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Ch 20 africa ppt

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  • 1. AFRICA AND THE AFRICANSIN THE AGE OF THEATLANTIC SLAVE TRADEChapter 20
  • 2. GOLD WEALTH OF GHANA Ghana – “land of gold” Soninke people Ideal for trade – between Niger and Senegal rivers King taxes all trade Capital: Kumbi Saleh  Comprised of two walled towns
  • 3. ~INFLUENCE OF ISLAM Muslim merchants brought the Islamic faith to Ghana Ghana adopted Muslim counselors, government officials, military technology, ideas about government, written language, coinage, business methods, and styles of architecture. Most Soninke people continue to support their traditional customs and beliefs
  • 4. GHANA’S DECLINE c. 1050 AD Almoravids – pious Muslims of N. Africa launch a campaign to spread Islam Almoravids overwhelm and take Ghana, but cannot consistently rule Ghana across the Sahara Kingdom of Mali expands and takes over Ghana instead
  • 5. THE KINGDOM OF MALI Mandinka people Mandinka word “Mali” means “where the king dwells” Mansas -- kings expanded their influence over the gold mining regions and salt supplies of Taghaza http://home.intekom.com/southafricanhistoryonline/pages/classroom/pages/projects/grade7/lesso Camel Caravan routes caused n5/Images/westafrica.jpg towns like Timbuktu to mushroom into great trading cities.
  • 6. THE MALI EMPIRE FLOURISHED IN THE 13TH CENTURY, WITH THECITY OF TIMBUKTU ON THE BANKS OF THE NIGER RIVER AS ANINTELLECTUAL, ARTISTIC AND RELIGIOUS CENTER. (THEREPUBLIC OF MALI).
  • 7. SUNDIATA Ibn Batuta said:• Brilliant leader  Arab traveler• Celebrated by the griots (professional oral historians)  “Of all peoples, the• He divided up the world (16 Blacks are those who clans – bear arms and carry the box and arrow; five clans most hate injustice, and – devoted to religious duties; their emperor pardons four clans – specialists like blacksmiths and griots) none who is guilty of it”• Even though very diverse, safety and loyalty were emphasized• Crime was severely punished
  • 8. MANSA MUSA
  • 9. IBN BATUTA & MARCO POLO LATE 1200’S EARLY 1300’S http://www.sangam.org/taraki/articles/2006/images/mpibvoya.jpg
  • 10. MANSA MUSA  Greatest Emperor of Mali  Expanded the empire to Atlantic Ocean and up to North Africa  25 year reign  Converts to Islam and based his system of justice on the Quran
  • 11. MANSA MUSA’S GREATNESS CONT…• 1324 AD Mansa Musa fulfilled one of the five pillars: the Hajj• Created economic and diplomatic ties with other Muslim states along his journey• Still did not force women to veil, women were not secluded within the home http://www.kidspast.com/world-history/0100-kingdom-mali.php• By 1400s Timbuktu becomes a leading center of learning, drew Muslim scholars from all over the world• Mali falls into decline after disputes over succession arise in 1400s http://cache.virtualtourist.com/1582406-Timbuktu_mosque-Mali.jpg
  • 12. A NEW EMPIRE IN SONGHAI 1450 – wealthy trading city of Gao emerged as capital of West African kingdom of Songhai
  • 13. SONNI ALI  Soldier king who uses his army to create the largest state that had ever existed  Brought trade routes and wealthy cities (like Timbuktu) under his control  Chooses not to adopt Islam and follows traditional religious beliefs instead
  • 14. ASKI MUHAMMAD Expanded the territory of Songhai Improved government beauracracy As a Muslim, he made his hajj and met with different Islamic states along the way to increase his ties to the Muslim world. Built temples and schools to study the Quran Scholars and poets flock to Gao
  • 15. INVADERS FROM THE NORTH! 1586 – succession disputes (surprise, surprise) lead to civil war Ruler of Morocco uses an army armed with gunpowder weapons to seize gold mines Morocco is unable to control Songhai across the Sahara, the kingdoms of West Africa end up splintered and fragmented 1591 – Songhai Empire “falls”
  • 16. PRACTICE What would a good thesis be for:  Analyze the changes and continuities in Western Africa from the rise of the kingdom of Ghana through the fall of the Songhay.
