The grammatical forms that can function as the subject. E.g. In English grammar, grammatical subjects are noun phrases,, prepositional phrases, verb phrases, and noun clauses. Nominalised sentence (Constituent) - That Edinburgh’s New Town is magnificent is undeniable - For you to run off with Mary would be madness.
Dummy no constituent. E.g. It is raining Nominalized sentence is extraposed.E.g. That Edinburgh’s New Town is magnificent is undeniable It is undeniable that Edinburgh’s New Town• Existential asserts the existence of somethingEg. There are glasses in the drinks cupboard.• Deictic point something Eg. There is the glass
DEICTIC VS EXISTENTIAL Deictic Existential • pronounced with non- • pronounced with reduced form.E.g. reduced form. Eg. there is /ðɛəriz/, there there is /ðəz/, there are /ðɛəra/. are /ðəra/. • There need not be a • There must be a subject subject • There can be • There can’t be questioned. questioned. • Definite NP • Indefinite NP
Distinguish underlying from surface level of description. Everyone believes that Charlie is handsome Everyone believes (Charlie is handsome) Everyone believes Charlie to be handsome
It is usually related to sentences involving an (agent) participant. Agent is the "doer" who or what that causes the action. E.g. William invaded England in 1066. G L England was invaded by William in 1066. G L
Agentive Subject performs the action Instrumental Subject used to carry out the action Dative Subject Goal Subject where the action is directed towards Source Subject where the action originated Locative Place Subject where the action occurs Patient Subject undergoes the action and changes its state Neutral Subject mindlessly performs the action
Characterized by textual considerations – this is what the sentence is about. Example;1. John (G,L,T) took the largest kitten2. The largest kitten (G,T) was taken by John (L)3. The largest kitten (T), we (G,L) gave away.
OBJECT In active declarative sentence with unmarked word order, four grammatical features characterize the object: 1. Directly follows the verb 2. Not in construction with a preposition 3. Can become the subject of the corresponding passive sentence 4. An obligatory constituent with transitive verbs
OBJECT OF RESULT also called an ‘effected’ or ‘factitive’ object: e.g. Maggie moves the table The workmen are cleaning the horse cages it can become the subject of a passive sentence, and there are no paraphrases involving preposition.
COGNATE OBJECTThe relevant NP in this object usually contains a noun morphologically derived from (and hence cognate with) the verb steme.g. Mother sewn a sewing. She draw a beautiful drawing. Lucky painted an awful painting.
OBJECT OF CONCERNThey are clearly neither affected (direct) nor effected (resultant) objects.e.g. Nunung is sipping his coffee Nindi is watching Troy
THERE IS A HIERARCHY OF ‘OBJECTHOOD’. THECONSIDERABLE EXAMPLE IS THE DIRECT OBJECT (DO).THE CHARACTERISTICS ARE: Has a particularly close tie to the main verb Is an obligatory sentence constituent Immediately follows the main verb Will not occur in a paraphrase involving a preposition Can be the subject of the corresponding passive sentence
LEARN THIS EXAMPLE :1a America supplied tanks to the Israelis1b America supplied the Israelis with tanks In 1a, tanks is a DO (direct object) while Israelis is an (OO) oblique object. On the other hand, in 1b, tanks is an OO while Israelis is a DO. Since those sentences are close in meaning –both of them describe events of supplying tanks- we can see them as containing the same roles (agent, patient, neutral). They differs only to which role is chosen as direct object and so that presented as more central, because more closely related to the verb.
NOTE THAT THEY CANNOT OCCUR WITH APREPOSITION IN THIS POSITION, INSTEAD OFTHEY COULD BECOME THE SUBJECT OF THECORRESPONDING PASSIVE:2a *America supplied with tanks to the Israelis2b *America supplied to the Israelis with tanks2c Tanks were supplied to the Israelis by America2d The Israelis were supplied with tanks by America
FURTHERMORE, CHECK THIS SENTENCE:2e *America supplied with tanksBut when the PP is omissible:2f America supplied tanks2g America supplied the IsraelisThe NP in the PP is an OO because the NP in the PP might, as it were, have become the object, had the other NP not done so. The OO is omissible, as we have observed, and cannot generally become the subject of a passive sentence:2h *The Israeli were supplied tanks to by America
THE EFFECT OF BECOMING AN OBJECT ISIMPORTANT. THE SYNTACTIC EFFECT HAS BEENDISCUSSED; BUT THERE IS ALSO A SEMANTICEFFECT, WHICH VARIES FROM CASES LIKE NUMBER2.
