Ancient Africa


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Ancient Africa

  1. 1. Africa Ancient
  2. 2. A former name for Africa; was largely mysterious to Europeans until the 19th century
  3. 3. B.C. Kushites move capital to Meroe Axum begins to control extensive trade network 800 400 A.D. Islam spreads to North Africa 1200 Mansa Musa journeys to Mecca 1600 Slave trade at height Bantu migrations begins 400 Ghana develops Songhai expands Great Zimbabwe completed Axum conquers Kush African History Timeline
  4. 4. A forest characterized by high rainfall
  5. 5. An open grassland dotted with shrubs and scattered clumps of trees SAVANNA
  6. 6. These migrations contributed to the rich diversity of African peoples and cultures. Towards History By 5500 B.C., Stone Age cultures started to develop in North Africa specifically in the Nile Valley region in Egypt. Africa cradled the dawning of mankind primarily in the Great Rift Valley region. About 2500 B.C., a climate change dried out the Sahara Desert (desertification) which forced the people to retreat towards the savanna and rain forest regions.
  7. 7. North Africa
  8. 8. Kushites Nubia took shape on a wide band of fertile land among the cataracts of the Upper Nile Also called Kush, located in present-day Sudan Kushites: darker-skinned than the Egyptians
  9. 9. KushitesFrom time to time, Egyptian pharaohs subdued Nubia. Adopted many Egyptian traditions Piankhi, conquered Egypt (730 B.C.) Trading center, connecting Egypt, Ethiopia, Red Sea and Central Africa Trade along the Nile and riches from emerald and gold mines made the kingdom prosperous
  10. 10. Meroë [capital of Kush] Kushites ADVANTAGES OF LOCATION River’s yearly floods enriched more land; discovery of iron ore; commanded trade routes
  11. 11. Nubia sent gold, ivory, animal skins, perfumes and slaves to the Mediterranean world and the Middle East; major ironworking center of the ancient world
  12. 12. Fall of Nubia Desertification may have engulfed Nubian farmlands; armies from the kingdom of Axum overwhelmed Nubia
  13. 13. Conquered the Kushites under King Ezana Ethiopia Located SE of Nubia; people were descended from African farmers and from traders who had immigrated from Arabia Axum culture is an African- Arabic hybrid; brought Hebrew religious traditions and a unique written and spoken language, Geez Commanded a trade network linking Africa, India and the Mediterranean world; Christianized by the Greeks (through trading); Islam and civil war weakened Axum Axum
  14. 14. AxumIn the 1200s,King Lalibela had a dozen of churches carved into the mountains
  15. 15. Hannibal Carthage Empire; N Africa; wealth from trade; founded by the Phoenician traders; rivalry with Rome (Hannibal)
  16. 16. Roman rule brought Christianity to North Africa (St. Augustine, the most influential Christian thinker of the late Roman empire)
  17. 17. The camel revolutionized trade By A.D. 200, camels had been brought to North Africa from Asia; they were called as the hardy ”ships of the desert.”
  18. 18. 600s, Arab armies carried Islam into North Africa; Berbers and Arabs joined forces to conquer Spain; replaced Christianity, Arabic replaced Latin; Cairo, Fez and Marakesh, famed for their mosques and libraries; busy trade; carried Islam into West Africa Spread of Islam
  19. 19. West Africa
  20. 20. Ghana “land of gold”, area north of Niger River; Kumbi Saleh, capital people were farmers and traders; controlled gold-salt trade routes; invaded and influenced by the Muslims; declined in the late 1100s Soninke
  21. 21. Soninke SILENT BARTER: traders who cannot speak each other’s language can trade without talking and to protect the secrets of where gold and salt came from. One group of traders would go to a location, leave their trading goods, withdraw to a distance and then play a drum to signal other traders that he was having a silent barter. The other group would then take goods (most commonly gold or salt). If the goods met with approval, the second group would then take the goods, leave their own goods in return and depart.
