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  1. 1. First Aid Notes… Lectures...
  2. 2. Content Page <ul><li>Introduction (First Aid) </li></ul><ul><li>Wounds </li></ul><ul><li>Bleedings </li></ul><ul><li>Fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Burns </li></ul><ul><li>Cardio - Pulmonary Resuscitation </li></ul><ul><li>Shock </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma Attack </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction (First Aid) <ul><li>What is First Aid? </li></ul><ul><li>Aims of First Aid </li></ul><ul><li>The ABC of Life </li></ul><ul><li>First Aid Priority </li></ul><ul><li>4 stages of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Examination Techniques </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is First Aid? <ul><li>Initial help given to a casualty before the arrival of professionals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Aims of First Aid <ul><li>To preserve life </li></ul><ul><li>To promote recovery </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent others injuries </li></ul>
  6. 6. The ABC of Life <ul><li>Airway- Check the airways are open and clear, no obstructions </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing- Look and see that the chest is rising and falling. Sound of breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation- Check for pulse </li></ul>
  7. 7. First Aid Priority <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse & Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Shock </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal of casualty </li></ul>
  8. 8. 4 stages of consciousness <ul><li>Fully Conscious </li></ul><ul><li>Drowsiness </li></ul><ul><li>Stupor </li></ul><ul><li>Coma </li></ul>
  9. 9. Examination Techniques <ul><li>Hands- Check nails and palms for anaemia </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse- Check the rate, rhythm & volume </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure- Hypotension is low, hypotension is high </li></ul><ul><li>Head- Eyes, ears,lips and mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Neck- check not broken or bruised </li></ul><ul><li>Chest- Lungs and heart </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Head- Eyes, ears,lips and mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Neck- check not broken or bruised </li></ul><ul><li>Chest- Lungs and heart </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomen- Liver, spleen, kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Limps- Look, feel, move </li></ul>
  11. 11. Wounds <ul><li>Incised wound </li></ul><ul><li>Laceration </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasion(Graze) </li></ul><ul><li>Contusion(Bruise) </li></ul><ul><li>Puncture wound </li></ul><ul><li>Gunshot wound </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments </li></ul>
  12. 12. Incised wound <ul><li>Straight Cut </li></ul><ul><li>Profuse bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by blade/ broken glass </li></ul>
  13. 13. Laceration <ul><li>Rough tear by crushing on ripping forces </li></ul><ul><li>Bleed less profusely than incised wound </li></ul><ul><li>Often contaminated by germs </li></ul>
  14. 14. Abrasion(Graze) <ul><li>Caused by sliding fall of friction burn </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial wound </li></ul>
  15. 15. Contusion(Bruise) <ul><li>Blunt blow </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by hammer etc. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Puncture wound <ul><li>Caused by nail and needle </li></ul><ul><li>Small site of entry deep track of internal damage </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of infection is high </li></ul>
  17. 17. Gunshot wound <ul><li>Caused by bullet </li></ul>
  18. 18. Treatments <ul><li>Remove any clothing from around the wound </li></ul><ul><li>Clean the skin round the wound and irrigate the wound to remove any dirt </li></ul><ul><li>Cover it with a clean dressing </li></ul>
  19. 19. Dressing <ul><li>When applying sterile dressing… </li></ul><ul><li>Remove the wrapping </li></ul><ul><li>Unfold the dressing pad, holding the bandage on each side of the pad. Put the pad directly on the wound. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Wind the short end of the bandage once around the limb and the dressing to secure the pad, leaving the tail hanging free </li></ul><ul><li>To secure the bandage, tie the ends in a reef knot, tied over the pad to exert firm pressure on the wound </li></ul><ul><li>Check the circulation to the extremity of the injured limb </li></ul>
  21. 21. Bleedings <ul><li>Arterial bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Venous bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment for bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms of internal bleeding </li></ul>
  22. 22. Arterial bleeding <ul><li>Bright red </li></ul><ul><li>Spurts out </li></ul><ul><li>Under high pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Richly oxgenated </li></ul>
  23. 23. Venous bleeding <ul><li>Dark red </li></ul><ul><li>Gushing out </li></ul><ul><li>Under lesser pressure than arterial bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Given up its oxygen </li></ul>
  24. 24. Capillary bleeding <ul><li>Red in colour </li></ul><ul><li>Oozing out </li></ul>
  25. 25. Treatment for bleeding <ul><li>Severe wounds </li></ul><ul><li>Apply direct pressure to the wound in order to stop the flow of the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Apply sterile dressing with firm pressure to control the bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>If there is no fracture, try to raise the limb that has been wounded & support it </li></ul>
