GRP2 Board Presentation 2011<br />Fergus Sinclair, Antoine Kalinganire, <br />Edmundo Barrios, Catherine Muthuri, Adrian Radcliffe, Gudeta Sileshi, Jeremias Mowo, Ann Degrande, Ujjwal Pradhan, Pal Singh, Roberto Porro, Genevieve Lamond, Anja Gassner<br />
Take home messages<br />Consolidation, breadth and depth of GRP2<br />Strengthening connections with other GRPs, especially 1, 3 and 4<br />Setting the stage for innovation and integration in CRPs 6.1, 1.1, 1.2 and 5<br />
GRP2 aims to develop design principles, technology options and decision support tools for enhancing productivity and resilience of farming systems through the adoption, adaptation and improved management of agroforestry practices. <br />Development programs for smallholder farmers include agroforestry management options among intervention choices they consider, and use improved tools, approaches and knowledge to make more informed choices on integrating agroforestry into farming systems. <br />Improved and sustained rural livelihoods and environment through more productive, intensified and diversified agroforestry systems for smallholder farmers. <br />
Outputs<br />GRP2.1 agroforestry options<br />Enhanced understanding of the costs, benefits, risks and trade-offs of agroforestry options under varying and changing conditions<br />GRP2.2 soil and water productivity <br />Agroforestrydesign principles, technology options and decision support tools for improved soil and water productivity<br />
Context – food crises bite<br />Agroecology can feed the world<br />Olivier De Schutter, Special Rapporteur on the right to food, annual report to UN Human Rights Council<br />Eco-efficient agriculture<br />Keatinge et al., Crop Science<br />Discontinuity in drylands<br />state and transition models replace equilibrium concepts with GIS tools to detect thresholds<br />many articles gathering momentum<br />
Latin America<br />CACAO-FONDAM: Promotion of agroforestry systems based on aromatic cocoa for economic development and natural resource conservation in the Peruvian Humid tropics. [FONDAM, Peru, 110 K, 2010-2012]<br /> Project site: Pucallpa, Ucayali (Peru) <br />Objective<br />Develop an effective cacao (Theobroma cacao) production system based on high diversity agroforestry arrangements <br />Products<br /><ul><li> 60 ha of new cocoa fields based on high value native cacao germplasm.
Infrastructure for fermentation and stocking of cacao
60 ha of cacao plantation under good management practices</li></ul> PUBLICATIONS<br /><ul><li>Technical guide for cacao production in agroforestry system
Technical article to be published in 2011</li></ul> CAPACITY BUILDING<br /><ul><li> Training of farmer organization (ACATPA) in management of cacao-agroforestry plots.</li></ul> NETWORKING<br /><ul><li> Amazon Cocoa Agroforestry Netwrok formed in 2010</li></ul>Native cacao planted in a high diversify agroforestry system in the upper Aguaytia watershed (Ucayali, Peru) <br />Potential Impact: diversification of on farm production through multistrata agroforestry systems <br />
Latin America<br />ASAFAS: Physical rehabilitation of degraded forest ecosystems. [Kyoto University and Mitsui Foundation, 8.2009-3.2011, 50K]<br /> Project sites: Pucallpa, Ucayali (Peru) <br />Objective<br />Develop a participatory method for the recovery of soil properties (fertility and density) through the establishment of agroforestry systems, mechanization of small-scale soil preparation, and fertilization.<br />Products<br /><ul><li> 6 plots recovered by forestry species established in old pastures in Ucayali, Peru.
Database of measurements (growth and survival rate) for analysis.
