African Kingdoms


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African Kingdoms

  1. 1. Kingdoms of Africa
  2. 2. Early trade with Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Chinese, and Indians trading communities set up by Arab and Asian immigrants on east coast EAST AFRICAN KINGDOMS Thriving trade Rise of slave trade Introduction of crops and animals from Middle East & Asia Rich mix of cultures Development of Swahili language
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Indian Ocean linked East Africa to India and other Asian lands. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  4. 4. East African City-States <ul><li>Around 600, Arab merchants established trading cities along the coast of East Africa. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  5. 5. <ul><li>Trade led to cultural diffusion in East Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>This led to a new language, Swahili, in which Arabic words were mixed with Bantu, an African language. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  6. 6. 1. Nubia (1000 B.C. – 150 A.D.) <ul><li>built a wide trade network </li></ul><ul><li>exported ivory, animal skins, gold, perfume, slaves </li></ul><ul><li>developed an alphabet instead of hieroglyphics </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2. Axum (350 CE -600 CE) <ul><li>Linked Africa, India, and the Mediterranean trade </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity spread through trade </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestors to present-day Ethiopians </li></ul>
  8. 8. II. Kingdoms of West Africa <ul><li>People needed salt to survive in Africa’s hot climate. There was plenty of salt in the Sahara, but there was little in the savanna. So people trade salt for gold. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong West African rulers created powerful kingdoms by gaining control over the trade routes for salt and gold. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1. Ghana (800-1000) <ul><li>Controlled gold-salt trade routes across West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>High status held by women </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim advisors to the king spread Islamic religion and learning </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Camels were valued. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>These people called their chief ghana , or war chief. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 700s, the kingdom of Ghana was growing rich from taxing traders’ goods. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  12. 12. <ul><li>Gold came from a forest region south of the savanna between the Niger and Senegal rivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Miners dug gold from shafts as deep as 100 feet or sifted it from fast-moving streams. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  13. 13. <ul><li>Although rich in gold, West Africa lacked salt, which is essential to human life. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sahara contained deposits of salt. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  14. 14. <ul><li>In the Saharan village of Taghaza, workers built their houses from salt blocks because it was the only material available. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  15. 15. <ul><li>Arab traders would cross the desert with salt and exchanged it for gold in trading cities like Ghana. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  16. 16. <ul><li>Only the king had the right to own gold and salt. </li></ul><ul><li>The king limited the supply of gold and salt and kept prices from falling. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  17. 17. <ul><li>“ The king…adorns himself… wearing necklaces and bracelets… The court of appeal is held in a domed pavilion around which stand ten horses with gold embroidered trappings. Behind the king stand ten pages holding gold shields and swords.” </li></ul>
  18. 19. Decline of Ghana <ul><li>In 1076, the Muslim Almoravids of North Africa conquered Ghana. </li></ul><ul><li>This badly disrupted the gold-salt trade, and Ghana never regained its power. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  19. 20. 2. Mali (1200-1450)
  20. 21. <ul><li>Expanded influence over gold-salt trade routes </li></ul>
  21. 22. Mansa Musa - <ul><li>The greatest Mali emperor </li></ul><ul><li>He expanded borders to Atlantic Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>He converted Mali to Islam </li></ul><ul><li>He based justice system on the Koran </li></ul><ul><li>He made a famous hajj to Mecca, formed new trade ties and spread news of Mali’s wealth. </li></ul>
  22. 23. 2. Mansa Musa Expands Mali <ul><li>Mansa Musa , a Muslim, next ruled Mali. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a skilled military leader whose 100,000 man army protected Mali. </li></ul><ul><li>The great leader of Mali, Mansa Musa in a medieval manuscript </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  23. 24. <ul><li>Under Mansa Musa, Mali expanded to twice its size. </li></ul><ul><li>Mali was divided into provinces for more effective rule. </li></ul>
  24. 25. 3. Islam and Mali <ul><li>Mansa Musa went on a hajj to Mecca from 1324 to 1325. </li></ul><ul><li>When he returned, he ordered the building of new mosques at the trading cities of Timbuktu and Gao . </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Timbuktu attracted Muslim judges, doctors, religious leaders, and scholars from far and wide to its mosques and universities. </li></ul><ul><li>Manuscripts were brought to Timbuktu to be sold. </li></ul>
  26. 27. 4. Ibn Battuta <ul><li>In 1352, Ibn Battuta, a traveler and historian, visited Mali and was amazed at its lack of crime. </li></ul><ul><li>A devout Muslim, he praised Mali for their study of the Koran. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>“ They are seldom unjust, and have a greater hatred of injustice than any other people. Their sultan shows no mercy to anyone who is guilty of the least act of it. There is complete security in their country. Neither traveler nor inhabitant in it has anything to fear from robbers.” </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Within 50 years of Ibn Battuta’s visit, Mali began to weaken. </li></ul><ul><li>Many leaders did not govern well, and the gold-salt trade shifted as new goldfields were developed. </li></ul>
  29. 31. 3. Songhai (1450-1600) <ul><li>Largest West African state </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled key trade routes and wealthy cities </li></ul><ul><li>Held traditional religious beliefs (animism, forces of nature) then adopted Islam </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>Set up efficient government and bureaucracy (separate departments) </li></ul><ul><li>Timbuktu -leading center of learning by 1400 </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Despite its wealth, Songhai lacked modern weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1591, a Morrocan fighting force equipped with gunpowder and cannons invaded Songhai. </li></ul>Decline of Songhai DON’T WRITE
  32. 34. Modern Africa
  33. 35. Kinshasa,Congo
  34. 36. Modern Cairo, Egypt at night
  35. 37. Hillbrow Tower The Hillbrow Tower is a tall tower located in the suburb of Hillbrow in Johannesburg , South Africa . Construction for the tower began in June 1968 and was completed three years later in April 1971. The tower was constructed for what became Telkom , South Africa's largest telecommunications company. As the general height of buildings rose in the central business district , it was necessary that the new telephone tower had to stay above the general height of the tallest building.
  36. 38. Nairobi is the capital and largest city of Kenya . The city and its surrounding area also forms the Nairobi Province . The name &quot;Nairobi&quot; comes from the Maasai phrase Enkare Nyirobi , which translates to &quot;the place of cool waters&quot;.
  37. 39. Kampala, Uganda