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Syntax

!

Roland Raoul KOUASSI
!
Definition

!

•  Syntax is the study of the part of the human language that

studies how sentences are structured.
•  It deals with the process through which words are put into

phrases, and how phrases in turn are combined to form larger
units called sentences.
•  Syntactic rules in a grammar account for the grammaticality of

sentences, and the ordering of words and morphemes.
Syntax

!

•  Syntax involves our knowledge of structural ambiguity,
•  our knowledge that sentences may be paraphrases of each other,

and
•  our knowledge of the grammatical function of each part of a

sentence, that is, of the grammatical relations.
Syntax

!

•  It is also concerned with speakers' ability to produce and

understand an infinite set of possible sentences.
•  The sentence is regarded the highest-ranking unit of grammar,

and therefore that the purpose of a grammatical description is
to define, making use of whatever descriptive apparatus that
may be necessary (rules, categories, etc).
Sentence Structure

!

•  One aspect of the syntactic structure of sentences

is the division of a sentence into phrases, and
those phrases into further phrases, and so forth.
•  Another aspect of the syntactic structure of a

sentence is "movement" relations that hold
between one syntactic position in a sentence and
another.
Sentence Structure

!

•  The syntactic literature dealing with the

study of how sentences are structured
throws us a hint that syntactic research
should not only concern on how sentences
are merged out of their parts, units, or
constituents, but also on how constituents
are moved according to certain rules.
Constituents
• 

!

Constituents are structural units, which refer to any linguistic
form, such as words or word groups.

•  Although the term string is often used technically to refer to

sequences of words, sentences are not merely strings of words
in a permissible order and making sense.

•  They are structured into successive components, consisting of

single words or groups of words.

•  These groups and single words are called constituents (i.e.

structural units), and when they are considered as part of the
successive unraveling of a sentence, they are known as its
immediate constituents.
Constituents

!

•  When we consider sentence My friend came home late last night, we

find out that it consists of seven word arranged in a particular order.

•  In syntax, the seven words in this model sentence are its ultimate

constituents.

•  This sentence and in general any sentence of the language may be

represented as a particular arrangement of the ultimate constituents,
which are the minimal grammatical elements, of which the sentence
is composed.

•  Every sentence has therefore what we will refer to as a linear

structure. The small units are known as its immediate constituents.
Immediate Constituent Analysis

!

•  Formal accounts of syntax are based on establishing the

basic constituents, namely, categories, from which word
strings are formed.

•  Sentences are regarded as hierarchies of interlocking

smaller units, or constituents.

•  After a sentence is cut into its constituent elements, the

two parts that are yielded are called immediate
constituents.

•  Then, we get the smallest grammatical unit obtained

through the division, or segmentation, which is seen as
the ultimate constituent.
!

•  The segmentation of the sentence up into its

immediate constituents by using binary cuttings
until its ultimate constituents are obtained is an
important approach to the realization of the
nature of language, called Immediate
Constituent Analysis (IC Analysis).

•  The analysis can be carried out in ways of tree

diagrams, bracketing or any other. For example:

•  (1) Poor| John║ ran |out.
Immediate Constituent Analysis

!
construction

!

•  A construction is a relationship between constituents.

Constructions are divided into two types: endocentric
constructions and exocentric constructions.

•  Endocentric construction is one whose distribution is

functionally equivalent to that of one or more of its
constituents.

•  Exocentric construction refers to a group of syntactically

related words where none of the words is functionally
equivalent to the group as a whole.
•  If the total construction (head plus modification, or modification

plus head) has the same distributional characteristics as the
head constituent (head), it is usually called endocentric
construction. For example:
•  They left because they were tied.
•  Within this construction, They left is the head and because they

were tired is its modifier.
•  Endocentric construction can further be divided into two types:

subordination and coordination.
•  Any construction that does not belong to the same form class as

any one of its immediate constituents is an exocentric
construction.

•  There is no head in exocentric constructions, and it is not

substitutable by any one of its constituents.

•  No immediate constituent may function in a manner equivalent

to the whole construction of which it is a part.
Sentence Types

!

•  Sentences in any language are constructed from a rather

small set of basic structural patterns and through certain
processes involving the expansion or transformation of
these basic patterns.
Syntactic Function

!

