CHAPTER 14:
CENTRAL AND EASTERN AFRICA TO THE
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
Submitted by: Ayson, Sherrine J.
Iv-16 BSE History
Farmers, fishers and hunters of
the Congo forest

Contains Africa’s largest area of
tropical rain forest.
Farmers, fishers and hunters of
the Congo forest
The varied environment
allowed a range of productive
activity:
hunting, f...
Farmers, fishers and hunters of
the Congo forest

Staple crops

replaced by American

in 17th-18th centuries.

and
Farmers, fishers and hunters of
the Congo forest
 Most activities required co-operative labour
 Small villages (up to 20...
Farmers, fishers and hunters of
the Congo forest

Inter-group relationships based
on marriage
Some larger groupings: und...
Farmers, fishers and hunters of
the Congo forest
A few kingdoms (Kuba, Loango, Tio): they
usually provided link with Atla...
West-central Africa in the ear
of the slave trade
Kingdon of
Kongo

1480s:

arrival

of

Portuguese:

diplomatic relation...
Kingdon of Kongo
presence

Portuguese

stimulated dynastic dispute

Portuguese

helped

put

Christian convert on throne...
Kingdon of Kongo
Kingdon of Kongo
Kingdon of Kongo
 War-captives sold
for slave export to
São Tomé
 São Tomé settlers
promoted wars for

more captives
 1...
Kingdon of Kongo
Kingdon of Kongo

 1568-9 Jaga invasion weakened Kongo, king into exile
West-central Africa in the ear
of the slave trade
1574: Alvaro I reinstated by

Portuguese with São Tomé
mercenaries
Roy...
Angola and the slave trade

16th century: São Tomé major transit for trans-Atlantic trade

São Tomé traders established ...
Angola and the slave trade
Purchased captives from Ngola of Ndongo
Ngola expanded kingdom to produce war captives for sa...
Angola and the slave trade
São Tomé traders established trading post at Luanda
(independent of royal Portuguese control
Angola and the slave trade
Invasion failed – many soldiers settled as regular slave traders
Established southern trading...
Angola and the slave trade

Invasion failed – many soldiers
settled as regular slave traders
Established southern tradin...
Angola and the slave trade
Competition from Dutch, French
and English – selling guns to

stimulate war and captives
Central African empires and
the growth of trade
Other imports: Indian cottons and Brazilian rum
1570s-80s Imbangala inva...
Central African empires and
the growth of trade
The Lunda of Mwata Yamvo

Empire reached its height
2nd half of seventee...
Central African empires and
the growth of trade
The Lunda of Mwata Yamvo

Mwata Yamvo tribute collection stimulated long...
Central African empires and
the growth of trade
The Lunda of Kazembe

Early 18th century tribute state
deliberately set ...
Central African empires and
the growth of trade
The Maravi empire of Kalonga

Rich natural resources (cassava, maize, sa...
Central African empires and
the growth of trade
The Lunda of Kazembe

16th century Maravi
kingdoms: Kalonga, Lundu
and U...
Central African empires and
the growth of trade
The Lunda of Kazembe

c.1600-1650: Kalonga Masula reestablished peaceful...
Central African empires and
the growth of trade
The Changamire Rozvi of the
Zimbabwe plateau
Central African empires and
the growth of trade
The Changamire Rozvi of the
Zimbabwe plateau

17th century: Portuguese i...
Central African empires and
the growth of trade
The Changamire Rozvi of the
Zimbabwe plateau

From 1684, expelled Portug...
Central African empires and
the growth of trade
The Changamire Rozvi of the
Zimbabwe plateau

Portuguese confined to tra...
The east African interior west
of the Victoria Nyanza

Bunyoro (mixed farming, hunting, herding) dominant power from 16th...
The east African interior west
of the Victoria Nyanza
The rise of Buganda

17th century: small compact centralised state...
The east African interior west
of the Victoria Nyanza
Pastoralist kingdoms of the south-western
highlands

Nkore, Rwanda...
The east African interior east
of the Victoria Nyanza
Pastoralist kingdoms of the south-western
highlands

Nilotic-speak...
The east African interior east
of the Victoria Nyanza
Pastoralist kingdoms of the south-western
highlands

In higher rai...
Bibliography
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Chapter 14 central and eastern Africa to the 18th Century.ppt

