Ch 20 africa ppt


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Ch 20 africa ppt

  2. 2. GOLD WEALTH OF GHANA Ghana – “land of gold” Soninke people Ideal for trade – between Niger and Senegal rivers King taxes all trade Capital: Kumbi Saleh  Comprised of two walled towns
  3. 3. ~INFLUENCE OF ISLAM Muslim merchants brought the Islamic faith to Ghana Ghana adopted Muslim counselors, government officials, military technology, ideas about government, written language, coinage, business methods, and styles of architecture. Most Soninke people continue to support their traditional customs and beliefs
  4. 4. GHANA’S DECLINE c. 1050 AD Almoravids – pious Muslims of N. Africa launch a campaign to spread Islam Almoravids overwhelm and take Ghana, but cannot consistently rule Ghana across the Sahara Kingdom of Mali expands and takes over Ghana instead
  5. 5. THE KINGDOM OF MALI Mandinka people Mandinka word “Mali” means “where the king dwells” Mansas -- kings expanded their influence over the gold mining regions and salt supplies of Taghaza Camel Caravan routes caused n5/Images/westafrica.jpg towns like Timbuktu to mushroom into great trading cities.
  7. 7. SUNDIATA Ibn Batuta said:• Brilliant leader  Arab traveler• Celebrated by the griots (professional oral historians)  “Of all peoples, the• He divided up the world (16 Blacks are those who clans – bear arms and carry the box and arrow; five clans most hate injustice, and – devoted to religious duties; their emperor pardons four clans – specialists like blacksmiths and griots) none who is guilty of it”• Even though very diverse, safety and loyalty were emphasized• Crime was severely punished
  8. 8. MANSA MUSA
  10. 10. MANSA MUSA  Greatest Emperor of Mali  Expanded the empire to Atlantic Ocean and up to North Africa  25 year reign  Converts to Islam and based his system of justice on the Quran
  11. 11. MANSA MUSA’S GREATNESS CONT…• 1324 AD Mansa Musa fulfilled one of the five pillars: the Hajj• Created economic and diplomatic ties with other Muslim states along his journey• Still did not force women to veil, women were not secluded within the home• By 1400s Timbuktu becomes a leading center of learning, drew Muslim scholars from all over the world• Mali falls into decline after disputes over succession arise in 1400s
  12. 12. A NEW EMPIRE IN SONGHAI 1450 – wealthy trading city of Gao emerged as capital of West African kingdom of Songhai
  13. 13. SONNI ALI  Soldier king who uses his army to create the largest state that had ever existed  Brought trade routes and wealthy cities (like Timbuktu) under his control  Chooses not to adopt Islam and follows traditional religious beliefs instead
  14. 14. ASKI MUHAMMAD Expanded the territory of Songhai Improved government beauracracy As a Muslim, he made his hajj and met with different Islamic states along the way to increase his ties to the Muslim world. Built temples and schools to study the Quran Scholars and poets flock to Gao
  15. 15. INVADERS FROM THE NORTH! 1586 – succession disputes (surprise, surprise) lead to civil war Ruler of Morocco uses an army armed with gunpowder weapons to seize gold mines Morocco is unable to control Songhai across the Sahara, the kingdoms of West Africa end up splintered and fragmented 1591 – Songhai Empire “falls”
  16. 16. PRACTICE What would a good thesis be for:  Analyze the changes and continuities in Western Africa from the rise of the kingdom of Ghana through the fall of the Songhay.
  17. 17. THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE Which region is first to really sink their teeth into Africa? Which country? Portuguese establish forts and trading posts along the W African coast through the late 1400’s Trade includes  Ivory, pepper, animal skins and gold to Portuguese  Slaves from other sections of the coast to African rulers Work to interconnect and make contacts, can be hit or miss for the Portuguese Missionary efforts to convert Benin, the Kongo, and other African kingdoms  Reach Kongo (1484)  European missionaries very successful  Nzinga Mvemba (r.1507-1543) converts, entire kingdom becomes Christian  Portuguese attempt to Europeanize, but eventually the enslavement of his subjects leads Nzinga Mvemba to try to end the slave trade and limit the Portuguese  Only partly successful – Portuguese control the Kongo’s ability to communicate and trade with the outside world
  18. 18. EXTENDING THEIR REACH The Portuguese create forts/posts at Mbundu, Luanda, and establish the colony of Angola Round the cape and secure bases in Kilwa, Mombasa, and Sofala Incentives? Commercial and military (but usually bring a strong missionary contingent too) What next? 17th century, the Dutch, English, French and others follow suit
  19. 19.  Portuguese movement Portuguese Expansion and Major African Kingdoms down the coast becomes a common European pattern Trading stations Slave trade becomes central
  20. 20. BENIN BRONZEWORKS Ife artisans (neighboring kingdom)
  21. 21. South of the savanna BENIN FOREST KINGDOM  1300s  “Oba” – king who serves as a political and religious leader; spreads power among other groups (Queen mother and hereditary chiefs)  Benin bronzeworks – depict warriors armed for battle, queen mother’s updo’s, and the oba himself  In this 15th c. ivory mask, the “figures on the top represent the Portuguese who had been slaving in Africa since the mid 15th century”  /further-info/africa
  22. 22. HOW THEY SAW EACH OTHER Africans viewed Portuguese as strange but incorporated them into their world Portuguese saw Africans as savages who could be civilized and converted
  23. 23. REFOCUS ON PORTUGAL Between 1450-1460, the number of slaves entering Portugal per year goes from 50-500 Catalyst in the Americas?  sugarplantations begin to develop
