The Kingdoms of West Africa I Am Me Creativity  Inc.
Gold Wealth of Ghana <ul><ul><li>The rulers of the Soninke people united many farming villages to create the kingdom of Gh...
Trading Gold And Salt Dominating Sahara Trade <ul><ul><li>Neolithic farmers grew beans, melons, and cereal grains </li></u...
Islamic Influence <ul><ul><li>Gold wealth in Ghana lured Muslim merchants to help make Kumbi Salen a center of trade. </li...
The Kingdom of Mali <ul><ul><li>Sumanguru ruled in Western Africa in early 1200s.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accordin...
Great Emperor Mansa Musa <ul><ul><li>Came to the throne around 1312. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded Mali�s border...
A New Empire in Songhai  In the 1400s the empire shriveled as disputes over succession weakened Mali. Goa emerged as capit...
Other Kingdoms of West Africa <ul><ul><li>The people of Hausa were in the fertile northern lands of modern-day Nigeria.  <...
The Forest kingdom of Benin <ul><ul><li>Began its rise in the rain forests of the Guinea coast.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

the kingdoms of west africa

1,590 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,590
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

the kingdoms of west africa

  1. 1. The Kingdoms of West Africa I Am Me Creativity Inc.
  2. 2. Gold Wealth of Ghana <ul><ul><li>The rulers of the Soninke people united many farming villages to create the kingdom of Ghana, by A.D 800. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghana was located in the broad �V� made by the Senegal and Niger rivers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The king controlled gold-salt trade across West Africa were the Two trade streams met in the marketplaces of Ghana, where the king collected tolls on all goods entering or leaving his land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kumbi Saleh was the capitol of Ghana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of two separate, walled towns, nearly six miles apart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The king of Ghana presided over elaborate ceremonies and to the people, he was a semi divine figure who dispensed justice and kept order. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Trading Gold And Salt Dominating Sahara Trade <ul><ul><li>Neolithic farmers grew beans, melons, and cereal grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Villagers traded any surplus food they made. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A trade network linked the savanna to forest lands in the south then across the Sahara to civilizations along the Mediterranean and in the Middle East. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of gold in present-day Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold bearing soil was dug by men and women then washed the soil to take out the gold dust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The precious metal was then stuffed into hollow feather quills for safe travel to the markets of Europe and North Africa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In return, West Africa received salt, an equally important commodity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt is needed to prevent dehydration, especially in hot, tropical areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At Taghaza, in the central Sahara, people used salt blocks to build homes. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Islamic Influence <ul><ul><li>Gold wealth in Ghana lured Muslim merchants to help make Kumbi Salen a center of trade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brought their Islamic faith to Ghana </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>employed as counselors and officials. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People gradually absorbed Muslim military technology and ideas in government. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Soninke people stayed with their own traditional beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dwellers adopted Islam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims introduced their written language, coinage, business methods and architecture styles. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 1050 Almoravids tried to spread their form of Islam but were overwhelmed by Ghana and were unable to gain control. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Kingdom of Mali <ul><ul><li>Sumanguru ruled in Western Africa in early 1200s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>According to legend, he feared the Mandinka ruling family and killed all but one son who was sick and seemed to be near his demise soon. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sundiata, the spared son, survived and recruited army that defeated Sumanguru in 1235 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persuaded the other chiefs to surrender and let him rul. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founded the Mali. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mansas expanded influence over gold-mining region to the south and Tagnaza salt supplies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Great Emperor Mansa Musa <ul><ul><li>Came to the throne around 1312. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded Mali�s borders westward to the Atlantic Ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conquered many northern cities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worked to ensure peace and order in his empire. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Converted to Islam and based justice system on the Quran. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 1324, he fulfilled one of the five pillars by making the pilgrimage to Mecca. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made new diplomatic and economic ties to other Muslim states. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of wealthy people and ideas increased Mali�s popularity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By the 1400s, Timbuktu became a popular learning center </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. A New Empire in Songhai In the 1400s the empire shriveled as disputes over succession weakened Mali. Goa emerged as capital of Songhai, the new West African kingdom. <ul><li>Two great Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sonni-Ali used powerful army to create the biggest state ever to exist in the West Africa, between 1464-1492. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Took control of trade routes and he, unlike the rest rulers of Mali, followed traditional religious beliefs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Askia Muhammad set up a Muslim dynasty and expanded Songhai territory and improved government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He set up a bureaucracy with separate departments for the army, farming, and treasury. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He also made a pilgrimage to Mecca, increasing ties with the Muslim world. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built mosques and opened schools in towns and cities across Songhai. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Invaders from the North </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Songhai prospered until disputes over succession led to civil war around 1586. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ruler of Morocco sent armies to defeat the disunited forces of Songhai to seize the West African gold mine using gun powder weapons. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Just like the almoravids, they were unable to control an empire across the Sahara. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Other Kingdoms of West Africa <ul><ul><li>The people of Hausa were in the fertile northern lands of modern-day Nigeria. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Were successful at both farming and trading. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton weavers, and dyers, leatherworkers, and other artisans produced goods for sale as the independent city-states expanded into commercial centers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kano was the most prosperous Hausa city-state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Populations of more than 30,000 people were protected by walls 14 miles in circumference. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Its greatest king, Muhammad Rumfa, was a Muslim like many officials and merchants. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hausa developed an Arabic based written language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many rulers were women. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amina of the city state Zaria. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conquered Kano and expanded Zahria�s boundary to as far as the Niger River. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hausa started to dominate many Saharan trade routes under her rule. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Forest kingdom of Benin <ul><ul><li>Began its rise in the rain forests of the Guinea coast. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People made farming villages and traded ivory, pepper and later they traded slaves to their neighbors in the savanna. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdoms were organized in the 1300s. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An oba, or king, was a religious and political leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much of the power was spread among other figures, including the queen mother and a council of heredity chiefs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benin City, the capital, was surrounded by a tree-mile-long wall. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The palace was decorated with elaborate brass plaque and sculptures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tradition says that Ife artisans, an earlier forest society, taught the Benin people how to cast brass and bronze. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benin sculptors developed a unique style for representing the human form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works depicted warriors armed for battle, queen mothers with unswept hairstyles and the Oba himself. </li></ul></ul></ul>

×