Describe the event in the picture John   slept .     Sleeping  requires  one participant .
Describe the event in the picture Mary   devoured   the pasta .     Devouring  requires  two participants .
Describe the event in the picture John   gave   a present   to   Bill .     Giving  requires  three participants .
Describe the event in the picture Mom   kissed   the baby .     Kissing  requires  two participants .
Describe the event in the picture John  told   a secret   to   Bill .     Telling  requires  three participants .
Describe the event in the picture John  laughed .     Laughing  requires  one participant .
Describe the event in the picture John  hit  Bill .     Hitting  requires  two participants .
Describe the event in the picture Mary  sent  a letter   to   Bill .     Sending  requires  three participants .
Describe the event in the picture Sam  kicked  the ball .     Kicking  requires  two participants .
Describe the event in the picture Sam  cried .     Crying  requires  one participant .
Describe the event in the picture Sam  hugged  Susan .     Hugging  requires  two participants .
Describe the event in the picture Bill  taught  math   to   his class .     Teaching  requires  three participants .
Arguments <ul><li>Necessary  participants of an event are called: </li></ul><ul><li>Arguments   </li></ul><ul><li>We say t...
One argument <ul><li>If an  event  involves  one participant , then the corresponding  verb  will select  one argument .  ...
Two arguments <ul><li>If the  event  involves  two participants , then the corresponding  verb  selects  two arguments . <...
Three arguments <ul><li>If the  event  involves  three participants , then the corresponding  verb  selects  three argumen...
Indirect Objects <ul><li> Indirect objects  occur only if the sentence already has a  subject  and an  object .  </li></u...
Indirect Objects <ul><li>1.  John  gave  a gift  to  Nancy .  </li></ul><ul><li>2.  John  gave  Nancy   a gift .  </li></u...
Indirect Objects <ul><li>This can be used as a  test  to check if a sentence has an indirect object –  </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Do the following sentences have indirect objects?  <ul><li>She emailed the message to the class.  </li></ul><ul><li>They e...
Subjects ,  Objects  and  Indirect Objects <ul><li>   Subjects  answer a “ who ” or “ what ” question regarding informati...
I. Indicate the argument structure of each verb.  II. Identify the subject, object and indirect object.  <ul><li>Poor John...
Homework <ul><li>Read and do all the exercises of lessons 38, 39, 40 and 41.  </li></ul>
Optional arguments <ul><li>Some verbs select arguments that may either be expressed overtly or not. </li></ul><ul><li>   ...
Optional arguments <ul><li>1.  Sam  drank  all night.  /  Sam  drank   water .  </li></ul><ul><li>2.  John   studied  all ...
Two argument structures   <ul><li>Some verbs have two possible  argument structures .  </li></ul><ul><li>You have already ...
Two Argument Structures   <ul><li>Another example :  </li></ul><ul><li>1.  John   believes   Mary .  </li></ul><ul><li>2. ...
Challenge Question <ul><li>Think of more verbs that can have for an object either a NP  or  a S.  </li></ul>
I. Indicate the argument structure of each verb.  II. Identify the subject, object and indirect object. <ul><li>1. We were...
I. Indicate the argument structure of each verb.  II. Identify the subject, object and indirect object. <ul><li>1. Tim bou...
Arguments of Adjectives <ul><li>John is happy.  </li></ul><ul><li>What is the argument structure of the  verb  “ be ”? </l...
Arguments of Adjectives <ul><li>Sam was hungry.  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Be ” alone doesn’t have much content. Instead let’s a...
Arguments of Nouns <ul><li>Bill is the president.  </li></ul><ul><li>What is the argument structure of “ president ”?  </l...
Arguments of Prepositions <ul><li>Sue is at the office.  </li></ul><ul><li>What is the argument structure of “ at ”?  </li...
Challenge Question <ul><li>Are there prepositions that must select three arguments?  </li></ul>
Transitivity  <ul><li>Transitivity is determined based on what you see  in the sentence!!! </li></ul><ul><li>If the verb i...
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Unit 13 arguments of the verb, subject, object and indirect object

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Unit 13 arguments of the verb, subject, object and indirect object

  1. 1. Describe the event in the picture John slept .  Sleeping requires one participant .
  2. 2. Describe the event in the picture Mary devoured the pasta .  Devouring requires two participants .
  3. 3. Describe the event in the picture John gave a present to Bill .  Giving requires three participants .
  4. 4. Describe the event in the picture Mom kissed the baby .  Kissing requires two participants .
  5. 5. Describe the event in the picture John told a secret to Bill .  Telling requires three participants .
  6. 6. Describe the event in the picture John laughed .  Laughing requires one participant .
  7. 7. Describe the event in the picture John hit Bill .  Hitting requires two participants .
  8. 8. Describe the event in the picture Mary sent a letter to Bill .  Sending requires three participants .
  9. 9. Describe the event in the picture Sam kicked the ball .  Kicking requires two participants .
  10. 10. Describe the event in the picture Sam cried .  Crying requires one participant .
  11. 11. Describe the event in the picture Sam hugged Susan .  Hugging requires two participants .