  1. 1. CHAPTER 14: CENTRAL AND EASTERN AFRICA TO THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY Submitted by: Ayson, Sherrine J. Iv-16 BSE History
  2. 2. Farmers, fishers and hunters of the Congo forest Contains Africa’s largest area of tropical rain forest.
  3. 3. Farmers, fishers and hunters of the Congo forest The varied environment allowed a range of productive activity: hunting, fishing, farming Some people specialist in one or two
  4. 4. Farmers, fishers and hunters of the Congo forest Staple crops replaced by American in 17th-18th centuries. and
  5. 5. Farmers, fishers and hunters of the Congo forest  Most activities required co-operative labour  Small villages (up to 200 adults) most common  Gender: women (cultivators) subservient to men  System of clientage and some captive labour
  6. 6. Farmers, fishers and hunters of the Congo forest Inter-group relationships based on marriage Some larger groupings: under war leader, common religious cult River transport – communication and trade: Malebo Pool major junction language or
  7. 7. Farmers, fishers and hunters of the Congo forest A few kingdoms (Kuba, Loango, Tio): they usually provided link with Atlantic slave trade
  8. 8. West-central Africa in the ear of the slave trade Kingdon of Kongo 1480s: arrival of Portuguese: diplomatic relations with Kongo King of Kongo wanted: teachers, craftsmen, weapons, merce naries Portuguese initially wanted: trade in gold, copper, silver, spices Soon disappointed with lack of minerals for trade
  9. 9. Kingdon of Kongo presence Portuguese stimulated dynastic dispute Portuguese helped put Christian convert on throne: Afonso I (r.1506-42) Afonso used religion to strengthen royal authority Dependant now on Portuguese rather than local regional support Afonso used Portuguese weapons and mercenaries to expand kingdom
  10. 10. Kingdon of Kongo
  11. 11. Kingdon of Kongo
  12. 12. Kingdon of Kongo  War-captives sold for slave export to São Tomé  São Tomé settlers promoted wars for more captives  16th century development of transAtlantic trade put more pressure on Kongo to produce more slaves
  13. 13. Kingdon of Kongo
  14. 14. Kingdon of Kongo  1568-9 Jaga invasion weakened Kongo, king into exile
  15. 15. West-central Africa in the ear of the slave trade 1574: Alvaro I reinstated by Portuguese with São Tomé mercenaries Royal power now weakened, collapsed in 17th century: Kongo disintegrated into rival regional factions Slave trade dominant, Dutch competition, pombeiros (specialist slave traders)
  16. 16. Angola and the slave trade 16th century: São Tomé major transit for trans-Atlantic trade São Tomé traders established trading post at Luanda (independent of royal Portuguese control
  17. 17. Angola and the slave trade Purchased captives from Ngola of Ndongo Ngola expanded kingdom to produce war captives for sale 1580s: Portuguese attempted invasion of Ndongo to find rumoured silver mines
  18. 18. Angola and the slave trade São Tomé traders established trading post at Luanda (independent of royal Portuguese control
  19. 19. Angola and the slave trade Invasion failed – many soldiers settled as regular slave traders Established southern trading post: Benguela 17th-18th centuries: Angolan coast became major export zone for trans-Atlantic slave trade
  20. 20. Angola and the slave trade Invasion failed – many soldiers settled as regular slave traders Established southern trading post: Benguela 17th-18th centuries: Angolan coast became major export zone for trans-Atlantic slave trade
  21. 21. Angola and the slave trade Competition from Dutch, French and English – selling guns to stimulate war and captives
  22. 22. Central African empires and the growth of trade Other imports: Indian cottons and Brazilian rum 1570s-80s Imbangala invasion of coastal lowlands, formed the raiding/trading state of Kasanje
  23. 23. Central African empires and the growth of trade The Lunda of Mwata Yamvo Empire reached its height 2nd half of seventeenth century Many Lunda offshoots (e.g. Imbangala) New American crops (maize, cassava) became major staples: drought-resistant cassava enabled regular food surpluses, providing stability within the empire
  24. 24. Central African empires and the growth of trade The Lunda of Mwata Yamvo Mwata Yamvo tribute collection stimulated long-distance trade Local specialisations (metal manufactures, copper, ivory, pottery) sent to royal court as tribute Tribute redistributed or exchanged for luxuries Major trade items: ivory and slaves, for cotton cloth and guns Use of guns spread slave trade networks deep into continent
  25. 25. Central African empires and the growth of trade The Lunda of Kazembe Early 18th century tribute state deliberately set up by Mwata Yamvo under authority of Kazembe, with authority to collect tribute from Zambian/Congo ‘copperbelt’ region Kazembe II, c.1740 established eastern state in Luapula Valley Late 17th century, independent of Mwata Yamvo – only nominal tribute
  26. 26. Central African empires and the growth of trade The Maravi empire of Kalonga Rich natural resources (cassava, maize, salt, fish, copper, iron) Wide collection of tribute from the region 1800: Kazembe III’s capital: centre of vast trans-African trading network: access to both Atlantic and Indian Ocean systems Exports: iron, copper, ivory, salt and (later) slaves Imports: European woollens and guns, Indian cottons, glass beads and court luxuries
  27. 27. Central African empires and the growth of trade The Lunda of Kazembe 16th century Maravi kingdoms: Kalonga, Lundu and Undi – federations of chiefdoms Manufacturers and exporters of iron, hunters of ivory in Zambezi and Shire valleys 16th century Portuguese attempts to control ivory trade provoked backlash which temporarily drove Portuguese from Sena and Tete in Zambezi valley (‘waZimba’ invasion)