  24. 24. Trend Toward Expansion 1450-1850  12 million Africans sent across Atlantic Estimated that by 1850 the population of west  10-11 million survive and central was about 18th century half of what it would  Height of trade have been without the  80 percent of total trade occurs during this time slave trade Muslim areas (1850 pop = 25 million)  Trans-Saharan, Red Sea, East Africa  3 million slaves traded Demographic Patterns  Saharan trade  Mostly women  Atlantic trade  Primarily young men for hard labor
  25. 25.  Rates of trade reflect changing economic and political situation in the New World Slave trade with Muslim world continues 3 million transported between 1450 and 1750 Wars increase in Africa as both cause and effect of slave trade
  26. 26. THE PROGRESSION OF THE ATLANTICSLAVE TRADE Organization of the Trade  Fewer than 10% of the  Portuguese dominate first, Europeans who were until ~ 1630 stationed in Africa  Dutch seize El Mina, 1630 lived through the first  Begin year to rival Portuguese  English – found the Royal African Company, involved in slave trade from 1660s  French involved as well
  28. 28. DEMOGRAPHICS Trade with Muslim world tended to focus on women Atlantic slave trade tended to focus on men African population reduced by half of what it would have been without slave trade by 1750
  29. 29.  Both Africans and Europeans involved in slave trade Not any more profitable than any other trade of its time Part of Triangular trade Drew African economy into world economy Resulted in African economies becoming dependent on trade with Europe
  30. 30. AFRICAN SOCIETIES,SLAVERY, AND THE SLAVETRADE Slavery had existed in Africa prior to the Atlantic Slave Trade Usually focused on enslavement of women Islamic forms of slavery also introduced Existence of slavery helped Europeans mobilize commerce of slaves by tapping into existing routes
  31. 31. SLAVING AND AFRICAN POLITICS Most states in western and central Africa were small and unstable Increasing frequency of wars led to increasing need for improved weaponry Power shifted due to European coastal presence Inland kingdoms gained power by gaining guns and working as intermediaries to the Europeans in the slave trade
  32. 32. ASANTE Gained access to firearms in 1650 and began expanding Became the dominant power on the gold coast up until 1820
  33. 33. DAHOMEY Emerged as a power in the 1720 Used access to firearms to form an autocratic state Primary economic activity relied on the slave trade Growth of absolute rulers paralleled the rise of absolutism in Europe Like in Europe, attempts were made to limit royal authority
  34. 34. STRING OF CITY-STATES Commercial cities rise along S. African coast Kilwa, Mogadishu, Mombassa, and Sofala From ancient times to early modern times, a continual trade area (Phoenicians, Greek, Roman, Indian) Muslim traders set up posts in 600 and 700s  Kilwa – one of the most beautifully constructed towns in the world  Blend of cultures – China, India, Arab, Bantu, SE Asia, etc  Swahili – Bantu base, Arabic words, Arabic script
  35. 35. EAST AFRICA AND SUDAN Swahili towns continue commerce in gold, ivory, and slaves with Middle Eastern markets Bantu speaking people dominated the region 18th century saw Islamization
  36. 36.  By the 1840, new political units were created Attempts were made to stamp out paganism and illiteracy Large numbers of captives from the religious wars were shipped down the coast to Europeans By the 19th century slaves made up to 50% op the population of this region
  38. 38. SOUTH AFRICA By 16th Century, Bantu-speakers occupy southern East Africa  Chiefdoms varied in size and power  Expansion  Competition and conflict
  39. 39.  1652- Dutch East India Company establishes the Cape Colony  Dutch enslave local Africans  1760s Dutch cross Orange River  Dutch gov’t attempts to limit settlement and slavery, but fails  Boers move north, “Great Trek” to avoid gov’t regulations
  40. 40.  Slave trade links Africa to World Economy Slavery is grueling and deadly Middle Passage: passage to Americas Slaves worked in Plantations and Mines Hierarchy created by Slave owners to prevent uprisings People lose local African identity  Createnew family units  Growth of communities of runaway slaves
  41. 41. MANY PEOPLES, MANY TRADITIONS  People and the Environment  Hunting and Food Gathering  Khoisan people of the Kalahari desert survive by gathering roots and herbs, hunt small game  Herding and Fishing  Raise herds of cattle in areas not plagued by the teste fly  Nomadic b/c resources are limited  Settled Farming Societies  Grow grains and root crops (yams) and tree crops (bananas)  Slash-and-burn agriculture – clear forest and brush with iron axes and hoes, burned remains and use ash as fertilizer
  42. 42. FAMILY PATTERNS Nuclear Family – whole family works together as a unit Lines of Descent  Matrilineal  Patrilineal Wider Ties  Lineage – several families share a common ancestor  Trace back to clans
  43. 43. RELIGIOUS BELIEFS Local polytheistic beliefs, based on natural deities  Usually have one god or goddess who has elevated status Christianity Islam
  44. 44. ARTISTIC AND LITERACYTRADITIONS Arts – ivory, wood, bronze  Wove dyed cloth  Inscribed bowls  Bracelets and neck ornaments for beauty  Very symbolic, often tied to religious ceremonies Literature  Oral and written literature  Griots – professional poets who recite ancient stories
  45. 45. WHERE THE AFRICANS AREENSLAVED 1530 – 1650 Spanish America and Brazil – majority of slaves  Spanish America and Brazil  English and French  Grow sugar, Caribbean, Jamaica, Barbados, 1550 – 1850  Brazil 3.5-5 million  The Caribbean islands and sugar  Virginia and the Carolinas in N. Am *Muslim traders – 3 million from trans-Sahara, Red Sea, and E African slave trade
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