  22. 22. Mali is Arab version of Mandinke, “where the king dwells”; took over what is left of Ghana controlled caravan routes; Sundiata, brilliant military leader, crushed his enemies, won control of the gold trade routes and founded the empire of Mali; king was called as mansa; influenced by the Muslims; 1400s, disputes over succession weakened Mali Mandinke
  23. 23. Mansa Musa Ruled 25 years; pushed out the borders of his empire; used his power to ensure peace and order; devout Muslim; “There is complete security in their country,” wrote Ibn Battuta Mandinke
  24. 24. Mandinke 1324, Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Mecca increased Muslim influence in West Africa.
  25. 25. Grew out of Mali ; largest empire in West Africa; Gao, wealthy trading city and capital; prospered until about 1586, when disputes over succession led to civil war; conquered by Morocco Songhai
  26. 26. Set up a Muslim dynasty; further expanded the territory of Songhai and improved the government; set up a bureaucracy; his pilgrimage to Mecca increased ties with the Muslim world; he built mosques and opened schools for the study of the Quran Used his powerful army to forge the largest state that had ever existed in West Africa; brought key trade routes and wealthy cities like Timbuktu under his control; he did not adhere to the practices of Islam Sunni Ali Askia Muhammad Songhai
  27. 27. Askia Muhammad
  28. 28. Timbuktu Became a leading center of trade and learning Songhai
  29. 29. HAUSA Between 500 to 1500, other kingdoms flourished in various parts of West Africa. Nigeria; successful farmers and traders; built clay-walled cities; Kano, most prosperous city-state; made up of independent city-states that fought each other BENIN Rose in the rain forest of the Guinea coast; forest peoples carved out farming villages and traded pepper, ivory and later slaves to their neighbors in the savanna; oba, or king was both a political and religious leader; Benin City, capital Other Kingdoms of West Africa
  32. 32. The Bantu Migrations. There are over 300-600 tribes of this ethnic group distributed across Central, Eastern and Southern Africa. Swahili Khoisan Movement from western to east and south begun 2,500 years ago; series of waves until 19th century; probably from Nigeria; reasons for migrating are not clear They lived by farming, fishing and some herding; differed in appearance and ways of living, but spoke related languages Came in contact with other African groups and learned to live in a variety of environments
  33. 33. From Nubia, iron technology also developed at Nok. Later waves of Bantu migrants carried this knowledge with them. Iron tools made savanna cultivation and forest areas easier and more productive. Iron weapons were more effective against enemies. Metalworkers also created works of art using bronze, gold and other metals.
  34. 34. East Africa
  35. 35. KILWA While Axum declined, a string of commercial cities rose along the East African coast. Tanzania; “One of the most beautiful and well-constructed towns in the world.”; a hub for slave trade SOFALA Somalia; famous for its high quality fabric that it exported to Egypt East African City-States MOGADISHU Mozambique; known for its gold trade ZANZIBAR Islands off Tanzania; famous for its spices
  36. 36. Great ZimbabweZimbabwe; means “stone enclosure”; massive stone ruins sprawled across rocky hilltops near the Limpopo River
  37. 37. A prosperous capital of a great inland empire; part of a trade network that reached across the Indian Ocean Built by the Bantus between 900 and 1500 By 1500, Zimbabwe was in decline due to exhaustion of soil, civil war and dwindling trade The ruler was a god-king who presided over a large court; a central bureaucracy ruled an inner ring of provinces Little is known about its government
  38. 38. Slave Trade The Atlantic
  39. 39. In the next 300 years, it grew into a huge and profitable business Slave came from the word Slav (unpaid laborers in Roman times History Began in 1500s; to fill the need for labor in Spain’s American empire Each year, traders shipped tens of thousands of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to work on tobacco and sugar plantations in the Americas.
  40. 40. Volume and Destinations
  41. 41. Middle Passage: voyage from Africa to the Americas on the slave ships or the “floating coffins” Africans were packed below the decks of slave ships. Hundreds of men and women and children were crammed into a single vessel
  42. 42. Up to half of the Africans on board died from disease or brutal mistreatment. Sometimes, enslaved Africans committed suicide by leaping overboard.
  43. 43. Others tried to seize control of the ship and return to Africa
  44. 44. Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade By the 1800s, when the overseas slave trade was finally stopped, an estimated 11 million enslaved Africans had reached the Americas. Another two million probably died under the brutal conditions of the Middle Passage. Loss of countless numbers of young women and men from West Africa and extinction of some societies and small states