  26. 26. Signs and symptoms of internal bleeding <ul><li>Pale, clammy skin </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid and weak pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid, shallow breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Tenderness in abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Any pain of discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and/or vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Shock </li></ul>
  27. 27. Fractures <ul><li>What is a fracture? </li></ul><ul><li>Types of fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Signs </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul>
  28. 28. What is a fracture? <ul><li>A closed, or simple, fracture is where the broken bone ends remain beneath the skin, whereas an open, or compound, fracture is where both ends of the bone protrude through the skin </li></ul>
  29. 29. Types of fractures <ul><li>Simple fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Compound fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated fracture ( includes organs) </li></ul><ul><li>Neck fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Skull fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Fractured ribs </li></ul><ul><li>Greenstick Fracture(happen to small children ) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Signs <ul><li>Swelling </li></ul><ul><li>Deformity or projecting bone ends </li></ul><ul><li>Severe pain, made worse by movement </li></ul><ul><li>Bruised </li></ul><ul><li>Tenderness </li></ul>
  31. 31. Treatment <ul><li>Do not try to force the bones back together again but seek medical assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Treat all open wounds with a clean dressing </li></ul><ul><li>Splint the fractured area in exactly the position that you find it in, pending removal to hospital or the arrival of expert medical aid </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>If the arm is fracture, splint it, and then set up a sling if the arm can be moved across the chest. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not move the victim at all if you suspect a spinal injury </li></ul>
  33. 33. Burns <ul><li>- Type of burn </li></ul><ul><li>First degree </li></ul><ul><li>Second degree </li></ul><ul><li>Third degree </li></ul>
  34. 34. First degree <ul><li>Top layer of skin </li></ul><ul><li>Skin turns red and then peels off </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: Rehydrating creams, Cool water at regular intervals </li></ul>
  35. 35. Second degree <ul><li>Deeper damage to the skin, causing blisters. Shock. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: Use antibacterial dressing, or leave wound undressed but kept scrupulously clean. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Third degree <ul><li>Damage to all layers of skin </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: Requires specialist treatment </li></ul>
  37. 37. Cardio- Pulmonary Resuscitation <ul><li>What is CPR? </li></ul><ul><li>Steps of CPR </li></ul>
  38. 38. What is CPR? <ul><li>Used when the patient has stopped breathing and when there is no pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Only be performed by someone who has had training in this method </li></ul>
  39. 39. Steps of CPR <ul><li>Tilt victim’s head backwards in order to open the airway </li></ul><ul><li>Pinch the victim’s nose with thumb and forefinger </li></ul><ul><li>Take a deep breath, place your mouth tightly over the victim’s mouth and blow air from yours into their mouth </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Stop blowing when the victim’s chest is expanded </li></ul><ul><li>Lift your hand from the victim and watch for the chest to fall. Give the victim further quick breaths, taking a deep breath yourself between each one. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Carry on blowing into the victim’s lungs at a rate of 12 breaths per minute until the victim begins to breathe on his or her own. </li></ul><ul><li>You can stop blowing at this stage. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Shock <ul><li>What is shock? </li></ul><ul><li>Signs </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul>
  43. 43. What is shock? <ul><li>Rapid lowering of blood pressure owing to lack of circulating volume to vital body organs, such as the brain, heart, liver and kidneys. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Signs <ul><li>Weak and giddy </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea/ may vomit </li></ul><ul><li>Thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid shallow breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Weak Pulse </li></ul>
  45. 45. Treatment <ul><li>Lay casualty down </li></ul><ul><li>Reassure the casualty </li></ul><ul><li>Raise and support the leg </li></ul><ul><li>Loosen tight clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Keep casualty warm </li></ul><ul><li>Check and record the casualty’s breathing, pulse, level of response </li></ul>
  46. 46. Asthma attack <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Reassure and calm casualty </li></ul><ul><li>Find a position that the person finds comfortable </li></ul><ul><li>Tell him/her to try taking slow, deep breaths </li></ul><ul><li>Help to find the reliever(Blue) </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Allow casualty to use it and it will take effect within minutes </li></ul><ul><li>If attack eases within 5-10 minutes, encourage him/her to take another dose and breathe slowly and deeply </li></ul><ul><li>Tell casualty to inform doctor if attack is very severe or first attack </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>End of presentation!! </li></ul><ul><li>Hope you have learnt more </li></ul><ul><li>about First Aid !!! </li></ul>