INDIRECT OBJECT (IO) Exist when a verb is followed by two NPs, neither of which is associated with a preposition. See this sentence: 3. Yucha gives Nindy (IO) a candy (DO) May occur as an OO (Oblique Object), and can usually be omitted without affecting the grammaticality of the sentence, whereas the DO cannot be omitted [see the example on page 326- 328]
PASSIVE FORMATION CASES ON DO AND IO4a Nunung lent that map (DO) to Yuni (OO)4b That map was given to Yuni by NunungWhile:4c Nunung lent Yuni (IO) that map (DO)4d Yuni was lent that map by NunungBut not always:5a Nindy asked Yucha a help5b ?Yucha was asked a help by NindyAnd:6a Sister played me Dakon6b *I was played Dakon by sister
The NP that immediately follow the verb hasa privileged status, both syntactically andsemantically. When only one NP is availablefor this role (that is, in two-placepropositions) there would seem to be ahierarchy of ‘objecthood’. When two NPsare available for the role in three-placepropositions, the situation is more complex.
COMPLEMENTThese sentences below are Attributive complement because they describe the class membership of the subject noun, or ascribe an attribute to it: 7a Cinderella was pretty 7b Cinderella was a princessThose can also be called ‘subject complement’ cause it relate back to the subject noun. Then, in 7b the noun ‘a princess’ is a ‘nominal complement’. Those complements are ‘state complements’ since they are found in stative sentences and describe states.
Those sentences below are ‘result complements’:8a the mangoes are turning yellow8b Yucha became a bachelor of english departmentThe complement cannot become the subject of a passive sentence.
The identify complement can be shown in: 9a Nunung is the man with a bunch of dollar in his wallet.The NP is always a definite NP. That sentence can be reversed: 9b The man with a bunch of dollar in his wallet is Nunung.Study this: 9c Nunung is (to be identified as) the man with a bunch of dollar in his wallet.
The locative complement can be shown in: 10 Yuni is in her study roomLocative complement is usually a prepositional phrase. Sometimes it use a place adverb. Corresponding on that, we can also recognize a ‘directional complement’ in sentences like: 11 Nindy hid under the table 12 Yucha walked across the hospitalDirectional complements only occur in nonstate sentences
The italicized constituents in the sentences in 12 are also often called complements: 12a Nunung comes back home safe 12b Yuni talked the issue honest 12c Nindy always buys her spinach fresh 12d Yucha coloured her book green12 a and 12 b are intensive to the subject, then others to the object. In some cases, they can be subtituted by adverbs. We can also make paraphrase constructions like:12 e Nindy always buys her spinach in fresh condition12 f Yuni was honest when she talked the issue, etc.
ADJUNCTS Adjuncts are usually adverbials, whether they are adverb phrases, PP, adverbs, or subordinate clauses of time, place, manner, and so on, that distributionally function like adverbials. Adjuncts are clearly a rather ‘mixed bag’, in that syntactically there are numerous subclasses which have different and overlapping distribution, and they fill a variety of semantic roles.
1.Introduction2.Predicates, Arguments, and Lexical Entries3.Theta-Roles and Lexical Entries4.Grammatical Relations
Introduction How are grammatical functions mapped onto morphological representations? a. Introduce the notions of thematic roles, grammatical relations and the theory of case assignment b. Explore the morphological effects of syntactic rules that change the canonical pairing of thematic roles with grammatical function c. Discussion further afield through an investigation of the phenomenon of incorporation whereby the syntax requires the inclusion of one word within another
2. Predicates, Arguments, and Lexical Entries Predicates is any word (or sequence of words) which (in a given single sense) can function as the predicator of a sentence (Hurfold James R dan Bredan Heasley: 1983) while those which attribute to them properties, processes, actions, relations or states are called predicates. Arguments is referring expressions of predicates e.g : the gold watch lost >> lost is predicate, the gold watch is argument my father sneezed >> sneezed is predicate, my father is argument
3.Theta-Roles and Lexical Entries Language use syntax and inflectional morphology to encode some of the semantics relations which obtain in sentence between a predicate and its arguments. We will use the term theta-roles (0-rules) for these semantic relations. (they are also called (abstract) case relations or thematic relations in the literature.) Recognition of 0-rules is essentially based on the intuition which is widely shared among linguists that there is a relatively small number of syntactically relevant semantic properties that play a role in the transitivity systems of language.
