LANE 334 -EA: Syntax                                                     2011 – Term 2  Syntax & Syntactic Analysis       ...
1.1 • In linguistics, syntax is the rules of a language that   show how the words of that language are to be   arranged to...
Syntactic analysis may be defined as:1- determining the relevant componentsof a sentence2- describing these parts grammati...
‘SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS’ involves two relatedtasks:(a) breaking down the sentence into itsconstituents(b) labeling each consti...
•Every sentence can be analyzed at five distinct levels:                                       sentence−1. the sentence− l...
1.2                         Representing Sentence StructureWe can represent the categorical constituent structure of the s...
II. Labeled Bracketing(1a)[ s1The snake killed the rat and swallowed it ](1b)[ s1 [s2 The snake killed the rat ] and [ s3 ...
III. Tree Diagram•A Tree Diagram provides a visual presentation of thecategorical constituent structure of the sentence.•I...
The tree consists of :•a root S (at the TOP of the tree)•nodes indicating categories ( NP, VP, Det, N, V)•and terminal nod...
Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar   10
In the above diagram:•the node S1 ( the whole sentence)•S1 has three branches,• It expanded as two nodes labeled S2 and S3...
Trees and Phrase Structure RulesWhat trees are really doing is representing the phrase structurerules that make up an impo...
The arrows mean : ‘expand’ orPS rules:                  ‘rewrite’ X as Y ( where X represents                           an...
Representing Constituency in Phrase-markers              (Tree Diagrams)  Mother, sister, daughter:                       ...
The most general example of the MOTHER-DAUGHTER-SISTERconfiguration: Sentence, subject, predicate:                        ...
A CONCRETE IMAGE OF HOW SENTENCES WORK Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar            16
FORM (category).S (for Sentence), NP (Noun Phrase), and VP (Verb Phrase)are formal labels. They refer to the syntactic cat...
Some examples of the relation between Subject and Predicatein sentence structure:                         S               ...
Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar   19
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Syntax & syntactic analysis,lec.1, dr. shadia.ppt [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. LANE 334 -EA: Syntax 2011 – Term 2 Syntax & Syntactic Analysis 1 By: http://SBANJAR.kau.edu.sa/Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.comDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1
  2. 2. 1.1 • In linguistics, syntax is the rules of a language that show how the words of that language are to be arranged to make a sentence of that language. So… So • It is the study of how words are combined together to form sentences. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2
  3. 3. Syntactic analysis may be defined as:1- determining the relevant componentsof a sentence2- describing these parts grammatically.•The component parts of a sentence arecalled constituents.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3
  4. 4. ‘SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS’ involves two relatedtasks:(a) breaking down the sentence into itsconstituents(b) labeling each constituent, stating what type(form)of constituent it is, and whatgrammatical function it has.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4
  5. 5. •Every sentence can be analyzed at five distinct levels: sentence−1. the sentence− level, level2. the clause−level, clause−level3. the phrase−level,4. the word−level, and phrase−level5. The morpheme −level. word−level morpheme −level TOP TO BOTTOM ANALYSIS• This is called the rank scale.• SENTENCE ↔ CLAUSE ↔ PHRASE ↔ WORD ↔ MORPHEME Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5
  6. 6. 1.2 Representing Sentence StructureWe can represent the categorical constituent structure of the sentence in terms of brackets/ labeled brackets / tree diagram.• Analyzing the following sentence:“The snake killed the rat and swallowed it”(1a) First level: Sentence level[ The snake killed the rat and swallowed it](1b) Second level: Clause level[ [The snake killed the rat] and [swallowed it]](1c) Third level: Phrase level[ [[The snake] [killed [the rat ]]] and [[swallowed [it]]]](1d)Forth level: Word level[[[[ The] [snake]] [[killed ] [[the][ rat ]]]] [and] [[[swallowed ] [[it]]]]] Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6
