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Syntactic Analysis


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Syntactic Analysis

  1. 1. A Course to survive Marina`s Classes. Basic Syntax
  2. 2. <ul><li>Grammar is the study of the rules governing the use of a given natural language, and, as such, is a field of linguistics. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, grammar included </li></ul><ul><li>morphology and syntax. </li></ul><ul><li>In modern linguistics these </li></ul><ul><li>subfields are complemented </li></ul><ul><li>by phonetics, phonology, semantics, </li></ul><ul><li>and pragmatics. </li></ul>Grammar
  3. 3. <ul><li>In Linguistics Syntax are the rules of a language that show how the words of that language are to be arranged to make a sentence of that language. </li></ul><ul><li>So… </li></ul><ul><li>It is the study of how words are combined together to form sentences. </li></ul>What is Syntax ?
  4. 4. <ul><li>The five grammatical units: </li></ul><ul><li>The Sentence: Composed by one 0r more Clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>The Clause: Composed by one 0r more Phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>The Phrase: Composed by one 0r more words. </li></ul><ul><li>The word: Composed by one 0r more morphemes. </li></ul><ul><li>The Morpheme: The smallest unit in form and meaning. </li></ul>Halliday’s Hierarchy
  5. 5. <ul><li>Classification by structure : </li></ul><ul><li>A Simple Sentence </li></ul><ul><li>consists of a single independent Clause with no dependent Clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>A Compound sentence </li></ul><ul><li>consists of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clauses. These clauses are joined together using Conjunctions, punctuation, or both. (and, but, so, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>A Complex Sentence </li></ul><ul><li>consists of one or more independent clauses with at least one dependent clause (That, if, whether, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>A compound-complex sentence </li></ul><ul><li>consists of multiple independent clauses, at least one of which has at least one dependent clause. (Coord and subordinators) </li></ul>Classification of Sentences
  6. 6. Are you ready for a little quiz?
  7. 7. What type of sentence are these? The Inspector abandoned the investigation. Simple sentence!!! Fantastic!
  8. 8. What type of sentence are these? The Inspector abandoned the investigation but I didn’t. Compound Sentence!! Fantastic!
  9. 9. What type of sentence are these? He said that the man was dead. Complex Sentence!! Fantastic!
  10. 10. What type of sentence are these? He said that the man was dead and he abandoned the investigation. Compound-Complex Sentence!! Fantastic!
  11. 11. <ul><li>According to Syntax the component parts of a sentence are called CONSTITUENTS Which are the natural groupings of a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of them has: </li></ul><ul><li>a Grammatical Category (Whether it is a noun phrase, a verb phrase, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>and … </li></ul><ul><li>a Grammatical Function (whether it is the subject, or object, or predicate, etc) </li></ul>Constituents
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>A constituent is formed if… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Constituents can stand alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. “What did you find?” “A puppy” (not “found a”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Constituents can be replaced by one word. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. “Where did you find a puppy ?” “I found HIM in the park.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Constituents move together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. It was [a puppy] that the child found. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[A puppy] was found by the child. </li></ul></ul></ul>Constituency test