•  The traditional approach to syntactic function:
•  identifies constituents of the sentence,
•  states the part of speech each word belongs to,
•  describes the inflexion involved, and
•  explains the relationship each word related to the others.
•  According to its relation to other constituents, a

constituent may serve certain syntactic function in a
clause.
Syntactic Function

!

•  There are five functional categories of clause constituents:
•  subject, verb, object, complement, adverbial.
•  Object can be subdivided into direct object and indirect object.
•  Complement can be subdivided into subject complement and

object complement.

•  Adverbial can be subdivided into subject-related adverbial and

object-related adverbial.
Tense and Aspect

!

•  The category of tense has to do with time-

relations and relates the time of the action,
event or state of affairs referred to in the
sentence to the time of utterance (the time of
utterance being 'now').
•  Tense is therefore a deictic category, and is

simultaneously a property of the sentence and
the utterance.
Tense and Aspect

!

•  The term aspect was first used to refer to the distinction

of 'perfective' and 'imperfective' in the inflexion of
verbs in Russian and other Slavonic languages.

•  English has two aspects:
•  the 'perfect' (e.g. I have/had read the book. I will/would

have read the book) and the 'imperfect' (e.g. I am/was
reading the book, I will/would be reading the book).

•  They combine freely with one another (e.g. I have/had

been reading the book).
Number and gender

!

•  Number is a grammatical category for the analysis of such

contrasts as singular and plural of certain word classes. In
English, number is a feature of nouns and verbs.

•  Gender demonstrates such contrasts as "masculine, feminine,

and neuter", and "animate: inanimate", etc. for the analysis
of certain word classes.

•  In most languages, grammatical gender has little to do with

the biological sex.

•  For instance, in French, the moon, which has nothing to do

with the biological sex, is grammatically feminine.
Case

!

•  The case category is often used in the analysis of

word classes to identify the syntactic relationship
between words in a sentence.
•  It is a feature of the noun, largely functionally

definable (nominative for mentioning the subject,
vocative for exclaiming or calling, accusative for
mentioning the object, genitive for ownership,
dative for indicating benefit, ablative for direction
or agency).
Concord and Government

!

•  The forms of words can be restricted by grammatical

categories through concord or agreement and through
government.

•  A verb is to agree with the subject in person and number.
•  In English this rule only affects the verb according the

number of the subject.

•  For example,
•  The boy goes to school.
•  The boys go to school.
Syntactic Structures
and Syntactic Analysis!
Syntactic Categories (1)!

Lexical categories
•  Noun (N)
•  Verb (V)
•  Adjective (A)
•  Preposition (P)
•  Adverb (Adv)!

Examples
•  moisture, policy
•  melt, remain
•  good, intelligent
•  to, near
•  slowly, now!
Syntactic Categories (2)

!

Non-lexical categories
•  Determiner (Det)
•  Degree word (Deg)
•  Qualifier (Qual)
•  Auxiliary (Aux)
•  Conjunction (Con)
!

Examples
•  the, this
•  very, more
•  always, perhaps
•  will, can
•  and, or
!
EXERCISES

!

a. The glass suddenly broke.
Det / N / Adv / V!

b. A jogger ran towards the end of the lane.
Det / N / V / P / Det / N / P / Det / N!

c. The peaches never appear quite ripe.
Det / N / Qual / V / Deg / A!

d. Gillian will play the trumpet and the drums in the
orchestra.

!V / Det / N / Conj / Det / N / P / Det / N
N / Aux /

!
Phrases!
•  NP

: Noun Phrase
The car, a clever student
•  VP : Verb Phrase
study hard, play the guitar
•  PP : Prepositional Phrase
in the class, above the earth
•  AP : Adjective Phrase
very tall, quite certain!
The main structure rules!
1. S → NP (Aux) VP
2. NP → (Det) (AP) N (PP)
3. VP → V (NP) (PP) (Adv)
4. PP → P NP
5. AP → A (PP)!
Example

!

The bad man will eat the poor dog happily.!
Phrase Structure Rules & tree
diagrams
!

NP → (Det) N !
•  PP → P NP
• 

the boy in the yard
NP!

The boy (NP)!

Det!

N!

The!

boy!

Det!

N!

PP!
P!

NP!
Det!

The!

boy!

in!

N!

the!

yard!
15
!
Phrase Structure Rules

!

• 

VP → V (NP) (PP)!

• 

S → NP VP

took the money from the bank
VP!

took the money (VP)!

V!

NP!
Det!

took!

the!

