First aid powerpoint


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First aid powerpoint

  2. 2. OBJECTIVES: To know the importance of giving First-aid To have a knowledge on basic first-aid treatment in case of injury or accidents. To learn the simple life saving techniques that would greatly help in cases of emergency. To react to a given emergency situations correctly.  To learn to demonstrate the simple life saving techniques some basic rescue drag and carrying techniques for evacuation of victims.
  3. 3. What is First-aid? • First-Aid defines as: Provision of immediate or initial care for an illness or an injury before regular medical aid can be obtained. It consist of a series of simple life saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform.
  5. 5. BURNS
  6. 6. 1.) Burn- is a type of injury to flesh caused by heat, chemicals, or electricity. Classification of Burns: 1st degree burn- involves outer layer of the skin. 2nd degree burn- involves top layer of skin. 3rd degree burn- Damage to all layers of skin including nerve endings and underlying tissues and organs.
  7. 7. First-aid treatment 1st Degree burn • Cool burned area with cool running water for at least 15 min. • Damped with cool wet cloth • Minor burns with only redness and no blisters, can be treated with topical burn ointment or spray. • Do Not apply butter, oil to any burn • May drink analgesics for pain.
  8. 8. 2nd and 3rd Degree burn
  9. 9. 2nd & 3rd degree burn 1. Immediately cool the burn area with cool running water for at least 15 min. 2. Take off any jewelries, rings, clothing's that could be in the way. If clothing is stuck to the skin, do not attempt to peel if any. Leave it in place or cut away the clothing around it. 3. If necessary, Cover the burns with nonstick gauze, clean cloth if available. 4. Seek urgent medical attention or contact medical personnel/ emergency vehicle to immediately send the patient to the hospital for treatment.
  10. 10. Chemical Burn
  11. 11. Chemical Burns • Protect yourself, Avoid exposing yourself to chemicals. • Rinse and clear burn area by flooding area with cool water for at least 20 min. or until help arrives. • Remove jewelries or clothing with chemicals on them. • Do not try to neutralize the chemical with acid/alkali. • Do not put any creams, ointment, etc…. • Cover or wrap the burn area with dry sterile gauze or a clean cloth if available. • Seek urgent medical attention or contact medical personnel/emergency vehicle to send the patient immediately to the hospital.
  12. 12. Chemical in the Eye
  13. 13. Chemical in the eye • Tilt the head so that the injured eye is downward, thus preventing the chemical to run in to the unaffected part • Keep the eye open gently with your fingers and rinse out the eye with cold running water for 10-15 min
  14. 14. Cont.. • Close the eye and cover with a clean dry pad • Seek medical aid at once / immediately send the victim to the hospital.
  15. 15. Remember! • General treatment for all burns is very simple: Cool/Rinse the burn area Cover the affected part Seek appropriate medical help
  16. 16. BLEEDING
  17. 17. 2.) Bleeding- is a loss of blood or escape of blood from circulatory system 2 types: Internal Bleeding- which blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body. External Bleeding- through a natural opening or through a break in the skin.
  18. 18. Main Principles for treatment of External bleeding 1. Look/ Inspect the wound 2. Apply Direct Pressure 3. Elevate
  19. 19. External Bleeding 1. Protect yourself. 2. Check the location and size of the wound 3. Remove any obvious debris or particles
  20. 20. 4. Apply direct pressure using sterile gauze or any clean cloth for at least 20 minutes.
  21. 21. 5.) Elevate or Raise the wound if the injury is on the arms or leg
  22. 22. 6.)Hold the gauze in place by using adhesive tape or secure it by tying a cloth on it.
  23. 23. 7. Apply direct pressure to the artery if necessary.
  24. 24. FRACTURE
  25. 25. 3.) FRACTURE- is a break in the continuity of the bone. Or simply a broken bone caused by a trauma, sports injury, fall, etc… TYPES: 1. Closed (simple) fracture- where the bone is broken but has not pierced the skin. 2. Open (compound) fracture- where the bone pierced the skin and/or associated with an open wound.