Collaboration with NARS and local Universities in land recovery activities and practices.</li></ul> PUBLICATIONS<br /><ul><li>Technical guide for land rehabilitation (in progress)
Scientific article to be published in 2011</li></ul> CAPACITY BUILDING<br /><ul><li> training of farmer organization (PROSEMA) in management of plots.</li></ul>Amazon cedar (Cedrella odorata) Melliaceae, a high value timber tree planted successfully in an on-farm plot in the upper Aguaytia watersheed (Ucayali, Peru) <br />Potential Impact: diversification of on farm production by land recovery activities based on agroforestry systems <br />
SEA - Balancing the tradeoffs between economic, <br />environmental, and cultural benefits<br /><ul><li>Carbon Stock Investment , buffer zone of Lamandau River Wildlife Reserve, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia</li></ul> Crop diversification - planting of jelutung trees alternative income on peat land <br /><ul><li>Human Livelihoods,Ecosystem Services, & Orangutan Habitat , two sites in North Sumatra and Aceh , Indonesia
Peat swamp forest conservation, enhance carbon stocks & local livelihood with appropriate management, species selection, … (ex. Jelutung, Dyeracostulata)
Agrobiodiversity Appraisal, Bridgestone Sumatra Rubber Estate and surrounding smallholder land to conserve and enhance biodiversity</li></ul> Main finding: Rubber plantation has role as migratory pathway of birds and bats, smallholder rubber agroforestry systems provide food and habitat for wildlife and has high % of bird diversity.<br />
SEA: models and methodologies for analysis and evaluation of farm management options<br />WaNuLCAS application (2010)<br />Technical leadership from Bogor staff<br />1. Assessment of plant productivity and interaction in parkland systems of sub-Saharan Africa (ALUCCSA project)<br />2. Assessing the growth response of young rubber trees to soil water availability along a topo-sequence in NE Thailand (Vincent Cheylan, student)<br />3. Exploring teak-crop growth under various scenarios in Central Java with (ACIAR teak project – Gerhard Manurung, PhD study leave)<br />
West and Central Africa<br /><ul><li>Appropriate policy interventions through by-laws and local conventions to manage the parklands: evaluation of their implications on tenure systems and management of agroforests on-farms.
Developed appropriate management techniques on-farms for priority fruit trees including ber and tamarind, cacao and rubber tree species.
Assessment of village resources centres on the adoption of fertiliser, fruit and timber trees intercropped on-farms.
Established long-term tree-crops growth trials on-farms for conservation agriculture with trees in the Sahel.
Review of conservation agriculture, including Faidherbiaalbida.</li></ul>Sanou J., Zougmoré R., Bayala J., Teklehaimanot Z. 2010. Soil infiltrability and water content as affected by Baobab (Adansoniadigitata L.) and Néré (Parkiabiglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.) trees in farmed parklands of West Africa. Soil Use and Management 26: 75–81. DOI 630942-493796.<br />
Cumulative<br />probability<br />50% probability of no increase in yield or worse on Nitosols(saturated fertility?)<br />60% probability of > 1 t ha-1 increase in yield on Luvisols<br />Southern Africa<br />Scaling up fertiliser trees<br />2009 – Trees improve mean crop yield<br />Sileshi et al., Plant and Soil.<br />2010 – Probability of yield increase depends<br />on climatic and edaphic variables<br />Sileshi et al., Field Crops Research <br />2011 – Mapping probability of > 1 t ha-1 yield increase after two year sesbania fallow <br />Coe et al., 2011<br />
Some effects of trees are mediated through impact on soil biota – trees increase abundance<br />Mean density of different soil biota and calculated response ratios<br />Barrios, Sileshi, Shepherd, Sinclair 2010<br />
Some effects of trees are mediated through impact on soil biota – trees increase activity<br />Greater soil biological activity (earthworms) near trees but effect greater for some tree species than others<br />Pauli et al 2010 Pedobiologia<br />
Understanding what tree attributes are required to meet agricultural management objectives and which species will display these attributes in particular environmental and management contexts, is the fundamental corner stone of design principles for developing agroforestry options customised to local circumstances. <br />Genetic predisposition<br />Environmental<br />conditions<br />management<br />Finite set of tree attributes that are expressed in particular contexts<br />One of the key activities in WorldAgroforestry’s GRP2 is to develop decision support tools that incorporate this understanding of genetic, environmental and management control of the expression of key attributes to provide advice on what species and management combinations are likely to work in different circumstances <br />
Local conditions and preferences<br />Possible conditionality criteria<br />e.g. maintain fruit duration<br />favour native species<br />Local knowledge about tree utility attributes<br />Local knowledge about tree ecosystem service attributes<br />Local knowledge about tree phenology<br />Customised options for individual farmers and landscapes <br />Scientific information <br />Promote tree diversity – in relation to local and public priorities<br />
1.1 Integrated systems for dry areas <br />GRP 1<br />Domestication<br />GRP 2<br />Farm productivity<br />CRP6.1 Production systems and markets component of forests, trees and agroforestry<br />CRP4 Agriculture, nutrition and health <br />GRP 3<br />Policy and markets<br />GRP 5<br />Climate change<br />CRP2 Policies, institutions, and markets<br />GRP 4<br />Land health <br />1.2 Integrated systems for humid areas <br />CRP7 Climate Change and Agriculture <br />CRP5 Water, land & ecosystems <br />GRP2 interactions with CRPs are direct (green) or indirect (brown) via other GRPs<br />