V!
N!

NP!
Det!

PP!
N!

P!

money!

NP!
Det!

took!

the!

money!

from!

N!

the!

bank!
16
!
Example (1)

!

The old tree swayed in the wind

!

S!

NP!
Det!

Adj!

VP!
N!

V!

PP!
P!

NP!
Det!

The!

old!

tree!

swayed!

in!

N!

the!

wind!

17
!
Example (2)

!

The children put the toy in the box

!

S!

NP!
Det!

VP!
N!

V!

NP!
Det!

PP!
N!

P!

NP!
Det!

The!

children!

put!

the!

toy!

in!

N!

the!

box!

18
!
Example 3

!

19
!
Structural ambiguity!
How superficially similar sentences are different?
(multiple meanings)!
•  E.g. Annie whacked the man with an umbrella!
• 

!

• 

Same surface structure but different deep structure!
• 

The boy saw the man with a telescope!

!

• 

The question is: What is the scope of "with the
telescope"? Does it modify only "the man" or does it
modify "saw the man"?!
Structural Ambiguity (1)

The boy saw the man with the telescope

!

S!

NP!
Det!

VP!
N!

V!

NP!
Det!

PP!
N!

P!

NP!
Det!

The!

boy!

saw!

the!

man!

Meaning: Using the telescope, the boy saw the man!

with!

N!

the! telescope!

24
!
Structural Ambiguity (2)

The boy saw the man with the telescope

!

S!

NP!
Det!

VP!
N!

NP!

V!
Det!

N!

PP!
P!

NP!
Det!

The!

boy!

saw!

the!

man!

with!

Meaning: The boy saw the man. The man had a telescope.!

N!

the! telescope!
25
!
Complement Phrases

!

• 
• 

• 
• 
• 
• 

Cathy knew that Mary helped George!
That = complementizer (C) introducing
complement phrase (CP)!
The CP comes after the VP!
S NP VP!
VP V CP!
CP C S
28
!
Complement Phrases

!

29
!
Transformational Rules

!

!
Mary saw George recently !
!Recently Mary saw George !
•  Transformational rules= take a specific part and
attach it in another place!
•  You will help Cathy!
•  Will you help Cathy?
• 

30
!
Transformational Rules!
•  It is called "transformational-generative"

grammar because it attempts to do two things:
•  to provide the rules that can be used to

generate grammatical sentences
•  to show how basic sentences can be

transformed into either synonymous phrases
or more complex sentences.!
Deep Structure and Surface
Structure !
•  Deep structure is the abstract structure and can be

said to be the propositional core of the sentence.
•  According to Traugott (1980: 141), deep structure

shows the basic form of a sentence with all the
necessary information to derive a well-formed
sentence, and to give it a phonological
representation and a semantic interpretation. !
•  Surface structure is the actually produced

structure.

•  In Bussman's (1996: 465-466) words, it is the

directly observable actual form of sentences as
they are used in communication, and from the
perspective of transformational grammar, surface
structure is a relatively abstract sentence
structure resulting from the application of base
rules and transformational rules.!
•  The relationship between deep structure and

surface structure is that of transformation.
•  Since the relationship is usually a

complicated one, we can best use
transformational rules in the total process of
relating deep structure to surface structures.!
Transformational Rules!
Exercises

!

Rewrite the following sentences with Phrase Structure
Rules.  Hint: Locate your principal NP and VP before
beginning. !
!
!a)  Miriam swims. !
!b)  The dog is barking. !
!c)  Peter told the truth. !
!d)  The wicked witch spilled the potion. !
!e)  The runner with the best time won the prize. !
• 
Exercises

!

Draw a labeled tree diagram for the following English
phrases. (Hint: what part of speech is the leader for the
phrase?) !
!
!a.  ancient pyramids !
!
!b.  in the early evening !
!
!c.  Drove a car

• 
Exercises

!

• 

Draw phrase structure trees for the
following sentences:!
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

The puppy found the child!
The ice melted!
The hot sun melted the ice.!
The house on the hill collapsed in the wind.!
The boat sailed up the river.!
A girl laughed at the monkey.
Exercises

!

• 

Draw two phrase structure trees
representing the two meanings of the
sentence:
• 

The magician touched the child with the
wand.
Exercises
• 

!

