Unit 15 functions of sentences

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Unit 15 functions of sentences

  1. 1. Functions of Sentences There are four sentence functions : Declarative Interrogative Imperative Exclamation
  2. 2. Declaratives <ul><li>1. John ate an apple . </li></ul><ul><li>2. He thinks it might be raining . </li></ul><ul><li>3. We believe in miracles . </li></ul><ul><li>4. Sam bought us lunch . </li></ul><ul><li> Declarative sentences (also called “ indicatives ”) are sentences that make a statement . </li></ul><ul><li>Declarative sentences must have (at least) a subject and a predicate . </li></ul><ul><li>Declarative sentences are either True or False . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Interrogatives <ul><li>1. Did John eat an apple ? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Does he thinks it might be raining ? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Why do we believe in miracles ? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Who bought you lunch ? </li></ul><ul><li> Interrogative sentences are sentences that ask a question . </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogatives also have (at least) a subject and a predicate . </li></ul><ul><li>Note that the subject might be the question word itself, as in example (4). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Interrogatives <ul><li>There are three kinds of Interrogatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Yes/No Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Wh- Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Tag Questions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Yes/No Questions <ul><li>1. Will it snow this year? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Is she coming to the party? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Have you been here before? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Did John eat an apple? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Are you at school now? </li></ul><ul><li> Yes/No questions are formed by Subj .- Aux . Inver. </li></ul><ul><li> Yes/No questions can start with any auxiliary (examples 1-4) OR with the verb “ be ” (example 5). </li></ul><ul><li>The answer to a yes/no question is either “yes” or “no”. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Wh- Questions <ul><li>1. Who ate the apple? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What movie did you see? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Why aren’t you coming to the party? </li></ul><ul><li>4. When have you been here before? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Where are you now? </li></ul><ul><li> Wh-questions may start with any interrogative pronoun . </li></ul><ul><li>The answer to a wh- question is never “yes” or “no”. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Tag Questions <ul><li>1. You went to school today, didn’t you? </li></ul><ul><li>2. It was snowing today, wasn’t it? </li></ul><ul><li>3. You wouldn’t eat that, would you? </li></ul><ul><li>4. She hasn’t been here before, has she? </li></ul><ul><li>Tag questions are made up of a declarative sentence , followed by a yes/no question . </li></ul><ul><li>If the verb in the declarative sentence is positive , the tag question is negative . </li></ul><ul><li>If the verb in the declarative sentence is negative , the tag question is positive . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Imperatives <ul><li>1. Eat your vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Go to school! </li></ul><ul><li>3. Be happy. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Think about it. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Have fun! </li></ul><ul><li> Imperatives are sentences that give a command . </li></ul><ul><li>The first word of an imperative sentence is always a verb (unless it’s a word like “please”). </li></ul><ul><li>Imperatives have an implied subject , which is always the 2 nd person pronoun: “ you ”. </li></ul>
  9. 9. How can we prove that the subject of imperatives is “you”? <ul><li>Recall that reflexive pronouns require an antecedent within their clause : </li></ul><ul><li>John is proud of himself. </li></ul><ul><li>*John is proud of herself. </li></ul><ul><li>Now observe the following sentences : </li></ul><ul><li>3. Think for yourself ! </li></ul><ul><li>4. Do it yourselves ! </li></ul><ul><li>These reflexives must have an antecedent, which can only be the second person pronoun “ you ” – </li></ul><ul><li>5. *Think for himself ! 6. *Do it themselves ! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Exclamations <ul><li>1. That’s great! </li></ul><ul><li>2. Wow, it sounds amazing! </li></ul><ul><li>3. Boy, this is hard! </li></ul><ul><li>4. Man, I can’t believe it! </li></ul><ul><li> Exclamations are sentences that express strong emotion . </li></ul><ul><li>In writing, exclamations end with an “ ! ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Exclamations often start with an Interjection – These are words like “ wow! ”, “ boy! ”, “ (oh my) god! ”, “ouch! ”, etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Identify the function of the sentence <ul><li>1. What do you think? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Did Charles regret his actions? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Who was Mrs. Wallis’s employer? </li></ul><ul><li>4. You’ll do everything you can to help, won’t you? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Grand Central Station was recently renovated. </li></ul><ul><li>6. We are very enthusiastic about this! </li></ul><ul><li>7. Buy me a newspaper on your way home, please. </li></ul><ul><li>8. The woman in that painting looks charming, doesn’t she? </li></ul><ul><li>9. Read your book! </li></ul><ul><li>10. Are they interested in that device? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Homework <ul><li>Read and do all the exercises in lessons 42 and 45 </li></ul>

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