  26. 26. Open and closed fracture image
  27. 27. FRACTURE • Stay calm! • Call/seek appropriate help or ask someone else to call • Do not move the victim unless he is in danger • Keep the victim still and help him into a comfortable position. Until help arrives • Immobilize the broken part (splint/sling). • Put ice pack if available
  28. 28. Remember! The general rule for treating all broken bones is to IMMOBILIZE them.
  29. 29. SPLINT
  30. 30. ARM SLING
  32. 32. Basic Life Support
  33. 33. Basic Life Support • Is a life saving technique, it involves chest compressions combined with rescue breaths/(mouth to mouth). • BLS can keep oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs. • If there is no blood flowing to the brain, permanent damage occurs within a few minutes, or even death can occur.
  34. 34. What you will do?
  35. 35. Always Remember!
  36. 36. BLS Sequence: 1.) SCENE SAFETY- make sure the place is safe for you and the victim. Check • Fumes • Fire • Electrical hazards • Falling objects • Traffic • Broken glass etc…
  37. 37. 2.)Assessment/Check Response • Tap the victim’s shoulder and shout, “Are you alright”. And scan chest for breathing movement visually. • Look for normal or abnormal breathing/ Check to see if the victim is breathing.
  38. 38. If Breathing normally, • If the patient is breathing normally, and pulse is present then the patient should be placed in to Recovery Position and monitored. • Transport if required, or wait for EMS to arrive and take over.
  39. 39. If a victim is unresponsive not breathing or there is no normal breathing: 3.) Activate Emergency Response System Call/shout for help! Emergency dial (160)
  40. 40. 4.) Check the pulse
  41. 41. • Feel for a pulse for at least 5 but no more than 10 seconds. If you do not definitely feel the pulse, Begin CPR, Starting with Chest compressions ( C-A-B-) sequence.
  42. 42. 5.) Begin Cycles of 30 Compressions and 2 Breaths CPR / (30:2) ratio. • Position yourself at the victim’s side • Make sure the victim is lying face up. If the victim is lying face down carefully roll him face up. If you suspect head /neck injury, try to keep the head, neck, and torso in a line when rolling the victim face up. • Put the heel of one hand on the center of the victim’s chest on the lower half of breastbone. • Put the heel of your other hand on top of the first hand.
  43. 43. • Straighten your arms and position your shoulder directly over your hands.  Push hard and fast • Press down at least 2 inches (5 cm) with each compression. For each compression, make sure you push straight down on the victim’s breast bone.
  44. 44. • Deliver compression in a smooth fashion at rate of at least 100/min. • At the end of each compression, make sure you allow the chest to recoil completely. • Minimize interruptions.
  45. 45. 6.) Open the Airway Head Tilt-Chin Lift 1.) Place one hand on the victims forehead and push with your palm to tilt the head back. 2.)Place the fingers of the other hand under the bony part of the lower jaw near the chin. 3.)Lift the jaw to bring the chin forward.
  46. 46. Mouth-to-Barrier Device Breathing • Standard precautions include using barrier devices, such as face mask or a bag-mask device, when giving breaths.
  47. 47. Foundational Facts ( Low Infection Risk) • The risk of infection from CPR is extremely low and limited to a few case reports, but the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that health care workers use standard precaution in the workplace, including CPR.
  48. 48. 7.)Mouth-to-Mask Breath • Position yourself at the victim’s side. • Place the mask on the victim’s face, use bridge of nose as a guide for correct position. • Seal the mask against the face • Press firmly and completely around the outside edge of the mask. To seal the mask against the face. • Deliver air over 1 second to make the victim’s chest rise.
  49. 49. Verify that the chest rises and fall • If NOT:  Reposition/re-open the airway using the appropriate technique and try again.  Re-check the airway for visible obstruction.  Re-attempt ventilation.  Continue C-A-B sequence. • If Successful:  Continue C-A-B sequence  Assess for the presence of a pulse at the carotid artery. Usually @ 2 minutes interval/ every 5 cycles of CPR.  If pulse is detected, continue on giving artificial ventilation at a rate of 1 breath every 5 to 6 seconds. Until patient shows sign of life.
  50. 50. Once the victim shows sign of life: • Coughing • vomiting • Breathing • Movement • Recovery Position
  51. 51. • Basic Life Support should continue uninterrupted until victim shows sign of life or until emergency medical personnel take over.