To know the importance of giving First-aid
To have a knowledge on basic first-aid
treatment in case of injury or accidents.
To learn the simple life saving techniques that
would greatly help in cases of emergency.
To react to a given emergency situations
To learn to demonstrate the simple life saving
techniques some basic rescue drag and
carrying techniques for evacuation of victims.
What is First-aid?
• First-Aid defines as:
Provision of immediate or initial care for an
illness or an injury before regular medical aid
can be obtained.
It consist of a series of simple life saving
techniques that an individual can be trained to
• PREVENT FURTHER HARM
• PRESERVE LIFE
• PROMOTE RECOVERY
1.) Burn- is a type of injury to flesh caused by
heat, chemicals, or electricity.
Classification of Burns:
1st degree burn- involves outer layer of the skin.
2nd degree burn- involves top layer of skin.
3rd degree burn- Damage to all layers of skin
including nerve endings and underlying tissues
1st Degree burn
• Cool burned area with cool
running water for at least 15
• Damped with cool wet cloth
• Minor burns with only
redness and no blisters, can
be treated with topical burn
ointment or spray.
• Do Not apply butter, oil to
• May drink analgesics for
2nd & 3rd degree burn
1. Immediately cool the burn area with cool running
water for at least 15 min.
2. Take off any jewelries, rings, clothing's that could be
in the way. If clothing is stuck to the skin, do not
attempt to peel if any. Leave it in place or cut away
the clothing around it.
3. If necessary, Cover the burns with nonstick gauze,
clean cloth if available.
4. Seek urgent medical attention or contact medical
personnel/ emergency vehicle to immediately send
the patient to the hospital for treatment.
• Protect yourself, Avoid exposing yourself to chemicals.
• Rinse and clear burn area by flooding area with cool
water for at least 20 min. or until help arrives.
• Remove jewelries or clothing with chemicals on them.
• Do not try to neutralize the chemical with acid/alkali.
• Do not put any creams, ointment, etc….
• Cover or wrap the burn area with dry sterile gauze or
a clean cloth if available.
• Seek urgent medical attention or contact medical
personnel/emergency vehicle to send the patient
immediately to the hospital.
Chemical in the eye
• Tilt the head so that the
injured eye is downward,
thus preventing the
chemical to run in to the
• Keep the eye open gently
with your fingers and rinse
out the eye with cold
running water for 10-15 min
• Close the eye and cover
with a clean dry pad
• Seek medical aid at
once / immediately
send the victim to the
• General treatment for all burns is very simple:
Cool/Rinse the burn area
Cover the affected part
Seek appropriate medical help
2.) Bleeding- is a loss of blood or escape of
blood from circulatory system
Internal Bleeding- which blood leaks from
blood vessels inside the body.
External Bleeding- through a natural opening
or through a break in the skin.
Main Principles for treatment of
1. Look/ Inspect the wound
2. Apply Direct Pressure
1. Protect yourself.
2. Check the location and
size of the wound
3. Remove any obvious
debris or particles
4. Apply direct pressure using sterile gauze or any clean
cloth for at least 20 minutes.
5.) Elevate or Raise the wound if the injury is on
the arms or leg
6.)Hold the gauze in place by using
adhesive tape or secure it by tying a cloth
7. Apply direct pressure to the artery if
3.) FRACTURE- is a break in the continuity
of the bone. Or simply a broken bone caused by
a trauma, sports injury, fall, etc…
1. Closed (simple) fracture- where the bone is
broken but has not pierced the skin.
2. Open (compound) fracture- where the bone
pierced the skin and/or associated with an
• Stay calm!
• Call/seek appropriate help or ask someone
else to call
• Do not move the victim unless he is in danger
• Keep the victim still and help him into a
comfortable position. Until help arrives
• Immobilize the broken part (splint/sling).
• Put ice pack if available
The general rule for treating
all broken bones is to
Basic Life Support
• Is a life saving technique, it involves chest
compressions combined with rescue
breaths/(mouth to mouth).
• BLS can keep oxygenated blood flowing to the
brain and other vital organs.
• If there is no blood flowing to the brain,
permanent damage occurs within a few
minutes, or even death can occur.
1.) SCENE SAFETY-
make sure the place is safe
for you and the victim.
• Electrical hazards
• Falling objects
• Broken glass etc…
• Tap the victim’s shoulder and
shout, “Are you alright”. And
scan chest for breathing
• Look for normal or abnormal
breathing/ Check to see if
the victim is breathing.
If Breathing normally,
• If the patient is
breathing normally, and
pulse is present then
the patient should be
placed in to Recovery
• Transport if required, or
wait for EMS to arrive
and take over.
If a victim is unresponsive not breathing
or there is no normal breathing:
3.) Activate Emergency
Call/shout for help!
Emergency dial (160)
• Feel for a pulse for at least 5 but no more than
10 seconds. If you do not definitely feel the
pulse, Begin CPR, Starting with Chest
compressions ( C-A-B-) sequence.
5.) Begin Cycles of 30 Compressions and 2
Breaths CPR / (30:2) ratio.
• Position yourself at the victim’s
• Make sure the victim is lying face
up. If the victim is lying face down
carefully roll him face up. If you
suspect head /neck injury, try to
keep the head, neck, and torso in
a line when rolling the victim face
• Put the heel of one hand on the
center of the victim’s chest on the
lower half of breastbone.
• Put the heel of your other hand
on top of the first hand.
• Straighten your arms and
position your shoulder
directly over your hands.
Push hard and fast
• Press down at least 2 inches
(5 cm) with each
compression. For each
compression, make sure
you push straight down on
the victim’s breast bone.
• Deliver compression in a
smooth fashion at rate of at
• At the end of each
compression, make sure
you allow the chest to recoil
• Minimize interruptions.
6.) Open the Airway
Head Tilt-Chin Lift
1.) Place one hand on the victims
forehead and push with your
palm to tilt the head back.
2.)Place the fingers of the other
hand under the bony part of the
lower jaw near the chin.
3.)Lift the jaw to bring the chin
Mouth-to-Barrier Device Breathing
• Standard precautions
include using barrier
devices, such as face
mask or a bag-mask
device, when giving
Foundational Facts ( Low Infection Risk)
• The risk of infection from CPR is extremely low
and limited to a few case reports, but the US
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) requires that health
care workers use standard precaution in the
workplace, including CPR.
• Position yourself at the
• Place the mask on the
victim’s face, use bridge of
nose as a guide for correct
• Seal the mask against the
• Press firmly and completely
around the outside edge of
the mask. To seal the mask
against the face.
• Deliver air over 1 second to
make the victim’s chest rise.
Verify that the chest rises and fall
• If NOT:
Reposition/re-open the airway
using the appropriate
technique and try again.
Re-check the airway for visible
Continue C-A-B sequence.
• If Successful:
Continue C-A-B sequence
Assess for the presence of a
pulse at the carotid artery.
Usually @ 2 minutes interval/
every 5 cycles of CPR.
If pulse is detected, continue
on giving artificial ventilation
at a rate of 1 breath every 5 to
6 seconds. Until patient shows
sign of life.
Once the victim shows sign of life:
• Recovery Position
• Basic Life Support should continue
uninterrupted until victim shows sign of life or
until emergency medical personnel take over.