  12. 12. Describe the event in the picture Bill taught math to his class .  Teaching requires three participants .
  13. 13. Arguments <ul><li>Necessary participants of an event are called: </li></ul><ul><li>Arguments </li></ul><ul><li>We say that a verb selects its arguments . </li></ul><ul><li>A verb may select either 1 , 2 or 3 arguments . </li></ul>
  14. 14. One argument <ul><li>If an event involves one participant , then the corresponding verb will select one argument . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The baby cried . </li></ul><ul><li>2. John slept . </li></ul><ul><li>Cry : verb; 1 </li></ul><ul><li> NP </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep : verb; 1 </li></ul><ul><li> NP </li></ul><ul><li> When there is only one argument , that argument must be the subject of the sentence </li></ul>Argument Structure:
  15. 15. Two arguments <ul><li>If the event involves two participants , then the corresponding verb selects two arguments . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The soccer player kicked the ball . </li></ul><ul><li>2. John hugged his sister . </li></ul><ul><li>kick : verb; 1 2 </li></ul><ul><li> NP NP </li></ul><ul><li>hug : verb; 1 2 </li></ul><ul><li> NP NP </li></ul><ul><li> When there are two arguments , the first will be the subject , and the second the object </li></ul>Argument Structure:
  16. 16. Three arguments <ul><li>If the event involves three participants , then the corresponding verb selects three arguments . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sam gave a gift to Mary . </li></ul><ul><li>2. John sent a text to his sister . </li></ul><ul><li>give : verb; 1 2 3 </li></ul><ul><li> NP NP PP </li></ul><ul><li> send : verb; 1 2 3 </li></ul><ul><li> NP NP PP </li></ul><ul><li>When there are three arguments , one will be subject , another object , and another Indirect Object </li></ul>Argument Structure:
  17. 17. Indirect Objects <ul><li> Indirect objects occur only if the sentence already has a subject and an object . </li></ul><ul><li> The indirect object is the receiver of the object . </li></ul><ul><li> Indirect objects start either with the preposition “ to ” or “ for ”. </li></ul><ul><li>However, note the following phenomenon… </li></ul>
  18. 18. Indirect Objects <ul><li>1. John gave a gift to Nancy . </li></ul><ul><li>2. John gave Nancy a gift . </li></ul><ul><li>3. The teacher read a story to her students . </li></ul><ul><li>4. The teacher read her students a story . </li></ul><ul><li>5. Bill sent an e-mail to Susan . </li></ul><ul><li>6. Bill sent Susan an e-mail . </li></ul><ul><li>The indirect object stays the indirect object regardless of its position in the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>So there are TWO possible argument structures here : </li></ul>give : verb; 1 2 3 NP NP NP give : verb; 1 2 3 NP NP PP
  19. 19. Indirect Objects <ul><li>This can be used as a test to check if a sentence has an indirect object – </li></ul><ul><li>If a verb has TWO different argument structures as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>verb; 1 2 3 verb; 1 2 3 </li></ul><ul><li> NP NP PP AND NP NP NP </li></ul><ul><li>then that verb has an indirect object . </li></ul>
  20. 20. Do the following sentences have indirect objects? <ul><li>She emailed the message to the class. </li></ul><ul><li>They explained the problem to Sam. </li></ul><ul><li>Sam thanked his parents for their help. </li></ul><ul><li>We drove Bill to the mall. </li></ul><ul><li>They took the train to New York. </li></ul><ul><li>He showed his presentation to the class. </li></ul><ul><li>They left a message for their friends. </li></ul><ul><li>John worked there for nearly a decade. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Subjects , Objects and Indirect Objects <ul><li> Subjects answer a “ who ” or “ what ” question regarding information that comes before the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Bill met Sam.  Who met Sam? </li></ul><ul><li> Objects answer a “ who/m ” or “ what ” question regarding information the comes after the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Bill met Sam .  Whom did Bill meet? </li></ul><ul><li> Indirect Objects answer a “ for whom ” or “ to whom ” question. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Bill gave Mary the check.  </li></ul><ul><li>To whom did Bill give the check? </li></ul>
  22. 22. I. Indicate the argument structure of each verb. II. Identify the subject, object and indirect object. <ul><li>Poor John fell. </li></ul><ul><li>The children ate their lunch. </li></ul><ul><li>Sam sold his bike to Bill. </li></ul><ul><li>John bought his wife a nice present. </li></ul><ul><li>Susie sneezed. </li></ul><ul><li>I read an amazing new book. </li></ul><ul><li>Bill asked the bank clerk for his new credit card. </li></ul><ul><li>Sue cooked dinner for her family. </li></ul><ul><li>The nice boy sent his family Christmas cards. </li></ul><ul><li>Sam heard the news last night. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Homework <ul><li>Read and do all the exercises of lessons 38, 39, 40 and 41. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Optional arguments <ul><li>Some verbs select arguments that may either be expressed overtly or not. </li></ul><ul><li> These are called Optional Arguments . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sam ate . / Sam ate an apple . </li></ul><ul><li>2. John smokes . / John smokes cigars . </li></ul><ul><li>eat : verb; 1 (2) </li></ul><ul><li> NP NP </li></ul><ul><li>smoke : verb; 1 (2) </li></ul><ul><li> NP NP </li></ul>Argument Structure:
  25. 25. Optional arguments <ul><li>1. Sam drank all night. / Sam drank water . </li></ul><ul><li>2. John studied all day. / John studies linguistics . </li></ul><ul><li>3. John wrote a letter . / John wrote a letter to Sue . </li></ul><ul><li>study : verb; 1 (2) </li></ul><ul><li> NP NP </li></ul><ul><li>drink : verb; 1 (2) </li></ul><ul><li>NP NP </li></ul><ul><li>write : verb; 1 2 (3) </li></ul><ul><li>NP NP PP </li></ul>Argument Structure:
  26. 26. Two argument structures <ul><li>Some verbs have two possible argument structures . </li></ul><ul><li>You have already seen this happen in 3-argument verbs, but this happens in other verbs as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>1. John knows the answer . </li></ul><ul><li>2. John knows [that his answer is correct]. </li></ul><ul><li>know : verb; 1 2 </li></ul><ul><li> NP NP </li></ul><ul><li> NP S </li></ul><ul><li> The argument structure depends on the sentence! </li></ul>Argument Structure:
  27. 27. Two Argument Structures <ul><li>Another example : </li></ul><ul><li>1. John believes Mary . </li></ul><ul><li>2. John believes [ that the world is round ]. </li></ul><ul><li>believe : verb; 1 2 </li></ul><ul><li> NP NP </li></ul><ul><li> NP S </li></ul><ul><li> The object of verbs like “ know ” or “ believe ” can be either a NP or a S. </li></ul>Argument Structure:
  28. 28. Challenge Question <ul><li>Think of more verbs that can have for an object either a NP or a S. </li></ul>
  29. 29. I. Indicate the argument structure of each verb. II. Identify the subject, object and indirect object. <ul><li>1. We were tossing her the ball. </li></ul><ul><li>2. He frequently eats his dinner early in the evening. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Members of the university use that library. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Sylvia had sent the bill to the financial officer. </li></ul><ul><li>5. John will lend you his umbrella. </li></ul><ul><li>6. She told the interviewer a fascinating story. </li></ul><ul><li>7. The audience was anticipating the big finish. </li></ul><ul><li>8. He has been showing his new car to everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Elizabeth greeted her father cheerfully. </li></ul><ul><li>10. They should never have ignored his advice. </li></ul>
  30. 30. I. Indicate the argument structure of each verb. II. Identify the subject, object and indirect object. <ul><li>1. Tim bought some gifts for his sister yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The newspaper burned rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Most farmers raise crops in the valley. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The detective’s questioning upset George. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Mr. Elliot often wears striped pants. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Those loud tourists are bothering me. </li></ul><ul><li>7. She packed her bag tightly. </li></ul><ul><li>8. June became a teacher last year. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Sam thanked his audience for their applause. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Arguments of Adjectives <ul><li>John is happy. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the argument structure of the verb “ be ”? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Be ” alone doesn’t have much content. Instead let’s ask: </li></ul><ul><li>What is the argument structure of “ happy ”? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Happy ” requires one participant – someone who is happy. </li></ul><ul><li>Argument Structure: happy : adjective; 1 </li></ul><ul><li> NP </li></ul>
  32. 32. Arguments of Adjectives <ul><li>Sam was hungry. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Be ” alone doesn’t have much content. Instead let’s ask: </li></ul><ul><li>What is the argument structure of “ hungry ”? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hungry ” requires one participant – someone who is hungry. </li></ul><ul><li>Argument Structure: hungry : adjective; 1 </li></ul><ul><li> NP </li></ul>
  33. 33. Arguments of Nouns <ul><li>Bill is the president. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the argument structure of “ president ”? </li></ul><ul><li>“ president ” requires two participants – </li></ul><ul><li>I. Someone who is president </li></ul><ul><li>II. Something which he/she is a president of . </li></ul><ul><li>Argument Structure: president : noun; 1 (2) </li></ul><ul><li> NP PP </li></ul><ul><li>Example : Bill is the president of the U.S. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Arguments of Prepositions <ul><li>Sue is at the office. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the argument structure of “ at ”? </li></ul><ul><li>“ at ” requires two participants – </li></ul><ul><li>I. Someone/something which is at. </li></ul><ul><li>II. S omewhere that he/she/it is at. </li></ul><ul><li>Argument Structure: at : preposition; 1 2 </li></ul><ul><li> NP NP </li></ul>
  35. 35. Challenge Question <ul><li>Are there prepositions that must select three arguments? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Transitivity <ul><li>Transitivity is determined based on what you see in the sentence!!! </li></ul><ul><li>If the verb in the sentence has only a subject, then that verb in that sentence is Intransitive. </li></ul><ul><li>If the verb in the sentence has a subject and an object, then that verb in that sentence is Transitive. </li></ul><ul><li>If the verb in the sentence has a subject, an object and an indirect object, then that verb in that sentence is Di-transitive. </li></ul>

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