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First Aid


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Published in: Health & Medicine, Business

First Aid

  1. 1. FIRST AID
  2. 2. First Aid is the immediate and temporary care given to an injured or sick person until the services of a qualified doctor are obtained with such material as may be available. The first aid is not an end by itself. It indicates that the person is in need of a secondary aid. First aid is based on the knowledge of a life saving skill. FIRST AID
  3. 3. <ul><li>Every one should know something about first aid as you never know when you may be called upon to use it. </li></ul><ul><li>At the most unexpected of times, accidents could occur, involving loves ones, close relatives or total strangers. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of first aid enables you to deal with emergencies which can be life-threatening. </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever is in need of help, you should be in a position to offer first aid. </li></ul>CAN SAVES LIVES!
  4. 4. <ul><li>To sustain life </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent suffering </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent secondary complications </li></ul><ul><li>To promote speedy recovery </li></ul><ul><li>To prepare for further medical treatment </li></ul>Purpose of First Aid
  5. 5. Basic principles of first aid <ul><li>Obtain a correct detailed history of victim. </li></ul><ul><li>Observe and examine thoroughly and note every symptom of injured persons. </li></ul><ul><li>Treat the casualty until the details arrives victim is shifted to the near by hospital. </li></ul><ul><li>If the accident is at home- call neighbor, if the accident is at the public place –call police </li></ul><ul><li>Keep phone numbers of doctor, police control room. </li></ul>
  6. 6. EMERGENCY FIRST AID <ul><li>If you are the first on the scene of accident that results in an injury or serious illness, you may be the only link between a victim and emergency medical care. </li></ul><ul><li>Your role is to take action , whether by providing first aid, seeking medical or police help. </li></ul><ul><li>Your actions may improve the victims chance of recovery. </li></ul>
  7. 7. First Aid Response <ul><li>To assess a situation quickly & safely, & call for appropriate help. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify the level of injury or the nature of the illness affecting the casualty/victim. </li></ul><ul><li>To give early and appropriate treatment in a sensible order of priority. </li></ul><ul><li>To arrange for the safe removal of the casualty. </li></ul><ul><li>To remain with the casualty and reassess time to time until handing it over to the care of a medical person. </li></ul><ul><li>To make & pass on a report and give further help if required. </li></ul>
  8. 8. First Aid in case of Disaster <ul><li>How to prioritize intensity and urgency of injuries? </li></ul><ul><li>How to recognize life-threatening signs and take appropriate actions? How to anticipate and treat early-stage shock? How to control bleeding? How to apply splint and immobilize fractures, sprains, and joint injuries? How to connect with your area’s disaster-response network? </li></ul>Generic Action Plan: Master Plan for the first 24 hours. Techniques for lifting and moving the injured, with rescuer safety. What to do in the next few days - Infection Control, and protecting yourself from environmental hazards such as exposure to heat & cold.
  9. 9. Assessment Procedures <ul><li>All victims must undergo an assessment, even those that are awake. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal assessments , for those able to speak, consists of asking the person about any injuries, pain, bleeding, or other symptoms he/she is aware of and can express. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on assessments consists of asking the person for permission to assess them if they are awake and coherent and paying close attention: Look, listen, and feel for anything unusual. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What to check : Perform the assessment always in the same order so that you will complete each assessment quickly and accurately, checking body parts from top to bottom. Treat victims as if they have a spinal injury until you are certain they do not. Examine the: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Head, Neck & Shoulders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chest, Arms & Abdomen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvis, Legs & Back   </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What to look for : Look for anything indicating an injury. Most common injuries include lacerations, fractures, and bruises, but anything out of the ordinary may be an indicator, such as changes in color, temperature and pulse. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. DR. ABC <ul><li>DANGER </li></ul><ul><li>RESPONSE </li></ul><ul><li>AIRWAY </li></ul><ul><li>BREATHING </li></ul><ul><li>CIRCULATION </li></ul>
  11. 11. D is for Danger <ul><li>To Yourself </li></ul><ul><li>To Others </li></ul><ul><li>To Casualty </li></ul>
  12. 12. R is for Response <ul><li>Gently “ shake & shout ” at the casualty </li></ul><ul><li>Is the casualty alert ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the casualty drowsy or confused ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the casualty unconscious , but reacting ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the casualty unconscious with no reaction ? </li></ul><ul><li>If unconscious, place the casualty in the stable side position </li></ul>
  13. 13. A irway <ul><li>Is the airway open and clear ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there noisy breathing? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there potential obstructions such as blood, etc? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, open & clear the airway! </li></ul>Open Airway Tilt their head back and gently lift their chin with your fingers. This stops their tongue falling back and blocking the airway and prevents them from choking.
  14. 14. B reathing <ul><li>Look for chest movements </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for sounds of breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Feel for breaths on your cheek </li></ul>Check for Breathing! Kneel down and put your cheek close to their face. Can you feel their breath on your cheek, see their chest moving or hear them breathing?
  15. 15. C irculation <ul><li>Is there a carotid pulse ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it strong ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it regular ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there major blood loss ? </li></ul>Check for Circulation Put your index and middle finger on the side of their neck in the hollow between the Adam's apple (or approximate area) and the neck muscle. Can you feel a pulse (the throb felt in an artery with each heartbeat)?
  16. 16. If breathing present <ul><ul><li>Place the victim in recovery position </li></ul></ul>If no pulse present then start CPR
  17. 17. Accidents An accident is an event, which happens unexpectedly. <ul><li>The extent of the injury depends on various factors. The accidents, which are most likely to come across, are as follows. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Wounds </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sprains and dislocations </li></ul><ul><li>3. Fractures (broken bones) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Burns and scalds. </li></ul><ul><li>Some times there may be a history given that the patient has received an injury to the head or some other part of the body but there is no visible injury. </li></ul><ul><li>However in these cases the patient may be unconscious, may show signs of shock or may complain of pain. In all such cases you transfer the patient to the Health Center immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>As you are a First Aider and the aim of your assistance is as follows. </li></ul><ul><li>1) To prevent immediate danger of death. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Give artificial respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Guard against shock or treat for shock. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Do not remove clothing unnecessarily. </li></ul><ul><li>5) Reassure the patient and relieve pain. </li></ul><ul><li>6) Arrange for removal of the patient to the nearest Hospital </li></ul>