Types of clauses


Published on

information from websites and from books .

Published in: Education, Technology
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Types of clauses

  1. 1. TYPES OF CLAUSES By:Aveen College of Art English department
  3. 3. WHAT IS A CLAUSE?? A clause  is a group of related words which has a subject and verb.  A clause can function as a sentence by itself or as part of a sentence.
  4. 4. Types MAIN CLAUSES Every sentence must have a main clause A main clause has a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought It is the only type of clause that can stand alone as a sentence.  A main clause can be also called an independent clause Conjunctions cannot be included in your clauses. Osasuna defeated Barcelona last night . ( independent , main )
  5. 5.  .Independent Marker Word An independent marker word is a connecting word used at the beginning of an independent clause. These words can always begin a sentence that can stand alone. When the second independent clause in a sentence has an independent marker word, a semicolon is needed before the independent marker word. Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz; however, it was hard to concentrate because of the noise. Some common independent markers are: also, consequently, furthermore, however,m oreover, nevertheless, and therefor
  6. 6. A DEPENDENT CLAUSE A dependent clause or a subordinate is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word When  Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz . . . (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)!!!
  7. 7.  Dependent Marker Word A dependent marker word is a word added to the beginning of an independent clause that makes it into a dependent clause. When  Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, it was very noisy. Some common dependent markers are: after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever,  , whenever,whether, and while.
  8. 8. Types of (dependent )subordinate clauses (adjective clause) Restrictive Clauses: an adjective clause that are necessary to make the meaning of a sentence clearer (it is essential)  It must not be set off by commas  Magazines that have no substance bore me .  Note ! We do not use commas. 
  9. 9. Subordinate clauses (adjective clause)Nonrestrictive clauses Adjective clauses that are not necessary make the meaning clear ,we call them (non –essential) Always use commas to set off this clause James Bernard ,who was a standup comedian, wrote for the New York magazine.
  10. 10.  Adverb Clause: a subordinate clause that modifies (describes) a verb, an adjective or an adverb .It tells when, where ,how, why, to what extent, or under what condition the action has happened .While walking, she listens to the radioI was happy because I passed the test.
  11. 11. Noun clauses Noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun within the main clause of a sentence  You can use a noun clause as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object or an object of a preposition Whoever wins the election , will speak
  12. 12.  The reporter will do whatever is required to get an interview . The senator will give whoever asks an interview A news story should begin with whatever gets the reader’s attention.
  13. 13. Relative clauses modify nouns and sometime pronouns Relative clauses occur with the relative pronouns "that, who, which, whom, whose" Relative clauses may also begin with the following relative adverbs "when, where, why".  Examples:  I saw the player [who hit you].  I saw the player [that hit you].  I like the park [I jog where].  I would like to know the reason [why you didnt eat the vegtables].
  14. 14. THE END
  15. 15. Clauses vs Phrases Both clauses and phrases are clusters of words. Clauses  contain a subject and verb. If they form complete thoughts, we call them independent clauses. If they form incomplete thoughts, we call them dependent or subordinate clauses. example: While we collected the data dependent clause, the temperature gradually increased independent clause. The subject and verb combinations are we collected in the dependent clause and temperature increased in the independent clause.  Phrases  are word clusters lacking subject and verb combinations. example: While collecting data phrase, we noted an increase in temperature. 
  16. 16. THEEND