  13. 13. Subject Predicate Verb – Auxiliary Verb Direct Object Indirect Object Subjective Complement Objective Complement Quasi-predicative Adverbial Adjunct Real Subject in Extra Position Anticipatory Subject Anticipatory Object Predicator Complement Prepositional Complement Adjectival Complement Noun Phrase Verb Phrase Adjectival Phrase Adverbial Phrase Prepositional Phrase Gerundial Phrase Infinitival Phrase Participial Phrase Noun Clause That Noun Clause If/Whether or not Clause Wh- interrogative Clause Nominal Noun Clauses Defining Relative Clause Non-Defining Relative Clause Functions Categories CONSTITUENTS
  14. 14. <ul><li>Categories Functioning as Subject: </li></ul><ul><li>A Noun Phrase  The Car is White. </li></ul><ul><li>A Pronoun  He is Tall. </li></ul><ul><li>A Gerund  Smoking is bad . </li></ul><ul><li>An Infinitive  To study Grammar is Fun. </li></ul><ul><li>A Noun Clause  What he said is right. </li></ul>The Subject
  15. 15. <ul><li>Verbs can be either Transitive or Intransitive ; and their predication can be either Complete or Incomplete . </li></ul><ul><li>I.V.C.P = S + [ V + (A.A) ] </li></ul><ul><li>T.V.C.P = S + [ V + D.O + (A.A) ] </li></ul><ul><li>BI T.V.C.P = S+ [ V+ D.O . + I.O + (A.A) ] </li></ul><ul><li>T.V.I.P = S + [ V + D.O. + O.C + (A.A)] </li></ul><ul><li>I.V.I.P = [V + S.C + (A.A) ] </li></ul>The Predicate – The Verb
  16. 16. <ul><li>Categories that function as S.C : </li></ul><ul><li>An adjective: It was Dark </li></ul><ul><li>A participle: That is interesting </li></ul><ul><li>A prepositional Phrase: It is near London. </li></ul><ul><li>A noun Phrase: This is a book </li></ul><ul><li>A gerundial Phrase: That is cheating! </li></ul><ul><li>A noun Clause: That is what I want </li></ul><ul><li>An Adverbial Phrase: He is out. </li></ul><ul><li>An Infinitival Phrase: To see him is to love him. </li></ul><ul><li>Look,sound, taste, smell, feel </li></ul><ul><li>Appear, Seem </li></ul><ul><li>Lie, Stand, rest, remain, keep </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Verbs or Inchoative Verbs: </li></ul><ul><li>To become, to come, to get, to go, to grow, to fall, to run, to turn. </li></ul>Subjective Complement
  17. 17. <ul><li>Has the following characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>It may become the subject of the passive. </li></ul><ul><li>It answers the question “What”. </li></ul><ul><li>Categories Functioning as D.O: </li></ul><ul><li>A Noun Phrase  He has lit a cigarret . </li></ul><ul><li>A Pronoun  Don’t hit me . </li></ul><ul><li>A Gerund  He loves reading . </li></ul><ul><li>An Infinitive  I want to go away . </li></ul><ul><li>A Noun Clause  Describe what you saw </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Categories Functioning as I.O : </li></ul><ul><li>A Noun Phrase  I gave the beggar a coin </li></ul><ul><li>A Pronoun  Give me that. </li></ul><ul><li>A Gerund  Give studing a bit of chance. </li></ul><ul><li>A Prepositional Phrase  He gave it to me </li></ul><ul><li>A Noun Clause  Give whoever comes this box. </li></ul>Indirect Object The person who receives something (D.O) For + NP= Intended I.O  I bought a Sweater for John .
  19. 19. <ul><li>Categories Functioning as O.C : </li></ul><ul><li>A Noun Phrase  We appointed Newton President. </li></ul><ul><li>A Noun Clause  We made him what he is. </li></ul><ul><li>A Gerund  I call that Cheating . </li></ul><ul><li>An Infinitival Phrase  I don`t want anyone to know </li></ul><ul><li>A Prepositional Phrase  We left her in tears </li></ul><ul><li>An Adjectival Phrase  I found the box empty. </li></ul><ul><li>A Participial Phrase  I heard my name called </li></ul>Objective Complement The relation between D.O and the O.C is that of S –P An easy test for O.C  I thought her beautiful  She (her) is beautiful
  20. 20. Sentence Advervials
  21. 21. The Predicator Complement
  22. 22. Adjectival Complement
  23. 23. The Agentive Complement
  24. 24. The Quasi Predicative
  25. 25. Semantic analisis
  26. 26. Verbs
  27. 27. Nouns
  28. 28. Adjectives
  29. 29. Adverbs
  30. 30. Articles
  31. 31. Conjunctions