GeographyAfrica is the 2nd largestcontinent in the world. Itmeasures 30, 244, 000square kilometers wide with1,032,532,974 people livingas of 2011.A large part of continent ismade up of deserts.A. Sahara – largest desert inthe world; Northern part.B. Kalahari – Southern partThe scarce rainfall in theseareas bring about theappearance of spring, whichforms an oasis
TwoAfricas:Mediterranean Africa– near the region ofthe north Saharawith a climateidentical to that ofSouthern EuropeTropical Africa - hasthick jungles,deserts, and grasslands.
HistoryAncient peoplessettled on the NileValley during theNeolithic (NewStone) Age, around5000 BC.Many scientistsbelieve that thefirst people in theworld came fromAfrica.“Lucy”, one of thefirst discoveredaustralopithecines,was discovered inthe Great LiftValley.Early Africanpeoples did notusually leave awritten record.
Traditional SocietyVillage Government – power wasshared among the members of thecommunity, not a single leader.Family Patterns – the group wasalways more important than theindividual.Religious Beliefs – Early Africansidentified with the forces of natureand the belief that all living andnonliving things contained spirits,this is called animism.
Rise of CommunitiesA. Nok (800BC –200AD)Known forbeautiful,life-sizedmetalsculpturesused as artpieces.They alsomade jewelrymade frommetal such assteel, goldand tin.The figurinesthey madewere dressedby the cloththey wove,for the Nokswereexcellentweavers.They lived inhouses madefrom driedmud.They werepolytheistic –they believein more thanone God.
B. Bantu(600BC –1000BCAD)Bantus lived in theSahara, south ofAfrica.They spread theirculture andlanguagethroughout thecontinent.They lived byfarming and animalraising. Womencommonly raisedcrops while menhunted.Magic was centralto the Bantus’beliefs. They alsobelieved that soulwould separatefrom the body atthe time of death.
Ancient KingdomsA. Kingdom of Kush (1600BC-300AD)In 1600BC, theNubiansestablished theKingdom ofKush.Egypt defeatedKush in 1525BC.Egypt fell in800-700BC.Kushitesdeclaredfreedom andelected a newking in 715BC.In 671BC, theKushitesescaped toMenroe.In 350 AD,Ezana, took overthe Kingdom ofKush.
•They have a system of writing and their citiesboasted palaces made of stone.•it was the first kingdom in Africa to ever have itsown money made of gold, silver, and bronze.•The Kingdom of Aksum was strong in the north,of what is now called Ethiopia.•Its economy was sustained by trade in the RedSea.•In the 4th century, the Aksum kings converted toChristianity.•Trade in Aksum remained strong until the 7thcentury, the time when Islam began to spread.B.KingdomofAksum(600-500BC)
Early Imperial TradeA Empire of Ghana (5th-11th Century)Gold CoastThe Soninkes benefited from the taxes they imposed on their trade of mines, saltand gold. They controlled this trade and established a large empire called Ghana.They also designated the value of gold, and assigned taxes to the salt and goldthat were delivered.Kumbi Saleh (now the modern desert region of Senegal) was the capital of Ghana.Trade became the center of Soninke culture.However they rejected the religion of Islam.
B. Empire of Kanem-Bornu(9th-19th Century)It can be foundaround the ChadLake.Tasted victory in the17th century, withterritoriescompromisingsouthern Chad,northern Cameroon,northeasternNigeria, easternNiger, and southernLibya.The Kanem-Bornuwas built in themiddle of the 19thcentury. Because ofits location, itserved as a traderoute from NorthAfrica, Nile Valleyand sub-Saharanregions.
•It is composed of Mandika people.•The Soso Empire rose, this obliterated manyraces, including the Mandinka. Sundiata Kitawas the lone survivor, and when he grew up,he led the successful Mandinka Revolutionagainst the Soso reign.•Sundiata converted to Islam. Those whosucceeded him carried the title mansa,meaning “emperor”.•The most famous emperor of Mali was MansaMusa who governed in 1312 AD.•The first map of Africa was drawn in 1375,showing Mansa Musa sitting on the thrownwith the title, “Lord of the Negroes”.C. MaliEmpire
Sunni Ali was the leaderwho attacked the Maliempire. He was known forhis belief in pagan gods andmagic.Sunni Ali was When SunniAli dies, he was succeededby Askia Mohammed whoruled from 1493-1528.Askia was a devoted Muslimwho tried to unite histerritories under one Muslimempire through consecutivewars.It was eventually destroyedfrom enemy attacks andfrom conflicts from theempire itself.D. SonghaiEmpire
ContributionsArt – closelytied withreligion, madefrom ivory,wood andbronze.LiteraryTraditions–folktales werepassed on fromgeneration togeneration,Arabic was apopular writtenlanguage.Education – inmost societies,it was the dutyof the elders toteach boys andgirls their rolesin the village.Commerce-trade allowedmany empiresto prosper anddevelop as aresult ofculturaldiffusion.
Yambo Ouologuem Born on August 22, 1940. Pseudonym: Utto Rudolph. Works: Le Devoir de Violence (English: Bound toViolence, 1968), Lettre à la France nègre (1969),and Les mille et une bibles du sexe (1969). He learned several African languages and gained fluencyin French, English, and Spanish. He went to Paris in 1960, where he studied sociology,philosophy and English. He is reputed to have been leading a secluded Islamiclife as a Marabout.
When Black Men’s Teeth SpeakOut by Yambo Ouologuem Theme: In the poem, “When Black Men’s Teeth Speak Out”,it actually deals with stereotypes of oppressed people andrace relations in Africa and how this stereotyping affectsthem. Language and Style: The poet used literary device ofrepetition, but also adds onomatopoeia. Symbolism: “And there they found a tomato field in bloom” – symbolizesthe harmless occupations of most of the Africans. “Washed by streams flowing with palm-tree wine” -represents the traditional popular African drink. “Hurrah for tomatoes” - reminds the oppressors that red isthe color of blood inside every human being regardless ofhis skin color.
Characters:• Persona – He is being blamed for his countrystourism failures saying he is a cannibal because of his teethand red gums.• Society – They view the protagonist as a dreadfulanimal, believing that he could occasionally and secretlyeating humans. Settings:• Africa
Plot: Introduction: The character said that people think that he isa cannibal because of his red gums and teeth. Rising Action: People blamed the character why there aren’tmany tourists in their country. They even accused him ofboiling or grilling the tourists alive. Climax: The character was surrounded, tied up, and thrownto the ground at the feet of justice. There, he was severelycriticized and sentenced to death. Also, a girl, one of thecrowds, yapped to open the character’s stomach claimingthat his daddy was still inside. Falling Action: Since no knives were around, somebodygrabbed a Gillette blade and opened the character’s belly. Conclusion: When they opened him up, all they saw weretomatoes for the character is vegetarian.
Conflict and Point of View: The conflict of the story was Man versus Society for theprotagonist was condemned of being the reason why thetourism in their country is not on its full-height.Moreover, people accused him as a cannibal. The point of view of the poem is considered as a first-person point of view since the character participated andnarrated the events, which he observed in the storyusing the third-person pronouns I and they.