  7. 7. II. Labeled Bracketing(1a)[ s1The snake killed the rat and swallowed it ](1b)[ s1 [s2 The snake killed the rat ] and [ s3 (it )swallowed it ]](1c)[s1 [s2 [ NP The snake ] [ VP killed [ NP the rat ]]] and [[s3 [NP(it )] [VP swallowed [NP it ]]]](1d)[s1 [s2 [ NP[ Det The] [ N snake]] [VP[ V killed ] [ NP[ Det the][N rat ]]]] [ coord and] [s [NP [Det (it )] [VP [V 3 swallowed ] [NP [Det it]]]]] Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7
  8. 8. III. Tree Diagram•A Tree Diagram provides a visual presentation of thecategorical constituent structure of the sentence.•It shows us how a sentence is structured out of itsconstituent phrases, and how each of the phrases isstructured out of its component words, and also itprovides a visual presentation of the phrase structureof the sentence.•it marks the hierarchical grouping of words intophrases, and phrases into sentences.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8
  9. 9. The tree consists of :•a root S (at the TOP of the tree)•nodes indicating categories ( NP, VP, Det, N, V)•and terminal nodes or leaves (the words at thebottom)Trees thus tell us two things:•The linear order of the words in a sentence;•The hierarchical or constituent structure of asentence . Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9
  10. 10. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10
  11. 11. In the above diagram:•the node S1 ( the whole sentence)•S1 has three branches,• It expanded as two nodes labeled S2 and S3coordinated by and. S2 is expanded in two branchesas NP - VP.•S3 is expanded as NP – VP.• VP is expanded in two branches as V- NP.•NP is expanded in two branches as Det- N.•Det, N, and V are terminal nodes attached to words(i.e. lexical items)•Whereas NP, VP, S are non-terminal nodes. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11
  12. 12. Trees and Phrase Structure RulesWhat trees are really doing is representing the phrase structurerules that make up an important part of syntax. On the top of thetree there is an S (for sentence node that dominates two sisternodes, an NP and a VP). This is just the way of drawing a basicphrase structure rule that says that a sentence consists of a NounPhrase followed by a Verb Phrase, a rule which can be drawn as atree or equally written this way:•S NP VP (read this as S consists of NP followed by VP)•Two more rules are needed to finish characterizing the tree:•NP Det N•VP V NPWith these three rules weve characterized this tree of thementioned example. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12
  13. 13. The arrows mean : ‘expand’ orPS rules: ‘rewrite’ X as Y ( where X represents any element on the left of the arrow,S S- coord-S and Y any element on the on the right). The curly brackets indicateS NP-VP that NP may be expanded or rewritten as either Det-N or N.NP Det-N NVP V-NPDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13
  14. 14. Representing Constituency in Phrase-markers (Tree Diagrams) Mother, sister, daughter: A ("mother" of B and C) B C ("daughter" of A and "sister" of B)("daughter" of A and "sister" of C) Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14
  15. 15. The most general example of the MOTHER-DAUGHTER-SISTERconfiguration: Sentence, subject, predicate: S NP VP (Subject) (Predicate) •The subject tells us who or what. •The predicate tells us what about it. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15
  16. 16. A CONCRETE IMAGE OF HOW SENTENCES WORK Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16
  17. 17. FORM (category).S (for Sentence), NP (Noun Phrase), and VP (Verb Phrase)are formal labels. They refer to the syntactic category of theconstituents of the sentence.FUNCTION.Subject and predicate are functional labels. In the abovediagram they tell us how the NP and the VP are functioning inthe structure of the sentence. Not all Noun Phrases functionas subjects. Noun Phrases (NPs) have several differentfunctions.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17
  18. 18. Some examples of the relation between Subject and Predicatein sentence structure: S NP VP They disappeared. This steak is too raw for me. His ideas on testing were beginning to disturb her.The books I bought the other day have been eaten by the dog. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18
  19. 19. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 19

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