Gruber (1965,1976) and Fillmore (1968) define of Theta-roles: Agent Instrumental Patient Benefactive Theme Locative
Agent :Agent is the case of the individual (usually animate) that instigates the action identified by the verb. e.g., Mamat killed the chicken Instrumental is the case of the inanimate instrument used to bring about the state of affairs described by the verb. e.g., mother washed with a brush
Patientis the case of the entity or individual that undergoes the process or action described by the verb. e.g. Toni punched the board Benefactive is the case of the individual who gains from the action or process described by the verb.e.g. Andi gave his girlfriend a letter.
GF changing rules tend to have significant morphological repercussions which typically affect verbs more than other word-classes. Some common GF changing rules1. Passive2. Antipassive3. Applicative4. Causative
PASSIVE Often sentences expressing the same propositions can be realised in a variety of ways, depending on how grammatical relations are encoded using the syntax and morphology.Example: Active voice Agent/ subject Patient/ object Nominative accusative The Vet examined Esmeralda She examined Her Passive voice Patient/ subject Nominative Esmeralda was examined by the Vet She was examined by her
ANTIPASSIVE The antipassive is the process used in ergative languages to turn a transitive verb into an intransitive verb. example: a. the man cut the tree with an axe antipassive b. The man was cutting the treewith an axe
APPLICATIVE Benefactive/ dative shift/ indirect object a NP in the benefactive case that has the GF of second object can be realised as a direct object when the applicative rules applies Locative in many languages the aplicative can be used with a locative meaning whic his expressed in English using prepositions like: in, on, at, etc Prossessor raising when prossessor raising take place, an NP which function as the ‘prossessor’ modifying the head of possessive noun phrase is turned into object of the verb. The original object is shunted into a new slot and becomes the second object.
CAUSATIVE Causative increases the valency of a verb, allowing it to take a fresh NP with a new ѳ role as it argumentExample:a. The boys will cook potatoesb. Kapere will make the boys cook potatoes Luganda language The causative introduces a new agentive NP as subject. The original subject becomes the object and the original object become second object.
THE MIRROR PRINCIPLE (MP, BAKER, 1985) The order of affixes reflects the order in which the associated syntactic ‘operations’ apply. There is a close parallelism between morphology and syntax Syntax operates on both words and morphemes, and a complex word can be formed by syntactic rules, and more specifically head movement, through incorporation of a lexical root to a morpheme Morphological derivations must directly reflect syntactic derivation (and vice versa) The order of morphemes in a complex word reflects the natural syntactic embedding of the heads that correspond to those morphemes”
If causative creates a transitive verb from an intransitive verb and only transitive verbs can passivise, causative must apply before passive.The morphological consequences: the causative suffix is attached first, and is closer to the verb root than the passive suffix. The syntactic derivation is isomorphic with the morphological derivation. Mirror principle
COUNTER ARGUMENTS ON MIRROR PRINCIPLEMirror principle work well where affixation is cyclic such that each syntactic process trigger a round of affixation starting near the root and going outwardMirror principle doesn’t work if the language have non- cyclic affixationThe use of mirror principle is the default case, applies if neither morphological positioning nor phonological factors dictate a particular order of morphemesMirror Principle is nothing but a consequence of the fact that Agree relations are subject to Relativized Minimality conditions.
RECIPROCALITATION :DERIVES AN INTRANSITIVE VERB FROM AN UNDERLYING TRANSITIVE VERBSBefore Reciprocalitation:two sentences with transitive verbs that have subjects andobjects in agent and patient role who do something to eachother: Bill punched Paul – Paul punched BillAfter Reciprocalitation:The two sentences are conflated and the subject of theverb refer to two or more participants and the objectfunction is eliminated, rendering the derived verbintransitive. Bill and Paul punched each other
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