In what way these sentences are
ambiguous?!
• 
• 
• 

• 

We met an English history teacher!
Flying planes can be dangerous!
The parents of the bride and groom were
waiting outside!
The students complained to everyone that
they couldn’t understand.
Morphosyntax !
• 

The morphology and syntax interface!
• 
• 
• 

A language has the syntax of its morphology
!
Syntax and morphology are intricately linked
!
Syntactic positions and functions are based
on the morphological peculiarities of units!

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Syntax course

  • 2. Definition ! •  Syntax is the study of the part of the human language that studies how sentences are structured. •  It deals with the process through which words are put into phrases, and how phrases in turn are combined to form larger units called sentences. •  Syntactic rules in a grammar account for the grammaticality of sentences, and the ordering of words and morphemes.
  • 3. Syntax ! •  Syntax involves our knowledge of structural ambiguity, •  our knowledge that sentences may be paraphrases of each other, and •  our knowledge of the grammatical function of each part of a sentence, that is, of the grammatical relations.
  • 4. Syntax ! •  It is also concerned with speakers' ability to produce and understand an infinite set of possible sentences. •  The sentence is regarded the highest-ranking unit of grammar, and therefore that the purpose of a grammatical description is to define, making use of whatever descriptive apparatus that may be necessary (rules, categories, etc).
  • 5. Sentence Structure ! •  One aspect of the syntactic structure of sentences is the division of a sentence into phrases, and those phrases into further phrases, and so forth. •  Another aspect of the syntactic structure of a sentence is "movement" relations that hold between one syntactic position in a sentence and another.
  • 6. Sentence Structure ! •  The syntactic literature dealing with the study of how sentences are structured throws us a hint that syntactic research should not only concern on how sentences are merged out of their parts, units, or constituents, but also on how constituents are moved according to certain rules.
  • 7. Constituents •  ! Constituents are structural units, which refer to any linguistic form, such as words or word groups. •  Although the term string is often used technically to refer to sequences of words, sentences are not merely strings of words in a permissible order and making sense. •  They are structured into successive components, consisting of single words or groups of words. •  These groups and single words are called constituents (i.e. structural units), and when they are considered as part of the successive unraveling of a sentence, they are known as its immediate constituents.
  • 8. Constituents ! •  When we consider sentence My friend came home late last night, we find out that it consists of seven word arranged in a particular order. •  In syntax, the seven words in this model sentence are its ultimate constituents. •  This sentence and in general any sentence of the language may be represented as a particular arrangement of the ultimate constituents, which are the minimal grammatical elements, of which the sentence is composed. •  Every sentence has therefore what we will refer to as a linear structure. The small units are known as its immediate constituents.
  • 9. Immediate Constituent Analysis ! •  Formal accounts of syntax are based on establishing the basic constituents, namely, categories, from which word strings are formed. •  Sentences are regarded as hierarchies of interlocking smaller units, or constituents. •  After a sentence is cut into its constituent elements, the two parts that are yielded are called immediate constituents. •  Then, we get the smallest grammatical unit obtained through the division, or segmentation, which is seen as the ultimate constituent.
  • 10. ! •  The segmentation of the sentence up into its immediate constituents by using binary cuttings until its ultimate constituents are obtained is an important approach to the realization of the nature of language, called Immediate Constituent Analysis (IC Analysis). •  The analysis can be carried out in ways of tree diagrams, bracketing or any other. For example: •  (1) Poor| John║ ran |out.
  • 12. construction ! •  A construction is a relationship between constituents. Constructions are divided into two types: endocentric constructions and exocentric constructions. •  Endocentric construction is one whose distribution is functionally equivalent to that of one or more of its constituents. •  Exocentric construction refers to a group of syntactically related words where none of the words is functionally equivalent to the group as a whole.
  • 13. •  If the total construction (head plus modification, or modification plus head) has the same distributional characteristics as the head constituent (head), it is usually called endocentric construction. For example: •  They left because they were tied.