  • 17. THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE Which region is first to really sink their teeth into Africa? Which country? Portuguese establish forts and trading posts along the W African coast through the late 1400’s Trade includes  Ivory, pepper, animal skins and gold to Portuguese  Slaves from other sections of the coast to African rulers Work to interconnect and make contacts, can be hit or miss for the Portuguese Missionary efforts to convert Benin, the Kongo, and other African kingdoms  Reach Kongo (1484)  European missionaries very successful  Nzinga Mvemba (r.1507-1543) converts, entire kingdom becomes Christian  Portuguese attempt to Europeanize, but eventually the enslavement of his subjects leads Nzinga Mvemba to try to end the slave trade and limit the Portuguese  Only partly successful – Portuguese control the Kongo’s ability to communicate and trade with the outside world
  • 18. EXTENDING THEIR REACH The Portuguese create forts/posts at Mbundu, Luanda, and establish the colony of Angola Round the cape and secure bases in Kilwa, Mombasa, and Sofala Incentives? Commercial and military (but usually bring a strong missionary contingent too) What next? 17th century, the Dutch, English, French and others follow suit
  • 19.  Portuguese movement Portuguese Expansion and Major African Kingdoms down the coast becomes a common European pattern Trading stations Slave trade becomes central
  • 20. BENIN BRONZEWORKS Ife artisans (neighboring kingdom)
  • 21. South of the savanna BENIN FOREST KINGDOM  1300s  “Oba” – king who serves as a political and religious leader; spreads power among other groups (Queen mother and hereditary chiefs)  Benin bronzeworks – depict warriors armed for battle, queen mother’s updo’s, and the oba himself  In this 15th c. ivory mask, the “figures on the top represent the Portuguese who had been slaving in Africa since the mid 15th century”  http://abolitionwya.org.uk /further-info/africa
  • 22. HOW THEY SAW EACH OTHER Africans viewed Portuguese as strange but incorporated them into their world Portuguese saw Africans as savages who could be civilized and converted
  • 23. REFOCUS ON PORTUGAL Between 1450-1460, the number of slaves entering Portugal per year goes from 50-500 Catalyst in the Americas?  sugarplantations begin to develop
  • 24. Trend Toward Expansion 1450-1850  12 million Africans sent across Atlantic Estimated that by 1850 the population of west  10-11 million survive and central was about 18th century half of what it would  Height of trade have been without the  80 percent of total trade occurs during this time slave trade Muslim areas (1850 pop = 25 million)  Trans-Saharan, Red Sea, East Africa  3 million slaves traded Demographic Patterns  Saharan trade  Mostly women  Atlantic trade  Primarily young men for hard labor
  • 25.  Rates of trade reflect changing economic and political situation in the New World Slave trade with Muslim world continues 3 million transported between 1450 and 1750 Wars increase in Africa as both cause and effect of slave trade
  • 26. THE PROGRESSION OF THE ATLANTICSLAVE TRADE Organization of the Trade  Fewer than 10% of the  Portuguese dominate first, Europeans who were until ~ 1630 stationed in Africa  Dutch seize El Mina, 1630 lived through the first  Begin year to rival Portuguese  English – found the Royal African Company, involved in slave trade from 1660s  French involved as well
  • 27. THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
  • 28. DEMOGRAPHICS Trade with Muslim world tended to focus on women Atlantic slave trade tended to focus on men African population reduced by half of what it would have been without slave trade by 1750
  • 29.  Both Africans and Europeans involved in slave trade Not any more profitable than any other trade of its time Part of Triangular trade Drew African economy into world economy Resulted in African economies becoming dependent on trade with Europe
  • 30. AFRICAN SOCIETIES,SLAVERY, AND THE SLAVETRADE Slavery had existed in Africa prior to the Atlantic Slave Trade Usually focused on enslavement of women Islamic forms of slavery also introduced Existence of slavery helped Europeans mobilize commerce of slaves by tapping into existing routes
