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  1. 1. OSHA
  3. 3. First aid 1. First aid is the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, and/or promote recovery. It includes initial intervention in a serious condition prior to professional medical help being available, such as performing CPR whilst awaiting an ambulance, as well as the complete treatment of minor conditions, such as applying a plaster to a cut. First aid is generally performed by the layperson, with many people trained in providing basic levels of first aid, and others willing to do so from acquired knowledge. Mental health first aid is an extension of the concept of first aid to cover mental health. 2. There are many situations which may require first aid, and many countries have legislation, regulation, or guidance which specifies a minimum level of first aid provision in certain circumstances. This can include specific training or equipment to be available in the workplace (such as an automated external defibrillator), the provision of specialist first aid cover at public gatherings, or mandatory first aid training within schools. First aid, however, does not necessarily require any particular equipment or prior knowledge, and can involve improvisation with materials available at the time, often by untrained persons. DEFINE FIRST AID
  4. 4. FIRST AID EQUIPMENT • 2 absorbent compress dressings (5 x 9 inches) • 25 adhesive bandages (assorted sizes) • 1 adhesive cloth tape (10 yards x 1 inch) • 5 antibiotic ointment packets (approximately 1 gram) • 5 antiseptic wipe packets • 2 packets of aspirin (81 mg each) • 1 blanket (space blanket) • 1 breathing barrier (with one-way valve) • 1 instant cold compress • 2 pair of nonlatex gloves (size: large) • 2 hydrocortisone ointment packets (approximately 1 gram each) • Scissors • 1 roller bandage (3 inches wide) • 1 roller bandage (4 inches wide) • 5 sterile gauze pads (3 x 3 inches) • 5 sterile gauze pads (4 x 4 inches) • Oral thermometer (non-mercury/nonglass) • 2 triangular bandages • Tweezers • First aid instruction booklet
  5. 5. HISTORY AND TREND One hundred and fifty years ago, a battle in northern Italy sparked an idea that has since changed the world. On 24 June 1859, Henry Dunant, a young Geneva businessman, witnessed horrifying suffering and agony following the battle of Solferino. He mobilized the civilian population, mainly women and girls, to care for the wounded irrespective of their role in the conflict. He secured them with the necessary materials and supplies and helped in the establishment of temporary hospitals. His book “A memory of Solferino” inspired the establishment of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in 1863. Today, the need for humanitarian action is still as vital as it was in 1859. Providing first aid services to injured people was one of the first services provided by the Red Cross Red Crescent volunteers for over 100 years. Now, almost all 187 Red Cross Red Crescent (RCRC) National Societies (NS) have first aid as their core activity. Aware that task-shifting (a process of delegation whereby tasks are moved, where appropriate, to less specialized persons) has become a very important process to address health challenges in the last few years, RCRC National Societies are the major first aid educator and provider in the world.
  6. 6. BASIC RULES OF FIRST AID • Shout for help • Assess the situation and scout the territory • Determine if the accident warrants a visit to a hospital—or simply a cleansing and a Band-Aid. • If you are trained and certified in CPR and a person is choking or cannot breathe, begin CPR right away. • Stop the bleeding • Treat any symptoms of shock • Look for a Medic Alert bracelet or necklace • Seek trained medical assistance • Never give an injured unconscious person anything by mouth • Wait for ambulance
  7. 7. BASIC FIRST AID FOR BONE FRACTURED • BASIC FIRST AID • Stop any bleeding. Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage, a clean cloth or a clean piece of clothing. • Immobilize the injured area. Don't try to realign the bone or push a bone that's sticking out back in. If you've been trained in how to splint and professional help isn't readily available, apply a splint to the area above and below the fracture sites. Padding the splints can help reduce discomfort. • Apply ice packs to limit swelling and help relieve pain until emergency personnel arrive. Don't apply ice directly to the skin — wrap the ice in a towel, piece of cloth or some other material. • Treat for shock. If the person feels faint or is breathing in short, rapid breaths, lay the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk and, if possible, elevate the legs.
  8. 8. Types of Fractures • Stable fracture. The broken ends of the bone line up and are barely out of place. • Open, compound fracture. The skin may be pierced by the bone or by a blow that breaks the skin at the time of the fracture. The bone may or may not be visible in the wound. • Transverse fracture. This type of fracture has a horizontal fracture line. • Oblique fracture. This type of fracture has an angled pattern. • Comminuted fracture. In this type of fracture, the bone shatters into three or more pieces.
  9. 9. PICTURES
  10. 10. TREATMENT FOR BONE FRACTURED • Cast Immobilization (A plaster or fiberglass cast is the most common type of fracture treatment, because most broken bones can heal successfully once they have been repositioned and a cast has been applied to keep the broken ends in proper position while they heal.) • Functional Cast or Brace (The cast or brace allows limited or "controlled" movement of nearby joints. This treatment is desirable for some, but not all, fractures.) • Traction (Traction is usually used to align a bone or bones by a gentle, steady pulling action.) • External Fixation (In this type of operation, metal pins or screws are placed into the broken bone above and below the fracture site. The pins or screws are connected to a metal bar outside the skin. This device is a stabilizing frame that holds the bones in the proper position while they heal..In cases where the skin and other soft tissues around the fracture are badly damaged, an external fixator may be applied until surgery can be tolerated.) • Open Reduction and Internal Fixation (During this operation, the bone fragments are first repositioned (reduced) in their normal alignment, and then held together with special screws or by attaching metal plates to the outer surface of the bone. The fragments may also be held together by inserting rods down through the marrow space in the center of the bone.)