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First aid

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prepared by: Farihah@psa

prepared by: Farihah@psa

Published in: Education, Business

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  • 1. CHAPTER 5–FIRST AIDS
  • 2. DEFINITIONFirst Aid is the first assistance or treatment given for a sick or injured person (called casualty) before the arrival of an ambulance or qualified expert.
  • 3. PURPOSE OF FIRST AID
  • 4. 1. TO SAVE LIFEHelp to stop bleedingTreat injuries in right orderMaintain airway in correct positionPerform CPR (when needed- no breathing or pulse)
  • 5. 2. PREVENT FUTHER INJURY Dress wound to prevent infection Provide comfort to casualty Place casualty in the comfortable condition.
  • 6. 3. PROMOTE RECOVERYRelieve casualty from anxietyAttempt to relief pain and discomfortHandle casualty gentlyProtect casualty from cold and wetEncourage confident and trust
  • 7. PRINCIPLES OF FIRST AID
  • 8. 1. IDENTIFICATIONa. Brief examination of casualty - to perform check before concluding by observe sign and symptomb. Signs: Details of a casualty’s condition you may assess using your senses. Look, listen, smell, feelc. Symptoms: A sensation that the casualty experiences E.G is there pain? What type of pain? Nausea dizziness, coldness
  • 9. 2. ASSESSMENT Ask details of the injury or illness, any care that may have already been given, and pre-existing conditions such as diabetes or heart trouble. One method for evaluating a victim’s condition is known by the acronym ABC
  • 10. ABCA = Airway - Ensure airway to lungs is openB = Breathing – check of sign of breathing.How? – Look, listen and feel for breathingC = Circulation – is there any pulse/ Is theperson bleeding externally?How? Check skin color and temperature foradditional indications of circulation problems.
  • 11. 3. CONTROLSteps to control or prevent : How to Stop Bleeding Control of bleeding is one of the most important things you can do to save a trauma victim. Use direct pressure on a wound before trying any other method of managing bleeding.
  • 12. 3. CONTROLHow to Treat ShockShock, a loss of blood flow to the body,frequently follows physical and occasionallypsychological trauma.A person - in shock will frequently have cool,clammy skin, be agitated or have an alteredmental status, and have pale color to the skinaround the face and lips.Untreated, shock can be fatal. Anyone who hassuffered a severe injury or life-threateningsituation is at risk for shock.
  • 13. 3. CONTROLHow to Treats Burns Treat first and second degree burns by immersing or fleshing with cool water (no ice). Don’t use creams, butter or other ointments, and do not pop blisters. Third degree burns should be covered with a damp cloth. Remove clothing and jewelry from the burn, but do not try to remove charred clothing that is stuck to burns.
  • 14. 3. CONTROLTreat a ConcussionIf the victim has suffered a blow to thehead, look for signs of concussion.Common symptoms are: loss ofconsciousness following the injury,disorientation or memory impairment,nausea, and lethargy.
  • 15. 3. CONTROLHow to Treat a Spinal Injury VictimIf you suspect a spinal injury, it isespecially critical that you not move thevictim’s head, neck or back (Unless theyare in immediate danger). You also needto take special care when performingrescue breathing or CPR.
  • 16. FIRST AID IN A WORKPLACEThe following factors should be considered: • Type of industry • Number of workers • Number of work shifts • Physical layout of workplace • Location of workplace and status of infra-structure in relation to the nearest medical clinic or hospital.
  • 17. FIRST AID BOX Should be available in the office and kept fully stocked. Someone should be appointed to look after it. Made of sturdy material and be portable Clearly marked with a green crescent on a white background. Clearly identifiable, well illuminated and accessible location. Contain a sufficient quantity of suitable first-aid materials.
  • 18. FIRST AID ROOM DESIGN Provided where there are more than 150 employees. Large enough to hold a couch and still have space for people to move about. Lighting in the room. Material which does not collect dust and is easily cleaned. Floors should be of non-slip material. Privacy must be ensured. Temperature and humidity at a comfortable level. Clearly identified as a first-aid room by means of a sign.
  • 19. FIRST AID ROOM LOCATIONProximity to toiletsProximity to lifts and main passageways which are wide enough to allow a stretcher, wheelchair or carrying chair throughAccessibility to work areasAccessibility to car park, so as to facilitate transfer of injured persons to an Ambulance
  • 20. BASIC AID TRAINING (level 1)Who should attend the training:Safety Managers and PersonnelSecurity Managers and PersonnelHuman Resource Managers and PersonnelSafety and Health Committee MembersEmergency Response Team MembersAll levels of employees and interested individuals
  • 21. BASIC AID TRAINING (level 1)Example of basic first aids training contents:Providing first aid to victims of injury or sudden illness at anywhere, anytime and anyplace.Disseminate knowledge on International Humanitarian Law to the community.How to create safety awareness at home, workplaceHealthy lifestyle and habits to prevent hazard and injury
  • 22. BASIC AID TRAINING (level 2)To provide information and expose employees to hazards at the workplace, ways to identify and overcome hazards, andTo enable workers to understand their responsibilities under the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA) 1994.
  • 23. BASIC AID TRAINING (level 2)Who should attend the training :All employee especially who are exposed to hazardFirst AiderTraining contents:Principles of first aidWound, Bleeding and ShockBurn and ScaldFractures and dislocatedCPR
  • 24. BASIC AID TRAINING (level 3) The important of occupational first aid training: To increase awareness of possible accidents, Identify accidents with casualties and Optimize health and performance at the workplace.
  • 25. BASIC AID TRAINING (level 3)Example of workplace training contents :Prevention of infection when giving first aidMedicationsPain managementTrauma managementBasic anatomy (body systems)Clinical assessment, Etc
  • 26. BASIC AID TRAINING (level 3)Who should attend the training:Particularlysuitable for the first aider in larger organizations who are employed as the occupational first aider, orIn charge of a first aid room.