  • 31. SLAVING AND AFRICAN POLITICS Most states in western and central Africa were small and unstable Increasing frequency of wars led to increasing need for improved weaponry Power shifted due to European coastal presence Inland kingdoms gained power by gaining guns and working as intermediaries to the Europeans in the slave trade
  • 32. ASANTE Gained access to firearms in 1650 and began expanding Became the dominant power on the gold coast up until 1820
  • 33. DAHOMEY Emerged as a power in the 1720 Used access to firearms to form an autocratic state Primary economic activity relied on the slave trade Growth of absolute rulers paralleled the rise of absolutism in Europe Like in Europe, attempts were made to limit royal authority
  • 34. STRING OF CITY-STATES Commercial cities rise along S. African coast Kilwa, Mogadishu, Mombassa, and Sofala From ancient times to early modern times, a continual trade area (Phoenicians, Greek, Roman, Indian) Muslim traders set up posts in 600 and 700s  Kilwa – one of the most beautifully constructed towns in the world  Blend of cultures – China, India, Arab, Bantu, SE Asia, etc  Swahili – Bantu base, Arabic words, Arabic script
  • 35. EAST AFRICA AND SUDAN Swahili towns continue commerce in gold, ivory, and slaves with Middle Eastern markets Bantu speaking people dominated the region 18th century saw Islamization
  • 36.  By the 1840, new political units were created Attempts were made to stamp out paganism and illiteracy Large numbers of captives from the religious wars were shipped down the coast to Europeans By the 19th century slaves made up to 50% op the population of this region
  • 37. WHITE SETTLERS ANDAFRICANS IN SOUTH AFRICA
  • 38. SOUTH AFRICA By 16th Century, Bantu-speakers occupy southern East Africa  Chiefdoms varied in size and power  Expansion  Competition and conflict
  • 39.  1652- Dutch East India Company establishes the Cape Colony  Dutch enslave local Africans  1760s Dutch cross Orange River  Dutch gov’t attempts to limit settlement and slavery, but fails  Boers move north, “Great Trek” to avoid gov’t regulations
  • 40.  Slave trade links Africa to World Economy Slavery is grueling and deadly Middle Passage: passage to Americas Slaves worked in Plantations and Mines Hierarchy created by Slave owners to prevent uprisings People lose local African identity  Createnew family units  Growth of communities of runaway slaves
  • 41. MANY PEOPLES, MANY TRADITIONS  People and the Environment  Hunting and Food Gathering  Khoisan people of the Kalahari desert survive by gathering roots and herbs, hunt small game  Herding and Fishing  Raise herds of cattle in areas not plagued by the teste fly  Nomadic b/c resources are limited  Settled Farming Societies  Grow grains and root crops (yams) and tree crops (bananas)  Slash-and-burn agriculture – clear forest and brush with iron axes and hoes, burned remains and use ash as fertilizer
  • 42. FAMILY PATTERNS Nuclear Family – whole family works together as a unit Lines of Descent  Matrilineal  Patrilineal Wider Ties  Lineage – several families share a common ancestor  Trace back to clans
  • 43. RELIGIOUS BELIEFS Local polytheistic beliefs, based on natural deities  Usually have one god or goddess who has elevated status Christianity Islam
  • 44. ARTISTIC AND LITERACYTRADITIONS Arts – ivory, wood, bronze  Wove dyed cloth  Inscribed bowls  Bracelets and neck ornaments for beauty  Very symbolic, often tied to religious ceremonies Literature  Oral and written literature  Griots – professional poets who recite ancient stories
  • 45. WHERE THE AFRICANS AREENSLAVED 1530 – 1650 Spanish America and Brazil – majority of slaves  Spanish America and Brazil  English and French  Grow sugar, Caribbean, Jamaica, Barbados, 1550 – 1850  Brazil 3.5-5 million  The Caribbean islands and sugar  Virginia and the Carolinas in N. Am *Muslim traders – 3 million from trans-Sahara, Red Sea, and E African slave trade

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