. 9. from a boy in a box P NP</li></ul>Phrase Structure Rule for PPs<br /> PP P (NP) <br />
  10. 10. PhraseStructureTrees<br /> PP PP<br /> P P NP<br /> in fromDet N PP<br />a boyP NP<br /> in Det N<br /> a box <br />
  11. 11. RECURSION<br /><ul><li> Some phrasal categories may appear to the left or right of the arrow</li></ul> NP (Det) N (PP)<br /> PP P (NP)<br /><ul><li>Recursion: the property of language that allows for the embedding of categories ( which can yield infinitely long phrases)</li></li></ul><li>Thecatonthemat in thehouseonthestreet<br /> NP<br />Det N PP<br />thecatP NP<br />onDet N PP<br />thematP NP<br /> in Det N PP<br />thehouseP NP<br />onDet N<br />thestreet<br />Thecatonthemat in thehouseonthestreet<br />
  12. 12. VERB PHRASE (VP)<br /><ul><li>sang V
  13. 13. ate the cake V NP
  14. 14. ate the cake hungrily V NP Adv
  15. 15. sang a song in theshower V NP PP
  16. 16. fellintothepondslowly V PP Adv</li></ul>PhrasestructureruleforVPs:<br />VP V (NP) (PP) (Adv)<br />
  17. 17. VPVPVP<br />VV NP VNP PP Adv<br />sangate Det N sangDet N P NP <br />the cake a songDet N badly<br /> in<br />theshower<br />
  18. 18. SENTENCES <br />A sentence must contain an NP and a VP e.g <br /> S<br />NPVP<br />Det N VP Adv<br />the dog aux V<br />was barking loudly<br />
  19. 19. SENTENCES<br />A sentence must contain an NP and a VP e.g <br /> S<br />NPVP<br />Det N VP Adv<br />the dog aux V<br />was barking loudly<br />

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