  28. 28. Central African empires and the growth of trade The Lunda of Kazembe c.1600-1650: Kalonga Masula reestablished peaceful ivory trading with Portuguese, and absorbed Lundu and Undi into Maravi empire from Shire valley to Mozambique island on the coast (Map 14.2) 1623 Kalonga attacked Mutapa, south of Zambezi Kalonga empire declined after Masula’s death in 1650: too much reliance on personal leadership, lack of central administration Chiefdoms asserted independence, Yao took over ivorytrading routes Lack of central authority left way open for violent slaving caravans of early 19th century
  29. 29. Central African empires and the growth of trade The Changamire Rozvi of the Zimbabwe plateau
  30. 30. Central African empires and the growth of trade The Changamire Rozvi of the Zimbabwe plateau 17th century: Portuguese increasing interference in Mutapa kingdom: provoking civil conflict and using violence to try and force people to mine for gold Defensive private armies formed, mostly by wealthy cattle-owners: poor seeking protection of rich, offered themselves for military service By 1670s Dombo (wealthy cattleowner with powerful private army), title: Changamire. Army: Rozvi (‘destroyers’) Invaded and took over southwestern kingdom of Guruuswa (or Butua)
  31. 31. Central African empires and the growth of trade The Changamire Rozvi of the Zimbabwe plateau From 1684, expelled Portuguese from Mutapa and Manyika Rozvi empire became dominant power on Zimbabwe plateau Portuguese of Sena and Tete only saved by death of Changamire Dombo in 1696 Succession dispute: Rozvi withdrew onto plateau, where they remained dominant over Shona chiefdoms throughout 18th century: military collection of tribute and approval of chiefly succession Mining and trading of gold under royal control
  32. 32. Central African empires and the growth of trade The Changamire Rozvi of the Zimbabwe plateau Portuguese confined to trading posts in Zambezi valley Gold trade not allowed to become economically dominant: most gold crafted into ornaments for local use Basis of economy remained; cattle, hunting and small-scale farming
  33. 33. The east African interior west of the Victoria Nyanza Bunyoro (mixed farming, hunting, herding) dominant power from 16th century: loose confederation of chiefdoms Bunyoro cattle raids conducted south and east
  34. 34. The east African interior west of the Victoria Nyanza The rise of Buganda 17th century: small compact centralised state, based on agriculture Banana cultivation on north-west shores of Victoria Nyanza: agricultural stability – no need for shifting cultivation: hence, compact state, dense population, centralised government (possibly as defence from Bunyoro raids) Kabaka Mawanga (early 18th century) formed strong centralised kingdom at expense of traditional clan chiefs Kabaka controlled land allocation to regional territorial chiefs Peasantry provided wealth through taxation, passed as tribute through hierarchy Banana cultivation did not require fulltime labour: peasantry available for public works: Roads radiating from capital enabled kabaka to maintain his authority over local clans Territorial chieftaincies kept out of hands of royal clan, to prevent alternative power bases 18th century Buganda expansion, surpassed Bunyoro in strength by 1800
  35. 35. The east African interior west of the Victoria Nyanza Pastoralist kingdoms of the south-western highlands Nkore, Rwanda, Burundi: in densely-populated fertile highlands Ba-Hima in Nkore, Ba-Tutsi in Rwanda and Burundi: started as cattle-keepers in upland grasslands They gradually established dominance over valley cultivators, converting trading relationship into clientship: lending cattle and demanding herding services and food tribute Cattle-owners became aristocratic ‘warrior’ class of rulers who offered ‘protection’ from raids by rival clans By 18th century the Tutsi clans had merged into two kingdoms: Rwanda and Burundi Developed elaborate rituals and myths of ancient origin to justify their dominance over subservient ‘Ba-Hutu’ peasantry Tutsi/Hutu: class distinction based upon wealth and power consolidated into a caste system, that was to develop into ethnic antagonism from late-19th century
  36. 36. The east African interior east of the Victoria Nyanza Pastoralist kingdoms of the south-western highlands Nilotic-speaking pastoralists pushed south into region in 16th-17th centuries: Ateker and Teso (north-eastern Uganda), Turkana and Samburu (north-western Kenya), Maasai (central Kenya, northern Tanzania) Maasai found central rift valley already occupied (e.g. Kalenjin), so seized grazing land by force, with myth that all cattle belonged to Maasai Maasai: age-set system, along military lines (similar to Oromo, pp.170-1) No single coherent group – related groups governed by councils of elders (3rd ageset) Developed peaceable relations with Bantu-speaking farmers, trading with Kikuyu and Kamba Kikuyu developed age-sets and initiation based on Maasia practices Most Bantu-speaking farmers in small chiefdoms
  37. 37. The east African interior east of the Victoria Nyanza Pastoralist kingdoms of the south-western highlands In higher rainfall regions (Kilimanjaro, Usambara and Pare mts) sizeable states emerged among Chagga, Pare and Shambaa Their age-sets and initiations ceremonies possibly from earlier Chushitic neighbours Tanzanian plateau: rich in iron ore and salt – long-distance trading networks 18th century, Nyamwezi became professional traders and ivory-porters They developed trading links between Lakeland kingdoms and Swahili coast (important for ivory and slave trade of 19th century)
  38. 38. Bibliography

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