  • 14. •  Within this construction, They left is the head and because they were tired is its modifier. •  Endocentric construction can further be divided into two types: subordination and coordination.
  • 15. •  Any construction that does not belong to the same form class as any one of its immediate constituents is an exocentric construction. •  There is no head in exocentric constructions, and it is not substitutable by any one of its constituents. •  No immediate constituent may function in a manner equivalent to the whole construction of which it is a part.
  • 16. Sentence Types ! •  Sentences in any language are constructed from a rather small set of basic structural patterns and through certain processes involving the expansion or transformation of these basic patterns.
  • 17.
  • 18. Syntactic Function ! •  The traditional approach to syntactic function: •  identifies constituents of the sentence, •  states the part of speech each word belongs to, •  describes the inflexion involved, and •  explains the relationship each word related to the others. •  According to its relation to other constituents, a constituent may serve certain syntactic function in a clause.
  • 19. Syntactic Function ! •  There are five functional categories of clause constituents: •  subject, verb, object, complement, adverbial. •  Object can be subdivided into direct object and indirect object. •  Complement can be subdivided into subject complement and object complement. •  Adverbial can be subdivided into subject-related adverbial and object-related adverbial.
  • 20. Tense and Aspect ! •  The category of tense has to do with time- relations and relates the time of the action, event or state of affairs referred to in the sentence to the time of utterance (the time of utterance being 'now'). •  Tense is therefore a deictic category, and is simultaneously a property of the sentence and the utterance.
  • 21. Tense and Aspect ! •  The term aspect was first used to refer to the distinction of 'perfective' and 'imperfective' in the inflexion of verbs in Russian and other Slavonic languages. •  English has two aspects: •  the 'perfect' (e.g. I have/had read the book. I will/would have read the book) and the 'imperfect' (e.g. I am/was reading the book, I will/would be reading the book). •  They combine freely with one another (e.g. I have/had been reading the book).
  • 22. Number and gender ! •  Number is a grammatical category for the analysis of such contrasts as singular and plural of certain word classes. In English, number is a feature of nouns and verbs. •  Gender demonstrates such contrasts as "masculine, feminine, and neuter", and "animate: inanimate", etc. for the analysis of certain word classes. •  In most languages, grammatical gender has little to do with the biological sex. •  For instance, in French, the moon, which has nothing to do with the biological sex, is grammatically feminine.
  • 23. Case ! •  The case category is often used in the analysis of word classes to identify the syntactic relationship between words in a sentence. •  It is a feature of the noun, largely functionally definable (nominative for mentioning the subject, vocative for exclaiming or calling, accusative for mentioning the object, genitive for ownership, dative for indicating benefit, ablative for direction or agency).
  • 24. Concord and Government ! •  The forms of words can be restricted by grammatical categories through concord or agreement and through government. •  A verb is to agree with the subject in person and number. •  In English this rule only affects the verb according the number of the subject. •  For example, •  The boy goes to school. •  The boys go to school.
  • 26. Syntactic Categories (1)! Lexical categories •  Noun (N) •  Verb (V) •  Adjective (A) •  Preposition (P) •  Adverb (Adv)! Examples •  moisture, policy •  melt, remain •  good, intelligent •  to, near •  slowly, now!
  • 27. Syntactic Categories (2) ! Non-lexical categories •  Determiner (Det) •  Degree word (Deg) •  Qualifier (Qual) •  Auxiliary (Aux) •  Conjunction (Con) ! Examples •  the, this •  very, more •  always, perhaps •  will, can •  and, or !
  • 28. EXERCISES ! a. The glass suddenly broke. Det / N / Adv / V! b. A jogger ran towards the end of the lane. Det / N / V / P / Det / N / P / Det / N! c. The peaches never appear quite ripe. Det / N / Qual / V / Deg / A! d. Gillian will play the trumpet and the drums in the orchestra. !V / Det / N / Conj / Det / N / P / Det / N N / Aux / !
  • 29. Phrases! •  NP : Noun Phrase The car, a clever student •  VP : Verb Phrase study hard, play the guitar •  PP : Prepositional Phrase in the class, above the earth •  AP : Adjective Phrase very tall, quite certain!
  • 30. The main structure rules! 1. S → NP (Aux) VP 2. NP → (Det) (AP) N (PP) 3. VP → V (NP) (PP) (Adv) 4. PP → P NP 5. AP → A (PP)!
  • 31. Example ! The bad man will eat the poor dog happily.!
  • 32. Phrase Structure Rules & tree diagrams ! NP → (Det) N ! •  PP → P NP •  the boy in the yard NP! The boy (NP)! Det! N! The! boy! Det! N! PP! P! NP! Det! The! boy! in! N! the! yard! 15 !
  • 33. Phrase Structure Rules ! •  VP → V (NP) (PP)! •  S → NP VP took the money from the bank VP! took the money (VP)! V! NP! Det! took! the! V! N! NP! Det! PP! N! P! money! NP! Det! took! the! money! from! N! the! bank! 16 !
  • 34. Example (1) ! The old tree swayed in the wind ! S! NP! Det! Adj! VP! N! V! PP! P! NP! Det! The! old! tree! swayed! in! N! the! wind! 17 !
  • 35. Example (2) ! The children put the toy in the box ! S! NP! Det! VP! N! V! NP! Det! PP! N! P! NP! Det! The! children! put! the! toy! in! N! the! box! 18 !
  • 37. Structural ambiguity! How superficially similar sentences are different? (multiple meanings)! •  E.g. Annie whacked the man with an umbrella! •  ! •  Same surface structure but different deep structure! •  The boy saw the man with a telescope! ! •  The question is: What is the scope of "with the telescope"? Does it modify only "the man" or does it modify "saw the man"?!
  • 38. Structural Ambiguity (1)
 The boy saw the man with the telescope ! S! NP! Det! VP! N! V! NP! Det! PP! N! P! NP! Det! The! boy! saw! the! man! Meaning: Using the telescope, the boy saw the man! with! N! the! telescope! 24 !
  • 39. Structural Ambiguity (2)
 The boy saw the man with the telescope ! S! NP! Det! VP! N! NP! V! Det! N! PP! P! NP! Det! The! boy! saw! the! man! with! Meaning: The boy saw the man. The man had a telescope.! N! the! telescope! 25 !
  • 40. Complement Phrases ! •  •  •  •  •  •  Cathy knew that Mary helped George! That = complementizer (C) introducing complement phrase (CP)! The CP comes after the VP! S NP VP! VP V CP! CP C S 28 !
  • 42. Transformational Rules ! ! Mary saw George recently ! !Recently Mary saw George ! •  Transformational rules= take a specific part and attach it in another place! •  You will help Cathy! •  Will you help Cathy? •  30 !
  • 43. Transformational Rules! •  It is called "transformational-generative" grammar because it attempts to do two things: •  to provide the rules that can be used to generate grammatical sentences •  to show how basic sentences can be transformed into either synonymous phrases or more complex sentences.!
  • 44. Deep Structure and Surface Structure ! •  Deep structure is the abstract structure and can be said to be the propositional core of the sentence. •  According to Traugott (1980: 141), deep structure shows the basic form of a sentence with all the necessary information to derive a well-formed sentence, and to give it a phonological representation and a semantic interpretation. !
  • 45. •  Surface structure is the actually produced structure. •  In Bussman's (1996: 465-466) words, it is the directly observable actual form of sentences as they are used in communication, and from the perspective of transformational grammar, surface structure is a relatively abstract sentence structure resulting from the application of base rules and transformational rules.!
  • 46. •  The relationship between deep structure and surface structure is that of transformation. •  Since the relationship is usually a complicated one, we can best use transformational rules in the total process of relating deep structure to surface structures.!
  • 48. Exercises ! Rewrite the following sentences with Phrase Structure Rules.  Hint: Locate your principal NP and VP before beginning. ! ! !a)  Miriam swims. ! !b)  The dog is barking. ! !c)  Peter told the truth. ! !d)  The wicked witch spilled the potion. ! !e)  The runner with the best time won the prize. ! • 
  • 49. Exercises ! Draw a labeled tree diagram for the following English phrases. (Hint: what part of speech is the leader for the phrase?) ! ! !a.  ancient pyramids ! ! !b.  in the early evening ! ! !c.  Drove a car • 
  • 50. Exercises ! •  Draw phrase structure trees for the following sentences:! •  •  •  •  •  •  The puppy found the child! The ice melted! The hot sun melted the ice.! The house on the hill collapsed in the wind.! The boat sailed up the river.! A girl laughed at the monkey.
  • 51. Exercises ! •  Draw two phrase structure trees representing the two meanings of the sentence: •  The magician touched the child with the wand.
  • 52. Exercises •  ! In what way these sentences are ambiguous?! •  •  •  •  We met an English history teacher! Flying planes can be dangerous! The parents of the bride and groom were waiting outside! The students complained to everyone that they couldn’t understand.
  • 53. Morphosyntax ! •  The morphology and syntax interface! •  •  •  A language has the syntax of its morphology ! Syntax and morphology are intricately linked ! Syntactic positions and functions are based on the morphological peculiarities of units!